Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 360

Search results for: reform of the law

360 Governmentality and the Norwegian Knowledge Promotion Reform

Authors: Christin Tønseth

Abstract:

The Norwegian ‘knowledge promotion reform’ was implemented in elementary schools and upper secondary schools in 2006. The goal of the reform was that all pupils should develop basic skills and competencies in order to take an active part in the knowledge society. This paper discusses how governmentality as a management principle is demonstrated through the Norwegian ‘knowledge promotion reform’. Evaluation reports and political documents are the basis for the discussion. The ‘knowledge promotion reform’ was including quality assurance for schools, teachers, and students and the authorities retained control by using curricula and national tests. The reform promoted several intentions that were not reached. In light of governmentality, it seemed that thoughts and intentions by the authorities differed from those in the world of practice. The quality assurances did not motivate the practitioners to be self-governing. The relationship between the authorities and the implementation actors was weak, and the reform was, therefore, difficult to implement in practice.

Keywords: governance, governmentality, the Norwegian knowledge promotion reform, education, politics

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359 Split-Share Structure Reform and Statutory Audit Fees in China

Authors: Hsiao-Wen Wang

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The split-share structure reform in China represents one of the most significant milestones in the evolution of the capital market. With the goal of converting non-tradable shares into tradable shares, the reform laid the foundation and supported the development of full-scale privatization. This study explores China’s split-share structure reform and its impact on statutory audit fees. This study finds that auditors earn a significant statutory audit fee premium after the split-share structure reform. The Big 4 auditors who provide better audit quality receive higher statutory audit fee premium than non-Big 4 auditors after the share reform, which is attributable to their brand reputation, rather than the relative market dominance.

Keywords: chinese split-share structure reform, statutory audit fees, big-4 auditors, corporate governance

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358 New Chances of Reforming Pedagogical Approach In Secondary English Class in China under the New English Curriculum and National College Entrance Examination Reform

Authors: Yue Wang

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Five years passed since the newest English curriculum reform policy was published in China, hand-wringing spread among teachers who accused that this is another 'Wearing New Shoes to Walk the Old Road' policy. This paper provides a thoroughly philosophical policy analysis of serious efforts that had been made to support this reform and reveals the hindrances that bridled the reform to yield the desired effect. Blame could be easily put on teachers for their insufficient pedagogical content knowledge, conservative resistance, and the handicaps of large class sizes and limited teaching times, and so on. However, the underlying causes for this implementation failure are the interrelated factors in the NCEE-centred education system, such as the reluctant from students, the lack of school and education bureau support, and insufficient teacher training. A further discussion of 2017 to 2020’s NCEE reform on English prompt new possibilities for the authentic pedagogical approach reform in secondary English classes. In all, the pedagogical approach reform at the secondary level is heading towards a brighter future with the initiation of new NCEE reform.

Keywords: English curriculum, failure, NCEE, new possibilities, pedagogical, policy analysis, reform

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357 Impact of Health Sector Economic Reforms in Underdeveloped Countries

Authors: Haga Abdelrahman Elimam

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This paper investigates the connotation, and some of the realistic implications, of the economic reform of health sector in under developed countries. The paper investigates the issues that economic reforms have to address, and the policy targets they are considered to accomplish. The work argues that the development of economic reform is not connected only with understanding the priorities and refining them, furthermore with reformation and restructuring the organizations through which health policies are employed. Considering various organizational values, that are likely to be regular to all economic reform programs, a regulatory approach to institutional reform is unsuitable. The paper further investigates the selection of economic reform that may as well influence via technical suggestions and analysis, but the verdict to continue, and the consequent success of execution, eventually depends on the progressive political sustainability. The paper concludes by giving examples of institutional reforms from various underdeveloped countries and includes recommendation of the responsibility and control of donor organizations.

Keywords: economic reform, health sector, underdeveloped countries, technical suggestions

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356 CDIO-Based Teaching Reform for Software Project Management Course

Authors: Liping Li, Wenan Tan, Na Wang

Abstract:

With the rapid development of information technology, project management has gained more and more attention recently. Based on CDIO, this paper proposes some teaching reform ideas for software project management curriculum. We first change from Teacher-centered classroom to Student-centered and adopt project-driven, scenario animation show, teaching rhythms, case study and team work practice to improve students' learning enthusiasm. Results showed these attempts have been well received and very effective; as well, students prefer to learn with this curriculum more than before the reform.

Keywords: CDIO, teaching reform, engineering education, project-driven, scenario animation simulation

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355 The Status of English Learning in the Israeli Academy

Authors: Ronit German, Alexandra Beytenbrat

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Although English seems to be prevalent in every sphere of Israeli daily life, not many Israeli students have a sufficient level of writing and speaking in English which is necessary for academic studies. The inadequate level of English among Israeli students is because the sole focus is on teaching reading comprehension, and the need to adapt to the trends of the professional worldwide demands triggered a reform that requires implementing Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) courses in the Israeli academic institutions. However, it will be argued that this reform is challenging to implement. The fact that modern Hebrew is a revived language, and that English is L3 for more than 30% of the population, the diverse social and cultural students’ background, and psychological factors stand in the way of the new reform.

Keywords: CEFR, cultural diversity, EMI courses, English in Israel, reform

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354 The Status of English in the Israeli Academy

Authors: Ronit German, Alexandra Beytenbrat

Abstract:

Although English seems to be prevalent in every sphere of Israeli daily life, not many Israeli students have a sufficient level of writing and speaking in English which is necessary for academic studies. The inadequate level of English among Israeli students, almost the sole focus on teaching reading comprehension, and the need to adapt to the trends of the professional worldwide demands triggered a reform that requires to implement Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) courses in the Israeli academic institutions. However, it will be argued that this reform is challenging to implement. The fact that modern Hebrew is a revived language, and that English is L3 for more than 30% of the population, the diverse social and cultural students’ background, and psychological factors stand in the way of the new reform.

Keywords: CEFR, cultural diversity, EMI courses, English in Israel, reform

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353 The Effects of Expanding the Generosity of the Statutory Sick Leave Insurance: The Case of a French Reform

Authors: Mohamed Ali Benhalima, Nathon Elbaz, Malik Koubi

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This paper evaluates an expansion of employer-mandated sick leave insurance in the French private sector. We use a difference-in-differences method in which control groups are defined according to the collective bargaining agreement (CBA) employees belong to. Indeed, thanks to complementary insurance provided by CBAs, employees were not affected the same way by the reform. We find significant effects of the reform on sick leave spells lasting at least 7 days, consistently with the reform target. The effects on spells’ duration and frequency are positive and more pronounced for women than for men, for whom the effect on frequency tends to be slightly negative. The effects are also more pronounced for executives and supervisors than less qualified categories.

Keywords: sickness absence, collective agreements, daily sickness benefits, labor economics

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352 Evaluations of New Public Administration Reforms and Local Government Laws in Turkey in the Context of the Reforms

Authors: Handan Ertaş

Abstract:

The subject of government reform which is started to be discussed all over the world today has also deeply affected Turkey. Turkey, who aims to come to the level of the developed countries and not to fall behind the change must immediately complete the reform issue. For this, the government needs to be redefined and changed in accordance with the new public administration. In the first part of this study, the new public administration reforms in the world are generally explained and then the reforms in Local Government Regulations in Turkey are evaluated with the method of Content Analysis.

Keywords: reform, local administration, neo-liberalism, globalisation

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351 The Reform of Chinese Migration Law and Its Actual Implementation

Authors: Wang Jie

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This article advances the reform of Chinese migration law through an analysis of the updated and former versions of the Chinese migration law, specifically for the Exit-Entry Administration Law of the People’s Republic of China and Regulations on Foreigners’ Permanent Residence in the People’s Republic of China(Exposure Draft), which was most recently issued in 2012 and 2020 respectively. After a fundamental reform of China’s migration law, China’s immigration legal framework has become relatively well developed compared with the previous one. Immigration procedures are available online and these procedures have become relatively simple. Comparative research for the Chinese migration laws has been done during the past several years for its legislation, legal reference for western countries and its preliminary implementation. Some results show that the reform is a superficial one and may not have a practical effect on China’s current immigration legal framework. However, complete results cannot be obtained only through the comparative research of legal definitions. Some practical case studies will also be required to analyze in detail to demonstrate the reasons that some reforms still remain at the superficial level and what further progress is required in China's immigration legal framework. This is a perspective that has been overlooked in most comparative law studies. In the first part, this article will conduct a simple comparative study of the reform of Chinese migration law and use cases studies to illustrate the reform of Chinese migration law. In the second part, this article will point out another perspective that is easily overlooked, that is, how do the Chinese nationals treat the reform: whether it is a legislative advance or a failure, and whether it deepens social tensions between nationals and immigrants. In the third part, the article will discuss Chinese migration law through China’s international law perspective with international organizations, such as International Organization for Migration and International Labour Organization will also be discussed to dialectically judge the reform of Chinese migration law. This article will adopt case and comparative studies to conduct overall research based on the reform of Chinese migration law and try to put forward more constructive advice for China’s immigration legal framework.

Keywords: Chinese migration law, reform, foreigners, immigration legal framework

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350 An Evaluation of Impact of Media on the Electoral Reform Process in Nigeria between 2010–2015

Authors: H. Shola Adeosun, D. Adeoye Odedeji, F. Ajoke Adebiyi

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This study examines the impact of media on the electoral process in Nigeria and the roles played by the media in the reform process. Survey research method was adopted as research methodology, and this enables the researcher to use questionnaire, and oral interview to elicit primary data from the respondents was interpreted, analysed and interpreted with statistical tools such as tables, figures, and percentages. The hypothesis formulated were tested with chi-square. The findings revealed that there is significant relationship between the media and electoral reform process in the 2011 and 2015 general elections in Nigeria. The study recommends that electoral committee should implement virile electoral system with the peaceful voting environment. The media should intensify efforts to expose violation of electoral laws; media should play an advocacy role for dialogue and debate on the reform recommendations. The study recommends that media should unite the nation through their reports on peace, national security, national integration and ethnoreligious tolerance and that adequate training should be given to media practitioners on how to report issues relating to elections.

Keywords: evaluation, impact, media, electoral reform process

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349 Rising Individual Responsibility in Healthcare: A Case Study of China

Authors: Ziyu Liu, Martin Buijsen

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Although great achievements have been made since the beginning of the Chinese healthcare system reform in 1978, there still remain unresolved problems. Currently, the two leading social issues are accessibility and affordability of healthcare. Facing those challenges, Chinese government initiated the third round of healthcare system reform, accompanied by an array of measures. The newly launched strategies show a tendency to deliver healthcare as welfare goods, achieving equality through an ex-post perspective instead of an ex-ante view. However, if the reform efforts rely solely on the notion of “welfare”, the wrong idea of the government as the only duty-bearer in healthcare will arise. Several major threats, such as high costs as a result of inefficiencies and free riding then become imminent. Therefore, on the basis of Dworkin’s theory, this paper argues that individual responsibility should be introduced when constructing a sustainable healthcare system. And it should be equally highlighted as the duties of government. Furthermore, the notion of individual responsibility is believed to be necessary for promoting the justice of a healthcare system.

Keywords: Chinese healthcare system reform, individual responsibility, right to healthcare, social justice

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348 Judicial Institutions in a Post-Conflict Society: Gaining Legitimacy through a Holistic Reform

Authors: Abdul Salim Amin

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This paper focuses on how judiciaries in post-conflict society gain legitimacy through reformation. Legitimacy plays a pivotal role in shaping peoples’ behavior to submit to the law and verifies the rightfulness of an organ for taking binding decisions. Among various dynamics, judicial independence, access to justice and behavioral changes of the judicial officials broadly contribute in legitimation of judiciary in general, and the court in particular. Increasing the independence of judiciary through reform limits the interference of governmental branches in judicial issues and protects basic rights of the citizens. Judicial independence does not only matter in institutional terms, individual independence also influences the impartiality and integrity of judges, which can be increased through education and better administration of justice. Finally, access to justice as an intertwined concept both at the legal and moral spectrum of judicial reform avails justice to the citizen and increases the level of public trust and confidence. Efficient legal decisions on fostering such elements through holistic reform create a rule of law atmosphere. Citizens do not accept illegitimate judiciary and do not trust its decisions. Lack of such tolerance and confidence deters the rule of law and, thus, undermines the democratic development of a society.

Keywords: legitimacy, judicial reform, judicial independence, access to justice, legal training, informal justice, rule of law

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347 The TarMed Reform of 2014: A Causal Analysis of the Effects on the Behavior of Swiss Physicians

Authors: Camila Plaza, Stefan Felder

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In October 2014, the TARMED reform was implemented in Switzerland. In an effort to even out the financial standing of general practitioners (including pediatricians) relative to that of specialists in the outpatient sector, the reform tackled two aspects: on the one hand, GPs would be able to bill an additional 9 CHF per patient, once per consult per day. This is referred to as the surcharge position. As a second measure, it reduced the fees for certain technical services targeted to specialists (e.g., imaging, surgical technical procedures, etc.). Given the fee-for-service reimbursement system in Switzerland, we predict that physicians reacted to the economic incentives of the reform by increasing the consults per patient and decreasing the average amount of time per consult. Within this framework, our treatment group is formed by GPs and our control group by those specialists who were not affected by the reform. Using monthly insurance claims panel data aggregated at the physician praxis level (provided by SASIS AG), for the period of January 2013-December 2015, we run difference in difference panel data models with physician and time fixed effects in order to test for the causal effects of the reform. We account for seasonality, and control for physician characteristics such as age, gender, specialty, and physician experience. Furthermore, we run the models on subgroups of physicians within our sample so as to account for heterogeneity and treatment intensities. Preliminary results support our hypothesis. We find evidence of an increase in consults per patients and a decrease in time per consult. Robustness checks do not significantly alter the results for our outcome variable of consults per patient. However, we do find a smaller effect of the reform for time per consult. Thus, the results of this paper could provide policymakers a better understanding of physician behavior and their sensitivity to financial incentives of reforms (both past and future) under the current reimbursement system.

Keywords: difference in differences, financial incentives, health reform, physician behavior

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346 The Public Policy of Energy Subsidies Reform in Egypt

Authors: Doaa Nounou

Abstract:

This research examines the public policy energy subsidies reform efforts in Egypt since 2014. Egypt’s widely used energy subsidies have been controversial since they were first introduced, as they inadequately target the poorest part of the population. Also, their effect on economic development and democratic transition became very challenging in recent years. This research argues that although subsidy reform is a highly politicalized issue in democratizing countries, there are still a number of pragmatic public policies that can be applied to make the subsidy system function more efficiently and at the same time decrease inequality which could facilitate a more orderly and peaceful transition to democracy. Therefore, this research attempts to study the role of the executive branch in reforming the subsidy programmes to support the poor and bring about structural changes to achieve social justice and economic growth. This research also attempts to analyze the role of the military and civil society in reforming the subsidy system. Moreover, it attempts to discuss the role of the state media in social mobilization to rationalize consumption and its contribution to subsidies reform.

Keywords: subsidies, public policy, political economy, democratization, equality

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345 Reform of the Law Relating to Personal Property Security

Authors: Ji Lian Yap

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This paper will critically consider developments in 2014 in relation to the law relating to security over personal property in Hong Kong. The rules governing the registration of charges under the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance will be examined. Case law relating to personal property security will also be discussed. The transplantation of the floating charge into China’s Property Law will also be considered.

Keywords: personal property, security law, reform of the law, law

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344 Is Privatization Related with Macroeconomic Management? Evidence from Some Selected African Countries

Authors: E. O. George, P. Ojeaga, D. Odejimi, O. Mattehws

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Has macroeconomic management succeeded in making privatization promote growth in Africa? What are the probable strategies that should accompany the privatization reform process to promote growth in Africa? To what extent has the privatization process succeeded in attracting foreign direct investment to Africa? The study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic management and privatization. Many African countries have embarked on one form of privatization reform or the other since 1980 as one of the stringent conditions for accessing capital from the IMF and the World Bank. Secondly globalization and the gradually integration of the African economy into the global economy also means that Africa has to strategically develop its domestic market to cushion itself from fluctuations and probable contagion associated with global economic crisis that are always inevitable Stiglitz. The methods of estimation used are the OLS, linear mixed effects (LME), 2SLS and the GMM method of estimation. It was found that macroeconomic management has the capacity to affect the success of the privatization reform process. It was also found that privatization was not promoting growth in Africa; privatization could promote growth if long run growth strategies are implemented together with the privatization reform process. Privatization was also found not to have the capacity to attract foreign investment to many African countries.

Keywords: Africa, political economy, game theory, macroeconomic management and privatization

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343 Effects of Subsidy Reform on Consumption and Income Inequalities in Iran

Authors: Pouneh Soleimaninejadian, Chengyu Yang

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In this paper, we use data on Household Income and Expenditure survey of Statistics Centre of Iran, conducted from 2005-2014, to calculate several inequality measures and to estimate the effects of Iran’s targeted subsidy reform act on consumption and income inequality. We first calculate Gini coefficients for income and consumption in order to study the relation between the two and also the effects of subsidy reform. Results show that consumption inequality has not been always mirroring changes in income inequality. However, both Gini coefficients indicate that subsidy reform caused improvement in inequality. Then we calculate Generalized Entropy Index based on consumption and income for years before and after the Subsidy Reform Act of 2010 in order to have a closer look into the changes in internal structure of inequality after subsidy reforms. We find that the improvement in income inequality is mostly caused by the decrease in inequality of lower income individuals. At the same time consumption inequality has been decreased as a result of more equal consumption in both lower and higher income groups. Moreover, the increase in Engle coefficient after the subsidy reform shows that a bigger portion of income is allocated to consumption on food which is a sign of lower living standard in general. This increase in Engle coefficient is due to rise in inflation rate and relative increase in price of food which partially is another consequence of subsidy reform. We have conducted some experiments on effect of subsidy payments and possible effects of change on distribution pattern and amount of cash subsidy payments on income inequality. Result of the effect of cash payments on income inequality shows that it leads to a definite decrease in income inequality and had a bigger share in improvement of rural areas compared to those of urban households. We also examine the possible effect of constant payments on the increasing income inequality for years after 2011. We conclude that reduction in value of payments as a result of inflation plays an important role regardless of the fact that there may be other reasons. We finally experiment with alternative allocations of transfers while keeping the total amount of cash transfers constant or make it smaller through eliminating three higher deciles from the cash payment program, the result shows that income equality would be improved significantly.

Keywords: consumption inequality, generalized entropy index, income inequality, Irans subsidy reform

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342 Introducing the Accounting Reform of Public Finance in the Czech Republic

Authors: M. Otrusinova, E. Pastuszkova

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The article is addressing the currently ongoing reform processes of transforming the public finance accounting based on cash flow principle to accrual principle. The presented analysis concerns the issues associated with the introduction of the state accounting from the perspective of municipal employees in compiling the opinions of financial experts in conditions of the Czech Republic. The aim of this paper is to present outcomes of analysis focused on currently discussed topics which are related to introducing the accrual principle into accounting of selected entities, especially municipalities and municipality-funded institutions. The output of the paper consists of comparing the application of the accrual principle in the financial reporting of municipalities in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In conclusion and based on the survey, respondents from Slovak municipalities that have already adopted the accrual accounting principle show better opinion than Czech municipalities.

Keywords: accrual principle, accounting, accounting reform, Czech Republic, municipalities, public finance

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341 Political Polarization May Be Distorted When It Comes to Police Reform

Authors: Nancy Bartekian, Christine Reyna

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Republicans and Democrats are often polarized when it comes to important topics, but the portrayal of polarization of key issues might be distorted and exaggerated. We examined Republicans' and Democrats’ attitudes about police reform policy during the 2020 racial justice protests and calls to ‘defund the police’. We hypothesized that a) Republicans and Democrats will be polarized on the “defund police'' question; however, b) they will have similar overall attitudes towards specific police reform policies (will be on the same side of the scale--disagree vs. agree), but c) will differ in their extent of agreement or disagreement (main effect of political party ID, but located on the same side of the scale). Using one-way, Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) controlling for race, education, and income, we found an overall effect of political party ID. Six out of the nine policies studied were, in fact, not polarizing; both groups were in consensus on whether they disagreed or agreed with the policy, including “defund police''. Results suggest that polarization might be exaggerated.

Keywords: political psychology, social, ideology, polarization

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340 Compensation Analysis on Secondary Public Hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai

Authors: Wei Fang, Jian Jun Gu, Di Xue

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Objective: To analyze the employee compensation status of secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in order to provide information for compensation reform of public hospitals in Shanghai and as well as in China. Methods: We surveyed all 15 secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai to collect hospital annual compensation data for their employees and to investigate their suggestions for compensation reform in public hospitals in China. We also collected related annual compensation data of employees in Shanghai and of physicians in the USA from Shanghai statistical Yearbook 2013 and from Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Results: The average annual compensation for the employees in secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in 2012 was 2.65 times of that for overall employees in Shanghai. The physician’s compensation in these public hospitals was relatively lower than that in the USA. Conclusion: The physicians’ compensation in the secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai should be increased rationally and new compensation reform in public hospitals in Shanghai should be carefully designed.

Keywords: human resource, compensation, public hospital, Shanghai

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339 Reformed Land: Extent of Use and Contribution to Livelihoods in the Waterberg District

Authors: A. J. Netshipale, M. L. Mashiloane, S. J. Oosting, I. J. M. De Boer, E. N. Raidimi

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Three tier land reform programme (land restitution, land redistribution and land tenure reform) had been implemented for the past two decades in South Africa with an aim of redressing the unjust land ownership patterns of the past. Land restitution and redistribution seeked to make land available for beneficiaries’ ownership based on policy guidelines. Attention given to the two sub-programmes was mostly land reform focused with the quantity of land that exchanged ownership being used as a measure of success with disregard for how the land is used by the beneficiaries for their livelihoods. In few cases that the land use assessment was done for the two sub-programmes it was assessed on a case basis or few selected cases. The current study intended to shed light on a broader scope. This study investigated the extent to which land reform farms were used and contribution made by farms to the livelihoods of active beneficiaries. Seventy six farms that represented restitution (16 farms) and redistribution (60) programmes were selected for land use investigation. Land use data were collected from farm representatives by means of semi-structured questionnaire. A stratified sample of 87 households (38 for restitution and 49 for redistribution) were selected for livelihood investigations. Data on income generating activities and passive income sources were collected from household heads using semi-structured questionnaire. Additional data were collected through focus group discussions and from stakeholders through key-informants interviews. Livestock production used more land per farm on average (45%) in relation to the amount of average total land used per farm of 77% under land redistribution programme. Land restitution transformed crop farms into mixed farming and unused farms to be under use while land redistribution converted conservation land into agricultural land and also unused farms to be used. Livestock production contributed on average 25% to the livelihoods of 48% of the households whereas crop production contributed 31% on average to the livelihoods of 67% of the households. Government grants had the highest contribution of 54% on average and contributed to most households (72%). Agriculture was the sole source of livelihoods to only three per cent of the households. Most households (40%) had a mix of three livelihoods sources as their livelihood strategy. It could be concluded that the use of reformed land would be mainly influenced by the agro-ecological conditions of the area and agriculture could not be the main source of livelihoods for households that benefited from land reform. Land reform policies which accommodate diverse livelihoods activities could contribute to sustainable livelihoods.

Keywords: active beneficiaries, households, land reform, land use, livelihoods

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338 Reformed Curricula for the Religious Educational Institutions in Pakistan and the Muslim World

Authors: Hafiz Khubaib Ur Rehman Awan

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Education used to play a central role in the formation and transfiguration of society since early times, owing in part to the centrality of scripture and its study in the human circles. According to the Islamic purpose of education, its pivotal contribution in the society is to produce a balanced growth of the entire persona of an individual through training the spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings, and bodily senses such that faith is infused into the whole personality. The purpose of this study is to attempt the exploration of the development of the Islamic religious curriculum in the Islamic world with an emphasis on Pakistan because this homeland came into existence under the name of Islam. This study persists of necessary historical background on the curricular reform of religious education in Pakistan and their impact on it and the suburban countries. However, the mainstay of this paper bases on reform in the religious education curriculum and the challenges faced by Pakistan and the Islamic world. Some suggestions are positioned at the end for areas of Islamic religious education and the improvement of Islamic curricular reform, especially in Pakistan and generally in Muslim countries.

Keywords: curricula, religious educational institutions, Pakistan, Muslim world, educational, religious , curricula

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337 Global Best Practice Paradox; the Failure of One Size Fits All Approach to Development a Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Iftikhar, Farah Khalid

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Global best practices as ordained by international organizations comprise a broader top-down approach to development problems, without taking into account country-specific factors. The political economy of each country is extremely different and the failure of several attempts of international organizations to implement global best practice models in developing countries each with its unique set of variables, goes on to show that this is not the most efficient solution to development problems. This paper is a humble attempt at shedding light on some specific examples of failures of the global best practices. Pakistan has its unique set of problems and unless those are added to the broader equation of development, country-specific reform and growth will continue to pose a challenge to reform programs initiated by international organizations. The three case studies presented in this paper are just a few prominent examples of failure of the global best practice, top-down, universalistic approach to development as ordained by international organizations. Development and reform can only be achieved if local dynamics are given their due importance. The modus operandi of international organizations needs to be tailored according to each country’s unique politico-economic environment.

Keywords: best practice, development, context

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336 The 2017 Shanghai Model Breaking Stalemate in Chinese Education Reform: A Discussion of China’s Scheduled Experiment in Access to Higher Education Between 2017 and 2020

Authors: Ping Chou, Xiaoyan Zhou

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Domestically and internationally, the Chinese education has long been criticized for being test-oriented, and in spite of efforts made by the Chinese government, it remains hard to find a solution. This paper intends to look at the situation in a comparatively objective manner and discuss the significance of the Shanghai Model as a newly-scheduled experiment for education reform. As a breakthrough, in addition to comprehensive inner-quality evaluation, a small but important step is to be taken in shifting focus of attention back to students by giving them more freedom in selecting certain courses for aptitude tests for college admission. As the first author of the paper has studied and taught both in Chinese and American colleges and universities, comparisons are made when the situation becomes relevant. The official solution for test-oriented education is to make students well-rounded but the writers of this paper believe that it is even more important to make the system well-rounded so it can accept a spectrum of diverse individuals with different potential.

Keywords: college admission, education reform, Shanghai model, test-oriented education

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335 The Expanding Role of Islamic Law in the Current Indonesian Legal Reform

Authors: Muhammad Ilham Agus Salim, Saufa Ata Taqiyya

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In many Muslim countries, secularization has successfully reduced the role of Islamic law as a formal legal source during this last century. The most obvious fact was the reform of Daulah Utsmaniyah to be Secular Republic of Turkey. Religion is strictly separated from the state authorities in many countries today. But these last decades in Indonesia, a remarkable fact is apparent. Islamic law has expanded its role in Indonesian legal system, especially in districts regulations. In Aceh province, as a case in point, shariah has been the basic source of law in all regulations. There are more provinces in Indonesia which adopted Islamic law as a formal legal source by the end of 2014. Different from some other countries which clearly stipulates the status of Islam in formal ways, Indonesian constitution formally does not render any recognition for Islam to be the formal religion of the state. But in this Muslim majority country, Islamic law takes a place in democratic way, namely on the basis of the voice of majority. This paper will analyze how this reality increases significantly since what so called by Indonesian reformation era (end of nineties). Some causes will be identified regarding this tendency of expansion of role. Some lessons learned also will be recommended as the concluding remarks by the end of the paper.

Keywords: Islamic law, Indonesia, legal reform, Syariah local regulation

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334 The Mediator as an Evaluator: An Analysis of Evaluation as a Method for the Lawyer’s Reform to Mediation

Authors: Dionne Coley B. A.

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The role of a lawyer as a mediator is to be impartial in assisting parties to arrive at a decision. This decision should be made in a voluntary and mutually acceptable manner where the mediator encourages the parties to communicate, identify their interests, assess risks and consider settlement options. One of the key components to mediation is impartiality where mediators are to have a duty to remain impartial throughout the course of mediation and uphold an “objective” demeanor with both parties. The question is whether a mediator should take on evaluative role while encouraging the parties to come to a decision. This means that the mediator would not only encourage dialogue and responses between the parties but also assess and provide an opinion on the matter. This paper submits the argument that the role of a mediator should not be one of evaluation as this does not encourage the dialogue, process or desired outcomes associated with mediation.

Keywords: evaluation, lawyer, mediation, reform

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333 The Politics of Disruption: Disrupting Polity to Influence Policy in Nigeria

Authors: Okechukwu B. C. Nwankwo

Abstract:

The surge of social protests sweeping through the globe is a contemporary phenomenon. Yet the phenomenon in itself is not new. Thus, various scholars have over the years developed conceptual frameworks for evaluating it. Adopting and adapting some of these frameworks this paper begins from a purely theoretical perspective exploring the concept and content of social protest within the specific context of Nigeria. It proceeds to build a typology of the phenomenon in terms of form, actors, origin, character, organisation, goal, dynamics, outcome and a whole lot of other variables that are context relevant for evaluating it in an operationally useful manner. The centrality of the context in which protest evolves is demonstrated. Adopting Easton’s systems theory, the paper builds on the assumption that protests emerge whenever and wherever political institutions and structures prove unable or unwilling to transform inputs in form of basic demands into outputs in form of responsive policies. It argues that protests in Nigeria are simply the crystallisation of opposition in the streets. Protests are thus extra-institutional politics. This is usually the case, as elsewhere, where there is no functional institutionalised opposition. Noting that protest, disruptive or otherwise, is an influence strategy, it argues that every single protest is a new opportunity for reform, for reorganisation of state capacities, for modifying rights and obligation of citizens and government to each other. Each reform outcome is, however, only a temporal antecedent. Its extensity gives signal for the next similar protest event. Through providing evidence on how protests in Nigeria create opportunity for reform, for more accountable, more effective governance, the paper shows the positive impact of protests and its importance even in the consolidation effort for the nation’s nascent democracy. Data on protest events will be based on media reports, especially print media.

Keywords: democracy, dialectics, social protest, reform

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332 19th Century Exam, 21st Century Policing: An Examination of the New York State Civil Service and Police Officer Recruitment Efforts

Authors: A. Edwards

Abstract:

The civil service was created to reform the hiring process for public officials, changing the patronage system to a merit-based system. Though exam reforms continued throughout the 20th century, there have been few during the 21st century, particularly in New York state. In the case of police departments, the civil service exam has acted as a hindrance to its ‘21st Century Policing’ goals and new exam reform efforts have left out officers voices and concerns. Through in-depth interviews of current and retired police officers and local and state civil service administrators in Albany County in New York, this study seeks to understand police influence and insight regarding the civil service exam, placing some of the voice and input for civil service reform on police departments, instead of local and state bureaucrats. The study also looks at the relationship between civil service administrators and police departments. Using practice theory, the study seeks to understand the ways in which the civil service exam was defined in the 20th century and how it is out of step with current thinking while examining possible changes to the civil service exam that would lead to a more equitable hiring process and successful police departments.

Keywords: civil service, hiring, merit, policing

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331 Reforms in China's Vaccine Administration: Vulnerabilities, Legislative Progresses and the Systemic View of Vaccine Administration Law

Authors: Lin Tang, Xiaoxia Guo, Lingling Zhang

Abstract:

Recent vaccine scandals overshadowed China’s accomplishment of public health, triggering discussions on the causes of vaccine incidents. Through legal interpretation of selected vaccine incidents and analysis of systemic vulnerabilities in vaccine circulation and lot release, a panoramic review of legislative progresses in the vaccine administration sheds the light on this debate. In essence, it is the combination of the lagging legal system and the absence of information technology infrastructure in the process of vaccine administration reform that has led to the recurrence of vaccine incidents. These findings have significant implications for further improvement of vaccine administration and China’s participation in global healthcare.

Keywords: legislation, lot release, public health, reform, vaccine administration, vaccine circulation

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