Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: endometrioid

8 Utility of CK7, CK20 and CDX-2 as a Potential Panel in Differentiating Primary Ovarian Surface Epithelial Tumors from Metastatic Adenocarcinoma to the Ovary

Authors: Ghada Esheba, Ghadeer Aldoobi, Salwa Almalk, Abrar Alshareef, Eman Al-khairi, Eman Yaseen

Abstract:

Background: In Saudi Arabia, ovarian cancer ranked seventh among female population and is the most common female genital tract malignancy after endometrial cancer. A slight increase in the incidence of ovarian cancer was observed from 2001–2008. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases (1). Differentiating metastatic adenocarcinomas from primary ovarian carcinomas, especially those of endometrioid and mucinous type is clinically significant and a challenge for clinicians and pathologists, yet the distinction has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. Aim: To clarify the most important histopathological criteria to differentiate between primary ovarian surface epithelial tumors especially mucinous and endometrioid subtypes, and metastatic adenocarcinoma and to evaluate the value of a panel of antibodies consisting of CK7, CK20, and CDX-2 in the distinction between primary ovarian surface epithelial tumors and metastatic adenocarcinoma. Material and methods: This study was carried out on 26 cases of primary ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms and 14 cases of metastatic ovarian adenocarcinoma. All cases were studied immunohistochemically using CK7, CK20, and CDX-2. Results: All cases of primary ovarian adenocarcinoma were positive for CK7. 25% and 58% of mucinous borderline mucinous tumor and mucinous carcinoma respectively were positive for CK20. Only 42% of mucinous carcinoma were positive for CDX-2. All cases of endometrioid carcinomas were negative for both CK20 and CDX-2. All cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma from the colon were negative for CK7 and positive for CK20 and CDX-2. Conclusions: CK7 is an important positive marker for primary ovarian tumors, while CK20 and CDX-2 are useful markers for colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the ovary. Caution should be taken as primary ovarian mucinous tumors may stain positive for CK20, CDX-2, or both, however, they usually exhibit a focal pattern of reactivity.

Keywords: adenoma, endometrioid, malignancy, ovarian

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7 Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer: Clinical and Pathological Pattern

Authors: I. Ramalho, S. Campos, M. Dias

Abstract:

Introduction: Endometriosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer (OC), however, the risk and prognosis have not been well established. The association between these two pathologies could have an important impact on prevention and early diagnosis of OC. Objective: To analyze the prevalence of endometriosis associated ovarian cancer and related clinical, epidemiological and histopathological issues. Design: We conducted a retrospective case series analysis of patients diagnosed with endometriosis and ovarian cancer in the Gynecology Department of Coimbra University Hospital Center since 2006 to 2015. Methods: We collected data from women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, with anatomopathology records reporting findings of endometriosis in ovarian cancer patients. Patients were retrieved from the pathological records and appropriate medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. Results: Histological evidence of endometriosis was found in 17 out of 261 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) (6.51%). The most usual symptoms were pelvic pain, abdominal distension, asthenia, ascites, weight loss and nausea. Mean age at diagnosis was 61.2 ± 15.1, 41-86 years old, 33.3% were pre-menopausal patients and cancer stage distribution was predominantly stage I (31.3%) and stage III (56.3%). OC occurred unilaterally in 14 patients and 2 patients were diagnosed with a synchronous ovarian and endometrial cancer. Regarding histological type, 10 OC were classified as clear cell carcinoma (CCC), 4 endometrioid carcinomas (EC) and 3 mixed type (clear cell and endometrioid). Four ovarian carcinomas presumably arose from endometriomas: 3 CCC and 1 EC. Conclusions: In accordance with previous studies, clear cell was the most common pathological type in endometriotic patients, followed by endometrioid carcinomas, and two rare synchronous ovarian and endometrial carcinomas were registered. Although endometriosis association to OC is uncommon, endometriosis should be managed with special care in order to early diagnosis.

Keywords: endometriosis, histology, observational study, ovarian cancer

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6 Predicting High-Risk Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinomas Using Protein Markers

Authors: Yuexin Liu, Gordon B. Mills, Russell R. Broaddus, John N. Weinstein

Abstract:

The lethality of endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) is primarily attributable to the high-stage diseases. However, there are no available biomarkers that predict EEC patient staging at the time of diagnosis. We aim to develop a predictive scheme to help in this regards. Using reverse-phase protein array expression profiles for 210 EEC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we constructed a Protein Scoring of EEC Staging (PSES) scheme for surgical stage prediction. We validated and evaluated its diagnostic potential in an independent cohort of 184 EEC cases obtained at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to examine the association of PSES score with patient outcome, and Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to identify relevant signaling pathways. Two-sided statistical tests were used. PSES robustly distinguished high- from low-stage tumors in the TCGA cohort (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 0.82) and in the validation cohort (AUC=0.67; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76). Even among grade 1 or 2 tumors, PSES was significantly higher in high- than in low-stage tumors in both the TCGA (P = 0.005) and MDACC (P = 0.006) cohorts. Patients with positive PSES score had significantly shorter progression-free survival than those with negative PSES in the TCGA (hazard ratio [HR], 2.033; 95% CI, 1.031 to 3.809; P = 0.04) and validation (HR, 3.306; 95% CI, 1.836 to 9.436; P = 0.0007) cohorts. The ErbB signaling pathway was most significantly enriched in the PSES proteins and downregulated in high-stage tumors. PSES may provide clinically useful prediction of high-risk tumors and offer new insights into tumor biology in EEC.

Keywords: endometrial carcinoma, protein, protein scoring of EEC staging (PSES), stage

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5 Microvesicles in Peripheral and Uterine Blood in Women with Atypical Hyperplasia and Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer

Authors: Barbara Zapala, Marek Dziechciowski, Olaf Chmura, Monika Piwowar, Katarzyna Gawlik, Dorota Pawlicka-Gosiewska, Krzysztof Skotniczny, Bogdan Solnica, Kazimierz Pitynski

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries.We hypothesized that amount of circulating micro-particles in blood may be connected with the development of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. The aim of this study was to measure the micro-particles amount in uterine venous blood and in peripheral venous blood in women with atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid endometrial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By using flow cytometry (BD Canto II cytometer) we measured micro-particles amount in citrate plasma samples from peripheral and uterine venous blood of women with atypical hyperplasia of endometrium or endometrial cancer. We determined the amount of total (TF+), endothelial (CD144+) and monocytic (CD14+) micro- particles. RESULTS: Here we show statistically significant higher micro-particle levels in women with atypical hyperplasia of endometrium or endometrial cancer in comparison to healthy women. Performing measurements of the amounts of total, endothelial and monocytic microparticles allow for reliable differentiation between healthy, atypical hyperplasia and endometrial cancer groups. In blood samples from uterine veins the circulating micro-particle levels were significantly different from peripheral blood samples. The micro-particle levels in uterine blood samples were 7-fold higher than in those from peripheral blood of women with both atypical hyperplasia of endometrium and endometrial cancer when compared to the control group of healthy women. CONCLUSION: These results strongly suggested that the level of circulating micro-particles may be a sign of endometrial cancer development, however the detailed study is needed focusing on molecular processes passed through this small circulating molecules.

Keywords: endometrial cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, microvesicles, uterine blood

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4 DOG1 Expression Is in Common Human Tumors: A Tissue Microarray Study on More than 15,000 Tissue Samples

Authors: Kristina Jansen, Maximilian Lennartz, Patrick Lebok, Guido Sauter, Ronald Simon, David Dum, Stefan Steurer

Abstract:

DOG1 (Discovered on GIST1) is a voltage-gated calcium-activated chloride and bicarbonate channel that is highly expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal and in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) derived from Cajal cells. To systematically determine in what tumor entities and normal tissue types DOG1 may be further expressed, a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 15,965 samples from 121 different tumor types and subtypes as well as 608 samples of 76 different normal tissue types were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. DOG1 immunostaining was found in 67 tumor types, including GIST (95.7%), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (31.9%), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (33.6%), adenocarcinoma of the Papilla Vateri (20%), squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva (15.8%) and the oral cavity (15.3%), mucinous ovarian cancer (15.3%), esophageal adenocarcinoma (12.5%), endometrioid endometrial cancer (12.1%), neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon (11.1%) and diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma (11%). Low level-DOG1 immunostaining was seen in 17 additional tumor entities. DOG1 expression was unrelated to histopathological parameters of tumor aggressiveness and/or patient prognosis in cancers of the breast (n=1,002), urinary bladder (975), ovary (469), endometrium (173), stomach (233), and thyroid gland (512). High DOG1 expression was linked to estrogen receptor expression in breast cancer (p<0.0001) and the absence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinomas (p=0.0008). In conclusion, our data identify several tumor entities that can show DOG1 expression levels at similar levels as in GIST. Although DOG1 is tightly linked to a diagnosis of GIST in spindle cell tumors, the differential diagnosis is much broader in DOG1 positive epithelioid neoplasms.

Keywords: biomarker, DOG1, immunohistochemistry, tissue microarray

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3 Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors and Their Histological Mimics

Authors: Ghada Esheba, Ebtisam Aljerayan, Afnan Al-Ghamdi, Atheer Alsharif, Hanan alzahrani

Abstract:

Background: Primary ovarian neoplasms comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors of three main subtypes: surface epithelial, germ cell, and sex cord-stromal. The wide morphological variation within and between these groups can result in diagnostic difficulties. Gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors (SCST) represent one of the most heterogeneous categories of human neoplasms, because they may contain various combinations of different gonadal sex cord and stromal element. Aim: The aim of this work is to highlight the clinicopathological characteristics of SCST and to assess the value of alpha-inhibin and calretinin in the distinction between SCST and their mimics. Material and methods: This study was carried out on 100 cases using full tissue sections; 70 cases were SCST and 30 cases were histological mimics of SCST. The cases were studied using immunohistochemically using alpha-inhibin. In addition, an ovarian tissue microarray containing 170 benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms was also studied immunohistochemically for calretinin expression. The ovarian microarray included 14 SCST, 59 ovarian serous borderline tumors, 17 mucinous borderline tumors, 10 mucinous adenocarcinomas, 32 endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 34 clear cell carcinomas, and 4 germ cell tumors. Results: 99% of SCST examined using full tissue sections exhibited positive cytoplasmic staining for inhibin. On the contrary, only 7% of the histological mimics (P value < 0.0001). 86% of SCST in the tissue microarray were positive for calretinin with nuclear and/or cytoplasmic staining compared to only 7% of the other tumor types (P value < 0.0001). Conclusions: SCST have characteristic clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features and their recognition is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment. Alpha-inhibin and calretinin are of great help in the diagnosis of sex cord-stromal tumors.

Keywords: calretinin, granulosa cell tumor, inhibin, sex cord-stromal tumors

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2 Grade and Maximum Tumor Dimension as Determinants of Lymphadenectomy in Patients with Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer (EEC)

Authors: Ali A. Bazzi, Ameer Hamza, Riley O’Hara, Kimberly Kado, Karen H. Hagglund, Lamia Fathallah, Robert T. Morris

Abstract:

Introduction: Endometrial Cancer is a common gynecologic malignancy primarily treated with complete surgical staging, which may include complete pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The role of lymphadenectomy is controversial, especially the intraoperative indications for the procedure. Three factors are important in decision to proceed with lymphadenectomy: Myometrial invasion, maximum tumor dimension, and histology. Many institutions incorporate these criteria in varying degrees in the decision to proceed with lymphadenectomy. This investigation assesses the use of intraoperatively measured MTD with and without pre-operative histologic grade. Methods: This study compared retrospectively EEC patients with intraoperatively measured MTD ≤2 cm to those with MTD >2 cm from January 1, 2002 to August 31, 2017. This assessment compared those with MTD ≤ 2cm with endometrial biopsy (EB) grade 1-2 to patients with MTD > 2cm with EB grade 3. Lymph node metastasis (LNM), recurrence, and survival were compared in these groups. Results: This study reviewed 222 patient cases. In tumors > 2 cm, LNM occurred in 20% cases while in tumors ≤ 2 cm, LNM was found in 6% cases (p=0.04). Recurrence and mean survival based on last follow up visit in these two groups were not statistically different (p=0.78 and 0.36 respectively). Data demonstrated a trend that when combined with preoperative EB International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grade, a higher proportion of patients with EB FIGO Grade 3 and MTD > 2 cm had LNM compared to those with EB FIGO Grade 1-2 and MTD ≤ 2 cm (43% vs, 11%, p=0.06). LNM was found in 15% of cases in which lymphadenectomy was performed based on current practices, whereas if the criteria of EB FIGO 3 and MTD > 2 cm were used the incidence of LNM would have been 44% cases. However, using this criterion, two patients would not have had their nodal metastases detected. Compared to the current practice, the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed criteria would be 60% and 81%, respectively. The PPV and NPV would be 43% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that MTD combined with EB FIGO grade can detect LNM in a higher proportion of cases when compared to current practice. MTD combined with EB FIGO grade may eliminate the need of frozen section sampling in a substantial number of cases.

Keywords: endometrial cancer, FIGO grade, lymphadenectomy, tumor size

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1 Blood Thicker Than Water: A Case Report on Familial Ovarian Cancer

Authors: Joanna Marie A. Paulino-Morente, Vaneza Valentina L. Penolio, Grace Sabado

Abstract:

Ovarian cancer is extremely hard to diagnose in its early stages, and those afflicted at the time of diagnosis are typically asymptomatic and in the late stages of the disease, with metastasis to other organs. Ovarian cancers often occur sporadically, with only 5% associated with hereditary mutations. Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes have been found to be responsible for the majority of hereditary ovarian cancers. One type of ovarian tumor is Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor (MMMT), which is a very rare and aggressive type, accounting for only 1% of all ovarian cancers. Reported is a case of a 43-year-old G3P3 (3003), who came into our institution due to a 2-month history of difficulty of breathing. Family history reveals that her eldest and younger sisters both died of ovarian malignancy, with her younger sister having a histopathology report of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma, left ovary stage IIIb. She still has 2 asymptomatic sisters. Physical examination pointed to pleural effusion of right lung, and presence of bilateral ovarian new growth, which had a Sassone score of 13. Admitting Diagnosis was G3P3 (3003), Ovarian New Growth, bilateral, Malignant; Pleural effusion secondary to malignancy. BRCA was requested to establish a hereditary mutation; however, the patient had no funds. Once the patient was stabilized, TAHBSO with surgical staging was performed. Intraoperatively, the pelvic cavity was occupied by firm, irregularly shaped ovaries, with a colorectal metastasis. Microscopic sections from both ovaries and the colorectal metastasis had pleomorphic tumor cells lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium exhibiting glandular complexity, displaying nuclear atypia and increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, which are infiltrating the stroma, consistent with the features of Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor, since MMMT is composed histologically of malignant epithelial and sarcomatous elements. In conclusion, discussed is the clinic-pathological feature of a patient with primary ovarian Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor, a rare malignancy comprising only 1% of all ovarian neoplasms. Also, by understanding the hereditary ovarian cancer syndromes and its relation to this patient, it cannot be overemphasized that a comprehensive family history is really fundamental for early diagnosis. The familial association of the disease, given that the patient has two sisters who were diagnosed with an advanced stage of ovarian cancer and succumbed to the disease at a much earlier age than what is reported in the general population, points to a possible hereditary syndrome which occurs in only 5% of ovarian neoplasms. In a low-resource setting, being in a third world country, the following will be recommended for monitoring and/or screening women who are at high risk for developing ovarian cancer, such as the remaining sisters of the patient: 1) Physical examination focusing on the breast, abdomen, and rectal area every 6 months. 2) Transvaginal sonography every 6 months. 3) Mammography annually. 4) CA125 for postmenopausal women. 5) Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 will be reserved for those who are financially capable.

Keywords: BRCA, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome, malignant mixed mullerian tumor, ovarian cancer

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