Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20848

Search results for: paper and pencil

20848 Blogging vs Paper-and-Pencil Writing: Evidences from an Iranian Academic L2 Setting

Authors: Mehran Memari, Bita Asadi

Abstract:

Second language (L2) classrooms in academic contexts usually consist of learners with diverse L2 proficiency levels. One solution for managing such heterogeneous classes and addressing individual needs of students is to improve learner autonomy by using technological innovations such as blogging. The focus of this study is on investigating the effects of blogging on improving the quality of Iranian university students' writings. For this aim, twenty-six Iranian university students participated in the study. Students in the experimental group (n=13) were required to blog daily while the students in the control group (n=13) were asked to write a daily schedule using paper and pencil. After a 3-month period of instruction, the five last writings of the students from both groups were rated by two experienced raters. Also, students' attitudes toward the traditional method and blogging were surveyed using a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The research results showed evidences in favor of the students who used blogging in their writing program. Also, although students in the experimental group found blogging more demanding than the traditional method, they showed an overall positive attitude toward the use of blogging as a way of improving their writing skills. The findings of the study have implications for the incorporation of computer-assisted learning in L2 academic contexts.

Keywords: blogging, computer-assisted learning, paper and pencil, writing

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20847 Analysis of Policy Issues on Computer-Based Testing in Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Oye Bandele

Abstract:

A policy is a system of principles to guide activities and strategic decisions of an organisation in order to achieve stated objectives and meeting expected outcomes. A Computer Based Test (CBT) policy is therefore a statement of intent to drive the CBT programmes, and should be implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are hence generally adopted by an organization or a nation. The concern here, in this paper, is the consideration and analysis of issues that are significant to evolving the acceptable policy that will drive the new CBT innovation in Nigeria. Public examinations and internal examinations in higher educational institutions in Nigeria are gradually making a radical shift from Paper Based or Paper-Pencil to Computer-Based Testing. The need to make an objective and empirical analysis of Policy issues relating to CBT became expedient. The following are some of the issues on CBT evolution in Nigeria that were identified as requiring policy backing. Prominent among them are requirements for establishing CBT centres, purpose of CBT, types and acquisition of CBT equipment, qualifications of staff: professional, technical and regular, security plans and curbing of cheating during examinations, among others. The descriptive research design was employed based on a population consisting of Principal Officers (Policymakers), Staff (Teaching and non-Teaching-Policy implementors), and CBT staff ( Technical and Professional- Policy supports) and candidates (internal and external). A fifty-item researcher-constructed questionnaire on policy issues was employed to collect data from 600 subjects drawn from higher institutions in South West Nigeria, using the purposive and stratified random sampling techniques. Data collected were analysed using descriptive (frequency counts, means and standard deviation) and inferential (t-test, ANOVA, regression and Factor analysis) techniques. Findings from this study showed, among others, that the factor loadings had significantly weights on the organizational and National policy issues on CBT innovation in Nigeria.

Keywords: computer-based testing, examination, innovation, paper-based testing, paper pencil based testing, policy issues

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20846 Two-Step Patterning of Microfluidic Structures in Paper by Laser Cutting and Wax Printing for Mass Fabrication of Biosensor

Authors: Bong Keun Kang, Sung Suk Oh, Jeong-Woo Sohn, Jong-Ryul Choi, Young Ho Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe two-step micro-pattering by using laser cutting and wax printing. Wax printing is performed only on the bridges for hydrophobic barriers. We prepared 405nm blue-violet laser module and wax pencil module. And, this two modules combine x-y plot. The hollow microstructure formed by laser patterning define the hydrophilic flowing paths. However, bridges are essential to avoid the cutting area being the island. Through the support bridges, microfluidic solution spread out to the unnecessary areas. Chromatography blotting paper was purchased from Whatman. We used 20x20 cm and 46x57 cm of chromatography blotting paper. Axis moving speed of x-y plot was the main parameter of optimization. For aligning between the two patterning, the paper sheet was taped at the bottom. After the two-step patterning, temperature curing step was done at 110-130 °C. The resolution of the fabrication and the potential of the multiplex detection were investigated.

Keywords: µPADs, microfluidic, biosensor, mass-fabrication

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20845 A Case Study on Quantitatively and Qualitatively Increasing Student Output by Using Available Word Processing Applications to Teach Reluctant Elementary School-Age Writers

Authors: Vivienne Cameron

Abstract:

Background: Between 2010 and 2017, teachers in a suburban public school district struggled to get students to consistently produce adequate writing samples as measured by the Pennsylvania state writing rubric for measuring focus, content, organization, style, and conventions. A common thread in all of the data was the need to develop stamina in the student writers. Method: All of the teachers used the traditional writing process model (prewrite, draft, revise, edit, final copy) during writing instruction. One teacher taught the writing process using word processing and incentivizing with publication instead of the traditional pencil/paper/grading method. Students did not have instruction in typing/keyboarding. The teacher submitted resulting student work to real-life contests, magazines, and publishers. Results: Students in the test group increased both the quantity and quality of their writing over a seven month period as measured by the Pennsylvania state writing rubric. Reluctant writers, as well as students with autism spectrum disorder, benefited from this approach. This outcome was repeated consistently over a five-year period. Interpretation: Removing the burden of pencil and paper allowed students to participate in the writing process more fully. Writing with pencil and paper is physically tiring. Students are discouraged when they submit a draft and are instructed to use the Add, Remove, Move, Substitute (ARMS) method to revise their papers. Each successive version becomes shorter. Allowing students to type their papers frees them to quickly and easily make changes. The result is longer writing pieces in shorter time frames, allowing the teacher to spend more time working on individual needs. With this additional time, the teacher can concentrate on teaching focus, content, organization, style, conventions, and audience. S/he also has a larger body of works from which to work on whole group instruction such as developing effective leads. The teacher submitted the resulting student work to contests, magazines, and publishers. Although time-consuming, the submission process was an invaluable lesson for teaching about audience and tone. All students in the test sample had work accepted for publication. Students became highly motivated to succeed when their work was accepted for publication. This motivation applied to special needs students, regular education students, and gifted students.

Keywords: elementary-age students, reluctant writers, teaching strategies, writing process

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20844 Pre-Service Teachers’ Conceptual Difficulties about Gravitational Force: The Case of the Free Fall Bodies

Authors: A. Metioui

Abstract:

Research related to the student’s conceptual difficulties in sciences, particularly in the field of physics, are relatively numerous. In this work, we will analyze the results of qualitative research conducted with 80 elementary preservice teachers from Quebec in Canada on their understandings after studying the free fall bodies. First, we will illustrate the paper-pencil questionnaire built for this purpose. Then we will give the analysis of the experimental data. The results show that, even though there is a continuing physics education, many misconceptions persist despite the teaching provided.

Keywords: pre-service teachers, elementary school, conceptual difficulties, free fall bodies

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20843 Private University Students’ Travel Mode Choice Behaviour to University: Analysis in the Context of Dhaka City

Authors: Sharmin Nasrin

Abstract:

Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh. In Dhaka among other trips, significant percentages of trips comprise education trips. This paper explores significant factors for private university students’ education trip to the University. A paper pencil based survey has been conducted on Asia Pacific University student in Dhaka from May 2016 to July 2016. Participants were chosen randomly for the survey. Exploratory analysis showed that about 50% chose bus, 33% chose Rickshaw, 2% chose car and 15% chose to walk for travel to their University. Results from Multinomial Logit model revealed that travel cost, travel time and comfort are the significant factors for private university students to choose different modes. However, magnitude of coefficient of attribute comfort is significantly higher compared to travel cost and travel time. Result from this paper can be used by policymakers and Government agencies to provide more cost effective, comfortable journey to their University.

Keywords: private university student's education trip, mode choice mode, Dhaka, developing country

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20842 A Review of Travel Data Collection Methods

Authors: Muhammad Awais Shafique, Eiji Hato

Abstract:

Household trip data is of crucial importance for managing present transportation infrastructure as well as to plan and design future facilities. It also provides basis for new policies implemented under Transportation Demand Management. The methods used for household trip data collection have changed with passage of time, starting with the conventional face-to-face interviews or paper-and-pencil interviews and reaching to the recent approach of employing smartphones. This study summarizes the step-wise evolution in the travel data collection methods. It provides a comprehensive review of the topic, for readers interested to know the changing trends in the data collection field.

Keywords: computer, smartphone, telephone, travel survey

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20841 Effects of Forest Therapy on Depression among Healthy Adults 

Authors: Insook Lee, Heeseung Choi, Kyung-Sook Bang, Sungjae Kim, Minkyung Song, Buhyun Lee

Abstract:

Backgrounds: A clearer and comprehensive understanding of the effects of forest therapy on depression is needed for further refinements of forest therapy programs. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on forest therapy programs designed to decrease the level of depression among adults to evaluate current forest therapy programs. Methods: This literature review was conducted using various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycArticle, KISS, RISS, and DBpia to identify relevant studies published up to January 2016. The two authors independently screened the full text articles using the following criteria: 1) intervention studies assessing the effects of forest therapy on depression among healthy adults ages 18 and over; 2) including at least one control group or condition; 3) being peer-reviewed; and 4) being published either in English. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) measurement tool was used to assess the risk of bias in each trial. Results: After screening current literature, a total of 14 articles (English: 6, Korean: 8) were included in the present review. None of the studies used randomized controlled (RCT) study design and the sample size ranged from 11 to 300. Walking in the forest and experiencing the forest using the five senses was the key component of the forest therapy that was included in all studies. The majority of studies used one-time intervention that usually lasted a few hours or half-day. The most widely used measure for depression was Profile of Mood States (POMS). Most studies used self-reported, paper-and-pencil tests, and only 5 studies used both paper-and-pencil tests and physiological measures. Regarding the quality assessment based on the SIGN criteria, only 3 articles were rated ‘acceptable’ and the rest of the 14 articles were rated ‘low quality.’ Regardless of the diversity in format and contents of forest therapies, most studies showed a significant effect of forest therapy in curing depression. Discussions: This systematic review showed that forest therapy is one of the emerging and effective intervention approaches for decreasing the level of depression among adults. Limitations of the current programs identified from the review were as follows; 1) small sample size; 2) a lack of objective and comprehensive measures for depression; and 3) inadequate information about research process. Futures studies assessing the long-term effect of forest therapy on depression using rigorous study designs are needed.

Keywords: forest therapy, systematic review, depression, adult

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20840 Filmmaking with a Smartphone and National Cinema of Pakistan

Authors: Ahmad Bilal

Abstract:

Digital and convergent media can be helpful in terms of acquiring film production skills and knowledge, and it has also reduced the cost of production. Thus, allowing filmmakers greater opportunities and access to the medium of film. Both these dimensions of new and convergent media have been challenging the established cinema of Pakistan, as traditionally, it has been controlled by the authorities through censorship policies. The use of the smartphone as a movie camera, editing machine, and a transmitter can further challenge the control in a postcolonial society. To explore the impact of new and convergent media on the art of filmmaking, a film 'Sohni Dharti: An untrue story' is produced. It is shot both on a smartphone and a Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera (DSLR), with almost zero budgets. It is distributed through Vimeo from Pakistan. This process reveals how the technologies that are available today, and the increased knowledge of film production that they bring, allow a more inclusive experience of the film production and distribution. At the same time, however, it also discloses the limitations that accompany new technologies within the context of a postcolonial society. This paper will investigate the role of technology to bring filmmaking at a level of pencil and paper.

Keywords: convergent media, filmmaking, smartphone, Pakistan

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20839 The Effect of Family Support on Employee Satisfaction and Perception of Work-Family Conflict: The Case of Oil Sector Employees in Kuwait

Authors: Ali H. Muhammad

Abstract:

This paper investigates both instrumental and emotional family support on employee job satisfaction and perception of work-family conflict. Instrumental family support is manifested in family behavior that contributes to the reduction of employee’s family responsibilities and keeping the physical home environment in a proper shape. Emotional family support includes the encouragement and praise that the employee receives from his family and families for the employee’s work problem and their role in assisting the employees in dealing with these problems. The paper suggests that instrumental and emotional family support increases employee’s job satisfaction. Furthermore, the study proposes that family support decreases employee’s perception of work-family conflict. In addition, this study examines the reliability and validity of the family support index developed by Lynda King and her colleagues in 1995. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to test the validity of the instrument in an Arab business setting. A paper-pencil questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 70 Kuwaiti employees working in the oil sector. Data were analyzed using factor analysis, reliability tests, and regression analysis. Results confirmed the research hypothesis. Family support had a positive effect on job satisfaction. Furthermore, family support significantly contributed to the reduction of employee perception of work-family conflict.

Keywords: family support, job satisfaction, work-family conflict, Kuwait oil sector

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20838 Number Sense Proficiency and Problem Solving Performance of Grade Seven Students

Authors: Laissa Mae Francisco, John Rolex Ingreso, Anna Krizel Menguito, Criselda Robrigado, Rej Maegan Tuazon

Abstract:

This study aims to determine and describe the existing relationship between number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance of grade seven students from Victorino Mapa High School, Manila. A paper pencil exam containing of 50-item number sense test and 5-item problem-solving test which measures their number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance adapted from McIntosh, Reys, and Bana were used as the research instruments. The data obtained from this study were interpreted and analyzed using the Pearson – Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation to determine the relationship between the two variables. It was found out that students who were low in number sense proficiency tend to be the students with poor problem-solving performance and students with medium number sense proficiency are most likely to have an average problem-solving performance. Likewise, students with high number sense proficiency are those who do excellently in problem-solving performance.

Keywords: number sense, performance, problem solving, proficiency

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20837 Still Pictures for Learning Foreign Language Sounds

Authors: Kaoru Tomita

Abstract:

This study explores how visual information helps us to learn foreign language pronunciation. Visual assistance and its effect for learning foreign language have been discussed widely. For example, simplified illustrations in textbooks are used for telling learners which part of the articulation organs are used for pronouncing sounds. Vowels are put into a chart that depicts a vowel space. Consonants are put into a table that contains two axes of place and manner of articulation. When comparing a still picture and a moving picture for visualizing learners’ pronunciation, it becomes clear that the former works better than the latter. The visualization of vowels was applied to class activities in which native and non-native speakers’ English was compared and the learners’ feedback was collected: the positions of six vowels did not scatter as much as they were expected to do. Specifically, two vowels were not discriminated and were arranged very close in the vowel space. It was surprising for the author to find that learners liked analyzing their own pronunciation by linking formant ones and twos on a sheet of paper with a pencil. Even a simple method works well if it leads learners to think about their pronunciation analytically.

Keywords: feedback, pronunciation, visualization, vowel

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20836 Parenting Styles and Their Relation to Videogame Addiction

Authors: Petr Květon, Martin Jelínek

Abstract:

We try to identify the role of various aspects of parenting style in the phenomenon of videogame playing addiction. Relevant self-report questionnaires were part of a wider set of methods focused on the constructs related to videogame playing. The battery of methods was administered in school settings in paper and pencil form. The research sample consisted of 333 (166 males, 167 females) elementary and high school students at the age between 10 and 19 years (m=14.98, sd=1.77). Using stepwise regression analysis, we assessed the influence of demographic variables (gender and age) and parenting styles. Age and gender together explained 26.3% of game addiction variance (F(2,330)=58.81, p<.01). By adding four aspect of parenting styles (inconsistency, involvement, control, and warmth) another 10.2% of variance was explained (∆F(4,326)=13.09, p<.01). The significant predictor was gender of the respondent, where males scored higher on game addiction scale (B=0.70, p<.01), age (β=-0.18, p<.01), where younger children showed higher level of addiction, and parental inconsistency (β=0.30, p<.01), where the higher the inconsistency in upbringing, the more developed game playing addiction.

Keywords: gender, parenting styles, video games, addiction

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20835 Linearly Polarized Single Photon Emission from Nonpolar, Semipolar and Polar Quantum Dots in GaN/InGaN Nanowires

Authors: Snezana Lazic, Zarko Gacevic, Mark Holmes, Ekaterina Chernysheva, Marcus Müller, Peter Veit, Frank Bertram, Juergen Christen, Yasuhiko Arakawa, Enrique Calleja

Abstract:

The study reports how the pencil-like morphology of a homoepitaxially grown GaN nanowire can be exploited for the fabrication of a thin conformal InGaN nanoshell, hosting nonpolar, semipolar and polar single photon sources (SPSs). All three SPS types exhibit narrow emission lines (FWHM~0.35 - 2 meV) and high degrees of linear optical polarization (P > 70%) in the low-temperature micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) experiments and are characterized by a pronounced antibunching in the photon correlation measurements (gcorrected(2)(0) < 0.3). The quantum-dot-like exciton localization centers induced by compositional fluctuations within the InGaN nanoshell are identified as the driving mechanism for the single photon emission. As confirmed by the low-temperature transmission electron microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (TEM-CL) study, the crystal region (i.e. non-polar m-, semi-polar r- and polar c-facets) hosting the single photon emitters strongly affects their emission wavelength, which ranges from ultra-violet for the non-polar to visible for the polar SPSs. The photon emission lifetime is also found to be facet-dependent and varies from sub-nanosecond time scales for the non- and semi-polar SPSs to a few nanoseconds for the polar ones. These differences are mainly attributed to facet-dependent indium content and electric field distribution across the hosting InGaN nanoshell. The hereby reported pencil-like InGaN nanoshell is the first single nanostructure able to host all three types of single photon emitters and is thus a promising building block for tunable quantum light devices integrated into future photonic and optoelectronic circuits.

Keywords: GaN nanowire, InGaN nanoshell, linear polarization, nonpolar, semipolar, polar quantum dots, single-photon sources

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20834 Learning and Practising Assessment in Pre-Service Teacher Education Program: Bridging Gap between Theory and Practice

Authors: Ghulam Behlol Malik

Abstract:

Discoveries in the field of cognitive science have brought revolutionary changes in learning and assessment practices and replaced traditional testing and examination practices (paper and pencil) by student-centered, authentic, and active learning approaches. This paper presents an analysis of data addressing two research questions as part of a wider study: 1) How do prospective teachers learn about assessment in a pre-service teacher education program? 2) How do cooperative teachers and university teachers support prospective teachers on teaching practicum to learn about how to use assessment for bridging the gap between theory and practice? A sequential mixed method design was applied to collect data in three phases: content analysis of the course 'method of teaching', followed by a survey about the opinions of Prospective Teachers and observations of classes in both teacher education and teaching practicum contexts were completed along with indepth interviews of University teachers and Cooperative Teachers. It is concluded that Prospective Teachers face difficulties in applying student-centred assessment practices because of limited modelling both in the teacher education and school practicum settings, large class sizes, and limited opportunities to use technology in school settings in Pakistan. It is recommended that in Pakistan, a new assessment policy is needed which allows examinations to be expanded beyond covering knowledge recall to include competency assessment.

Keywords: learning, practising, assessment, preservice teacher education program, theory and practice, theory and practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
20833 Experiences during the First Year of Practice among New Nurses

Authors: Chanya Thanomlikhit, Pataraporn Kheawwan

Abstract:

Transition from student to staff nurse can be difficult for nurses beginning their nursing profession. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the transition experiences during the first year of practice among new nurses in Thailand. Methods: A descriptive design using a survey questionnaire was used. One hundred seventy-eight new graduate nurses from one tertiary hospital in Thailand participated in this study. Data were collected using paper-and-pencil format of the Revised Casey-Fink Graduate Nurse Experience Survey. Results: Participants reported three types of difficulties they were experiencing during the first year of practice including role expectation, lack of confidence, and workload. New nurses reported uncomfortable to perform high risk skills such as code/emergency, ventilator care, EKG, and chest tube care. Organizing, prioritizing and communication were rated as difficult tasks during 12-month transition period. New nurses satisfied the benefit package they received from the institution, however, salary was lowest satisfied. Conclusion: Results inform transition program development for new nurses. Initiative of systems that support for the graduate nurse during the first year of practice is suggested.

Keywords: new graduate nurse, transition, nurse residency program, clinical education

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20832 Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Review of the Indian Scenario

Authors: Garima Joshi, Pratap Sharan, V. Sreenivas, Nand Kumar, Kameshwar Prasad, Ashima N. Wadhawan

Abstract:

Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder and is marked by cognitive impairment, which deleteriously impacts the social and professional functioning along with the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers. Often the cognitive symptoms are in their prodromal state and worsen as the illness progresses; they have proven to have a good predictive value for the prognosis of the illness. It has been shown that intensive cognitive rehabilitation (CR) leads to improvements in the healthy as well as cognitively-impaired subjects. As the majority of population in India falls in the lower to middle socio-economic status and have low education levels, using the existing packages, a majority of which are developed in the West, for cognitive rehabilitation becomes difficult. The use of technology is also restricted due to the high costs involved and the limited availability and familiarity with computers and other devices, which pose as an impedance for continued therapy. Cognitive rehabilitation in India uses a plethora of retraining methods for the patients with schizophrenia targeting the functions of attention, information processing, executive functions, learning and memory, and comprehension along with Social Cognition. Psychologists often have to follow an integrative therapy approach involving social skills training, family therapy and psychoeducation in order to maintain the gains from the cognitive rehabilitation in the long run. This paper reviews the methodologies and cognitive retaining programs used in India. It attempts to elucidate the evolution and development of methodologies used, from traditional paper-pencil based retraining to more sophisticated neuroscience-informed techniques in cognitive rehabilitation of deficits in schizophrenia as home-based or supervised and guided programs for cognitive rehabilitation.

Keywords: schizophrenia, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological interventions, integrated approached to rehabilitation

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20831 The Effect of Context in Eliminating Interpretation Problems of Screen Subtitles for the Promotion of Intelligible Film Language

Authors: Ezzeldin M. T. Ali

Abstract:

Arguably viewers hardly benefit from screen subtitles due to the inconsistency between scenarios and their subtitles. Research in this area will provide an understanding of the association between these scenarios and subtitles via context. It attempts to eliminate the inconsistency existing between contexts and screen subtitles providing insights into the problem. Specifically, the study aims at examining the extent to which the understanding of screen subtitles largely depends on the force of linguistic and situational contexts. This is because the context is assumed to have a powerful effect on the interpretation of the source text. Both descriptive and experimental methods were adopted for data collection. These included a test and paper-pencil-questionnaires where participants provided their impressions about the role of context in eliminating interpretation problems of screen subtitles. Participants developed a good background about screen subtitles watching films. Results showed that context forms a powerful element in understanding screen subtitles. Results also revealed that communicative translation fits well screen translation boosting the contextual meaning. The association of context and communicative translation makes subtitles globally more economical and intelligible. Context forms a central element for film language to be intelligible.

Keywords: communicative translation, context, scenario, powerful, intellgible

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20830 Design and Synthesis of Gradient Nanocomposite Materials

Authors: Pu Ying-Chih, Yang Yin-Ju, Hang Jian-Yi, Jang Guang-Way

Abstract:

Organic-Inorganic hybrid materials consisting of graded distributions of inorganic nano particles in organic polymer matrices were successfully prepared by the sol-gel process. Optical and surface properties of the resulting nano composites can be manipulated by changing their compositions and nano particle distribution gradients. Applications of gradient nano composite materials include sealants for LED packaging and screen lenses for smartphones. Optical transparency, prism coupler, TEM, SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX), Izod impact strength, conductivity, pencil hardness, and thermogravimetric characterizations of the nano composites were performed and the results will be presented.

Keywords: Gradient, Hybrid, Nanocomposite, Organic-Inorganic

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20829 Using Computerized Analogical Reasoning Tasks as a Way to Improve Literacy Skills in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

Authors: Caroline Denaes

Abstract:

The ability to read is crucial for a successful path in school and in a social and professional context. Children with mild intellectual disability are confronted to serious difficulties in literacy. A lot of them do not read or are illiterate. Only one child out of five is able to acquire basic reading skills, which increases the likelihood to misfit in society, especially when these children grow up and cannot manage themselves in situations requiring higher reading levels. One way to help these children acquiring basic reading skills is to use analogical reasoning, as some researchers demonstrated that this mechanism is fundamental for any reading process. For this purpose, we developed computerized analogies displayed on a touch screen tablet. Analogies are comparisons that give children a framework they can use to understand new information. They work by comparing one thing to another in order to emphasize some mutual quality. If one of the items is unfamiliar, that mutual quality can help make it understandable, or it can cause the children to consider something familiar in some new way, such as transferring what they know about familiar words to help them identify unfamiliar words. In addition, using touch screen tablets represents several advantages: the ease of use, the relevance to this specific population and the appeal of a self-directed activity gives individuals and practitioners a modern tool that differs from the traditional paper-and-pencil material. In addition, the touch screen dimension is especially appropriate for children as assistive technology has been found to be more motivating that any other types of devices and improves the children’ attention span.

Keywords: literacy, intellectual disabilities, touch screen techonology, literacy skill

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20828 The Effect of Paper Based Concept Mapping on Students' Academic Achievement and Attitude in Science Education

Authors: Orhan Akınoğlu, Arif Çömek, Ersin Elmacı, Tuğba Gündoğdu

Abstract:

The concept map is known to be a powerful tool to organize the ideas and concepts of an individuals’ mind. This tool is a kind of visual map that illustrates the relationships between the concepts of a certain subject. The effect of concept mapping on cognitive and affective qualities is one of the research topics among educational researchers for last decades. We educators want to utilize it both as an instructional tool or an assessment tool in classes. For that reason, this study aimed to determine the effect of concept mapping as a learning strategy in science classes on students’ academic achievement and attitude. The research employed a randomized pre-test post-test control group design. Data collected from 60 sixth grade students participated in the study from a randomly selected primary school in Turkey. Sixth-grade classes of the school were analyzed according to students’ academic achievement, science attitude, gender, mathematics, science courses grades, and their GPAs before the implementation. Two of the classes found to be equivalent (t=0,983, p>0,05) and one of them was defined as experimental and the other one control group randomly. During a 5-weeks period, the experimental group students (N=30) used the paper-based concept mapping method while the control group students (N=30) were taught with the traditional approach according to the science and technology education curriculum for light and sound subject. Both groups were taught by the same teacher who is experienced using concept mapping in science classes. Before the implementation, the teacher explained the theory of the concept maps and showed how to create paper-based concept mapping individually to the experimental group students for two hours. Then for two following hours she asked them to create some concept maps related to their former science subjects and gave them feedback by reviewing their concept maps to be sure that they can create during the implementation. The data were collected by science achievement test, science attitude scale and personal information form. Science achievement test and science attitude scale were implemented as pre-test and post-test while personal information form was implemented just as once. The reliability coefficient of the achievement test was KR20=0,76 and Cronbach’s Alpha of the attitude scale was 0,89. SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data. According to the results, there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control group for academic achievement but not for attitude. The experimental group had significantly greater gains from academic achievement test than the control group (t=0,02, p<0,05). The findings showed that the paper-and-pencil concept mapping can be used as an effective method for students’ academic achievement in science classes. The results have implications for further researches.

Keywords: concept mapping, science education, constructivism, academic achievement, science attitude

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20827 A Green Analytical Curriculum for Renewable STEM Education

Authors: Mian Jiang, Zhenyi Wu

Abstract:

We have incorporated green components into existing analytical chemistry curriculum with the aims to present a more environment benign approach in both teaching laboratory and undergraduate research. These include the use of cheap, sustainable, and market-available material; minimized waste disposal, replacement of non-aqueous media; and scale-down in sample/reagent consumption. Model incorporations have covered topics in quantitative chemistry as well as instrumental analysis, lower division as well as upper level, and research in traditional titration, spectroscopy, electrochemical analysis, and chromatography. The green embedding has made chemistry more daily life relevance, and application focus. Our approach has the potential to expand into all STEM fields to make renewable, high-impact education experience for undergraduate students.

Keywords: green analytical chemistry, pencil lead, mercury, renewable

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20826 The Inhibition of Sexual Pleasure and Its Associations with Cultural Messages

Authors: Fabiola Trejo Perez, Rolando Diaz Loving

Abstract:

Sexual pleasure consists of the positively valued feelings induced by sexual stimuli, but it is also weighed down by pop-psychological baggage, and subjected to cross-cultural and cross-historical variation. Social and individual interpretations of what can or can’t be considered as pleasurable are intertwined with culture’s predominant values, norms and beliefs. For each culture, sexual norms work as a guide to be followed in order to model socially accepted behaviors. Therefore, cultural messages regarding sexuality are usually directed to restrict men and women from enjoyment, sexual satisfaction and specifically orgasm. Given that sexual pleasure hasn’t been recognized as an accepted topic of open discussion, particularly for women, people have to eventually complement their knowledge using their own experience filling in the blanks from what little has been said. Thus, this research aims to identify which are the particular social messages associated with the easing or inhibition of sexual pleasure. Three hundred Mexican men and women ages 25 to 35 years old answered a self-report survey composed by the Inventory of facilitators and inhibitors of sexual pleasure and the Sexual premises questionnaire via pencil-paper and online. Results show a high endorsement to double standard messages associated with higher levels of sexual pleasure inhibitors like feeling pressured to have sexual activity, guilt and inability to reach orgasm, in contrast with people who endorse more permissive norms and beliefs, feeling connected to their sexual partners and confident with themselves. These results illustrate that the shaping of sexuality, from experience to society, is comprised of an important relationship between culture and sexual pleasure.

Keywords: culture, sexual double standard, sexual norms and beliefs, sexual pleasure

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20825 An Exploratory Study of Chinese Paper-Cut Art in Household Product Design

Authors: Ruining Wu, Na Song

Abstract:

Paper-cut, as one of the Chinese traditional folk decoration art, has become a unique visual aesthetic characteristics of the Chinese nation in the long-term evolution of cultural symbols. Chinese paper-cut art is the treasure-house for product design in natural resources. This paper first analyzed Chinese folk art of historical origin, cultural background, cultural values, aesthetic value, style features of Chinese paper cut art, then analyzed the design thought and design cases of paper-cut art application in different areas, such as clothing design, logo design and product design areas. Through the research of Chinese paper-cut art culture and design elements, this paper aims to build a household product design concept of Chinese traditional culture.

Keywords: paper-cut art, culture, household products, design

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20824 Development of Kenaf Cellulose CNT Paper for Electrical Conductive Paper

Authors: A. W. Fareezal, R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, M. Z. Shazana, I. Rushdan

Abstract:

Kenaf cellulose CNT paper production was for lightweight, high strength and excellent flexibility electrical purposes. Aqueous dispersions of kenaf cellulose and varied weight percentage of CNT were combined with the assistance of PEI solution by using ultrasonic probe. The solution was dried using vacuum filter continued with air drying in condition room for 2 days. Circle shape conductive paper was characterized with Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and therma gravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: cellulose, CNT paper, PEI solution, electrical conductive paper

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20823 Effect of Filter Paper Technique in Measuring Hydraulic Capacity of Unsaturated Expansive Soil

Authors: Kenechi Kurtis Onochie

Abstract:

This paper shows the use of filter paper technique in the measurement of matric suction of unsaturated expansive soil around the Haspolat region of Lefkosa, North Cyprus in other to establish the soil water characteristics curve (SWCC) or soil water retention curve (SWRC). The dry filter paper approach which is standardized by ASTM, 2003, D 5298-03 in which the filter paper is initially dry was adopted. The whatman No. 42 filter paper was used in the matric suction measurement. The maximum dry density of the soil was obtained as 2.66kg/cm³ and the optimum moisture content as 21%. The soil was discovered to have high air entry value of 1847.46KPa indicating finer particles and 25% hydraulic capacity using filter paper technique. The filter paper technique proved to be very useful for measuring the hydraulic capacity of unsaturated expansive soil.

Keywords: SWCC, matric suction, filter paper, expansive soil

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20822 Medi-Conf: Conference Management System

Authors: Dishant Kothari, Pankaj Gaur, Priyanshu Sharma, Ratnesh Litoriya, Sachin Solanki, Shimpy Goyal

Abstract:

Web based Conference Management System comprises of all the processes needed for round table conference, research paper publication includes the phases-call for paper, paper submission, paper review, acknowledgement to the author, paper acceptance and payment for publication. It will also help colleges and universities to conduct conferences for research, thus spreading awareness and will contribute to the overall development of students. Web based Conference Management System will streamline the procedure for paper publication by reducing the time and efforts needed in physical (offline mode) submission. A conference can be organized from anywhere and anytime. Authors can easily trace the status of the paper, and the program committee can review them anywhere and provide necessary comments to it.

Keywords: peer review, paper publication, author, chair, reviewer, virtualization, new normal

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20821 Memory Types in Hemodialysis Patients: A Study Based on Hemodialysis Duration, Zahedan, South East of Iran

Authors: B. Sabayan, A. Alidadi, S. Ebrahimi, N. M. Bakhshani

Abstract:

Neuropsychological problems are more common in hemodialysis (HD) patients than in healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long term HD on memory types of HD patients. To assess the different type of memory, we used memory parts of the Persian Papers and Pencil Cognitive assessment package (PCAP) and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R). Our study included 80 HD patients of whom 39 had less than six months of HD and 41 patients and another group which had a history of HD more than six months. The population had a mean age of 51.60 years old and 27.5% of them were female. The scores of patients who have been hemodialyzed for a long time (median time of HD was up to 4 years) had lower score in anterograde, explicit, visual, recall and recognition memory (5.44±1.07, 9.49±3.472, 22.805±6.6913, 5.59±10.435, 11.02±3.190 score) than the HD patients who underwent HD for a shorter term, where the median time was 3 to 5 months (P<0.01). The regression result shows that, by increasing the HD duration, all memory types are reduced (R2=0.600, P<0.01). The present study demonstrated that HD patients who were under HD for a long time had significantly lower scores in the different types of memory. However, additional researches are needed in this area.

Keywords: hemodialysis patients, duration of hemodialysis, memory types, Zahedan

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20820 Information and Communication Technology Learning between Parents and High School Students

Authors: Yu-Mei Tseng, Chih-Chun Wu

Abstract:

As information and communication technology (ICT) has become a part of people’s lives, most teenagers born after the 1980s and grew up in internet generation are called digital natives. Meanwhile, those teenagers’ parents are called digital immigrants. They need to keep learning new skills of ICT. This study investigated that high school students helped their parents set up social network services (SNS) and taught them how to use ICT. This study applied paper and pencil anonymous questionnaires that asked the ICT learning and ICT products using in high school students’ parents. The sample size was 2,621 high school students, including 1,360 (51.9%) males and 1,261 (48.1%) females. The sample was from 12 high school and vocational high school in central Taiwan. Results from paired sample t-tests demonstrated regardless genders, both male and female high school students help mothers set up Facebook and LINE more often than fathers. In addition, both male and female high school students taught mothers to use ICT more often than fathers. Meanwhile, both male and female high school students teach mothers to use SNS more often than fathers. The results showed that intergenerational ICT teaching occurred more often between mothers and her children than fathers. It could imply that mothers play a more important role in family ICT learning than fathers, or it could be that mothers need more help regarding ICT than fathers. As for gender differences, results from the independent t-tests showed that female high school students were more likely than male ones to help their parents setup Facebook and LINE. In addition, compared to male high school students, female ones were more likely to teach their parents to use smartphone, Facebook and LINE. However, no gender differences were detected in teaching mothers. The gender differences results suggested that female teenagers offer more helps to their parents regarding ICT learning than their male counterparts. As for area differences, results from the independent t-tests showed that the high school in remote area students were more likely than metropolitan ones to teach parents to use computer, search engine and download files of audio and video. The area differences results might indicate that remote area students were more likely to teach their parents how to use ICT. The results from this study encourage children to help and teach their parents with ICT products.

Keywords: adult ICT learning, family ICT learning, ICT learning, urban-rural gap

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20819 Management in Health Education Process among Spa Resorts in Poland

Authors: J. Wozniak-Holecka, T. Holecki, P. Romaniuk

Abstract:

Spa facilities are being perceived as the ways of healing treatment in Poland and are guaranteed within the public financing. The universal health insurance (National Health Fund, NFZ), and the disability prevention programme held by Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) are the main sources of financing spa facilities. The dominant public payer of spa services is the NFZ. The Social Insurance Institution covers the cost of health treatment realized in spa facilities as medical rehabilitation, in the field of disability prevention. Health services delivered in the spa resorts are characterized by complexity, and the combination of various methods, typical for health prevention, education, balneotherapy, and physiotherapy. Healing with natural methods, believed to enhance the therapeutic effect, is also involved in health spa treatment. Regardless of the type of facility, each form of spa treatment includes health promotion, health education, prevention at all levels, including rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal organization of health education process. Its efficiency strongly depends on the type of service provider and the funding institution (NFZ vs ZUS). It results from the use of different measures of the effectiveness, the quality and the evaluation of the process being assessed by funding institutions. The methods of the study include a comparative and descriptive quantitative and qualitative analysis. In the empirical part, a questionnaire had been developed. It was then distributed among spa personnel, responsible directly for the health promotion, and among patients who are beneficiaries of health services in spa centers. The quantitative part of the study was based on interviews carried with the use of the online survey (CAWI: Computer-Assisted Web Interview), telephone survey (CATI: Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview) and a conventional questionnaire (PAPI: Paper over Pencil Interview). As a result of the conducted research, it was found that the effectiveness of health education activities in spa resort facilities in Poland is higher when the services are organized using structured tools for managerial control. This applies to formalized procedures implemented by one of the dominant payers covering costs of services (ZUS) and involves the application of health education as one of the mandatory elements of treatment, subjected to the process of control during the course of spa therapy and evaluation after it is completed.

Keywords: effectiveness, health education, public health system, spa treatment

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