Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1614

Search results for: output

1614 Preparation of Regional Input-Output Table for Fars Province in 2011: GRIT1Method

Authors: Maryam Akbarzadeh, F. Esmaeilzadeh, A. Poostvar, M. Manuchehri

Abstract:

Preparation of regional input-output tables requires statistical methods combined with high costs and too much time. Obtained estimates by non-statistical methods have low confidence coefficient. Therefore, integrated methods for this purpose are suggested by recent input–output studies. In this study, first GRIT method is introduced as an appropriate integrated method for preparation of input-output table of Fars province. Next, input-output table is prepared for Fars province using this method. Therefore, this study is based on input-output table of national economy in 2001. Necessary modifications performed in the field of changes at level of prices and differences of regional trade compared with other areas at national level. Moreover, up to date statistics and information and technical experts view on the various economic sectors along with input-output table 33 was used in 2011 followed by investigation of general structure of the province economy based on the amounts of added value obtained from this table.

Keywords: grit, input-output, table, regional

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1613 Input-Output Analysis in Laptop Computer Manufacturing

Authors: H. Z. Ulukan, E. Demircioğlu, M. Erol Genevois

Abstract:

The scope of this paper and the aim of proposed model were to apply monetary Input –Output (I-O) analysis to point out the importance of reusing know-how and other requirements in order to reduce the production costs in a manufacturing process for a laptop computer. I-O approach using the monetary input-output model is employed to demonstrate the impacts of different factors in a manufacturing process. A sensitivity analysis showing the correlation between these different factors is also presented. It is expected that the recommended model would have an advantageous effect in the cost minimization process.

Keywords: input-output analysis, monetary input-output model, manufacturing process, laptop computer

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1612 The Output Fallacy: An Investigation into Input, Noticing, and Learners’ Mechanisms

Authors: Samantha Rix

Abstract:

The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the cognitive processing of learners who receive input but produce very little or no output, and who, when they do produce output, exhibit a similar language proficiency as do those learners who produced output more regularly in the language classroom. Previous studies have investigated the benefits of output (with somewhat differing results); therefore, the presentation will begin with an investigation of what may underlie gains in proficiency without output. Consequently, a pilot study was designed and conducted to gain insight into the cognitive processing of low-output language learners looking, for example, at quantity and quality of noticing. This will be carried out within the paradigm of action classroom research, observing and interviewing low-output language learners in an intensive English program at a small Midwest university. The results of the pilot study indicated that autonomy in language learning, specifically utilizing strategies such self-monitoring, self-talk, and thinking 'out-loud', were crucial in the development of language proficiency for academic-level performance. The presentation concludes with an examination of pedagogical implication for classroom use in order to aide students in their language development.

Keywords: cognitive processing, language learners, language proficiency, learning strategies

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1611 Measuring Output Multipliers of Energy Consumption and Manufacturing Sectors in Malaysia during the Global Financial Crisis

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Tuan Ab. Rashid Bin Tuan Abdullah, Tahira Yasmin

Abstract:

The strong relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is widely recognised. Most countries’ energy demand declined during the economic depression known as the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2008–2009. The objective of the current study is to investigate the energy consumption and performance of Malaysia’s manufacturing sectors during the GFC. We applied the output multiplier approach, which is based on the input-output model. Two input-output tables of Malaysia covering 2005 and 2010 were used. The results indicate significant changes in the output multipliers of the manufacturing sectors between 2005 and 2010. Moreover, the energy-to-manufacturing sectors’ output multipliers also decreased during the GFC due to a decline in export-oriented industries during the crisis. The increasing importance of the manufacturing sector to the development of Malaysian trade resulted in a noticeable decrease in the consumption of each energy sector’s output, especially the electricity and gas sector. Based on the research findings, the Malaysian government released several policy implementations in the form of stimulus packages to enhance these sectors’ performance and generally improve the Malaysian economy.

Keywords: global financial crisis, input-output model, manufacturing, output multipliers, energy, Malaysia

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1610 Conditions for Model Matching of Switched Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Output Feedback

Authors: Jung–Min Yang

Abstract:

Solvability of the model matching problem for input/output switched asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. The control objective is to determine the existence condition and design algorithm for a corrective controller that can match the stable-state behavior of the closed-loop system to that of a reference model. Switching operations and correction procedures are incorporated using output feedback so that the controlled switched machine can show the desired input/output behavior. A matrix expression is presented to address reachability of switched asynchronous sequential machines with output equivalence with respect to a model. The presented reachability condition for the controller design is validated in a simple example.

Keywords: asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, model matching, input/output control

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
1609 The Effect of the Thermal Temperature and Injected Current on Laser Diode 808 nm Output Power

Authors: Hassan H. Abuelhassan, M. Ali Badawi, Abdelrahman A. Elbadawi, Adam A. Elbashir

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the injected current and temperature into the output power of the laser diode module operating at 808nm were applied, studied and discussed. Low power diode laser was employed as a source. The experimental results were demonstrated and then the output power of laser diode module operating at 808nm was clearly changed by the thermal temperature and injected current. The output power increases by the increasing the injected current and temperature. We also showed that the increasing of the injected current results rising in heat, which also, results into decreasing of the laser diode output power during the highest temperature as well. The best ranges of characteristics made by diode module operating at 808nm were carefully handled and determined.

Keywords: laser diode, light amplification, injected current, output power

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1608 Effects of Manufacture and Assembly Errors on the Output Error of Globoidal Cam Mechanisms

Authors: Shuting Ji, Yueming Zhang, Jing Zhao

Abstract:

The output error of the globoidal cam mechanism can be considered as a relevant indicator of mechanism performance, because it determines kinematic and dynamical behavior of mechanical transmission. Based on the differential geometry and the rigid body transformations, the mathematical model of surface geometry of the globoidal cam is established. Then we present the analytical expression of the output error (including the transmission error and the displacement error along the output axis) by considering different manufacture and assembly errors. The effects of the center distance error, the perpendicular error between input and output axes and the rotational angle error of the globoidal cam on the output error are systematically analyzed. A globoidal cam mechanism which is widely used in automatic tool changer of CNC machines is applied for illustration. Our results show that the perpendicular error and the rotational angle error have little effects on the transmission error but have great effects on the displacement error along the output axis. This study plays an important role in the design, manufacture and assembly of the globoidal cam mechanism.

Keywords: globoidal cam mechanism, manufacture error, transmission error, automatic tool changer

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
1607 Effectiveness Evaluation of a Machine Design Process Based on the Computation of the Specific Output

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In this paper, effectiveness of a machine design process is evaluated on the basis of the specific output calculus. Concretely, a screw-worm gear mechanical transmission is designed by using the classical and the 3D-CAD methods. Strength analysis and drawing of the designed parts is substantially aided by employing the SolidWorks software. Quality of the design process is assessed by manufacturing (printing) the parts, and by computing the efficiency, specific load, as well as the specific output (work) of the mechanical transmission. Influence of the stroke, travelling velocity and load on the mechanical output, is emphasized. Optimal design of the mechanical transmission becomes possible by the appropriate usage of the acquired results.

Keywords: mechanical transmission, design, screw, worm-gear, efficiency, specific output, 3D-printing

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1606 SME Credit Financing, Financial Development and Economic Growth: A VAR Approach to the Nigerian Economy

Authors: A. Bolaji Adesoye, Alimi Olorunfemi

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) credit financing and financial market development and their shocks on the output growth of Nigeria. The study estimated a VAR model for Nigeria using 1970-2013 annual data series. Unit root tests and cointegration are carried out. The study also explores IRFs and FEVDs in a system that includes output, commercial bank loan to SMEs, domestic credit to private sector by banks, money supply, lending rate and investment. Findings suggest that shocks in commercial bank credit to SMEs has a major impact on the output changes of Nigeria. Money supply shocks also have a sizeable impact on output growth variations amidst other financial instruments. Lastly, neutrality of investment does not hold in Nigeria as it also has impact on output fluctuations.

Keywords: SMEs financing, financial development, investment, output, Nigeria

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1605 The Effect of Macroeconomic Policies on Cambodia's Economy: ARDL and VECM Model

Authors: Siphat Lim

Abstract:

This study used Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration. In the long-run the general price level and exchange rate have a positively significant effect on domestic output. The estimated result further revealed that fiscal stimulus help stimulate domestic output in the long-run, but not in the short-run, while monetary expansion help to stimulate output in both short-run and long-run. The result is complied with the theory which is the macroeconomic policies, fiscal and monetary policy; help to stimulate domestic output in the long-run. The estimated result of the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) has indicated more clearly that the consumer price index has a positive effect on output with highly statistically significant. Increasing in the general price level would increase the competitiveness among producers than increase in the output. However, the exchange rate also has a positive effect and highly significant on the gross domestic product. The exchange rate depreciation might increase export since the purchasing power of foreigners has increased. More importantly, fiscal stimulus would help stimulate the domestic output in the long-run since the coefficient of government expenditure is positive. In addition, monetary expansion would also help stimulate the output and the result is highly significant. Thus, fiscal stimulus and monetary expansionary would help stimulate the domestic output in the long-run in Cambodia.

Keywords: fiscal policy, monetary policy, ARDL, VECM

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1604 Artificial Neural Network Reconstruction of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Output Profile under Transient Operation

Authors: Ge Zheng, Jun Peng

Abstract:

Unbalanced power output from individual cells of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) has direct effects on PEMFC stack performance, in particular under transient operation. In the paper, a multi-layer ANN (Artificial Neural Network) model Radial Basis Functions (RBF) has been developed for predicting cells' output profiles by applying gas supply parameters, cooling conditions, temperature measurement of individual cells, etc. The feed-forward ANN model was validated with experimental data. Influence of relevant parameters of RBF on the network accuracy was investigated. After adequate model training, the modelling results show good correspondence between actual measurements and reconstructed output profiles. Finally, after the model was used to optimize the stack output performance under steady-state and transient operating conditions, it suggested that the developed ANN control model can help PEMFC stack to have obvious improvement on power output under fast acceleration process.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cell, PEMFC, artificial neural network, ANN, cell output profile, transient

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1603 A Wideband CMOS Power Amplifier with 23.3 dB S21, 10.6 dBm Psat and 12.3% PAE for 60 GHz WPAN and 77 GHz Automobile Radar Systems

Authors: Yo-Sheng Lin, Chien-Chin Wang, Yun-Wen Lin, Chien-Yo Lee

Abstract:

A wide band power amplifier (PA) for 60 GHz and 77 GHz direct-conversion transceiver using standard 90 nm CMOS technology is reported. The PA comprises a cascode input stage with a wide band T-type input-matching network and inductive interconnection and load, followed by a common-source (CS) gain stage and a CS output stage. To increase the saturated output power (PSAT) and power-added efficiency (PAE), the output stage adopts a two-way power dividing and combining architecture. Instead of the area-consumed Wilkinson power divider and combiner, miniature low-loss transmission-line inductors are used at the input and output terminals of each of the output stages for wide band input and output impedance matching to 100 ohm. This in turn results in further PSAT and PAE enhancement. The PA consumes 92.2 mW and achieves maximum power gain (S21) of 23.3 dB at 56 GHz, and S21 of 21.7 dB and 14 dB, respectively, at 60 GHz and 77 GHz. In addition, the PA achieves excellent saturated output power (PSAT) of 10.6 dB and maximum power added efficiency (PAE) of 12.3% at 60 GHz. At 77 GHz, the PA achieves excellent PSAT of 10.4 dB and maximum PAE of 6%. These results demonstrate the proposed wide band PA architecture is very promising for 60 GHz wireless personal local network (WPAN) and 77 GHz automobile radar systems.

Keywords: 60 GHz, 77 GHz, PA, WPAN, automotive radar

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1602 Sensitivity of the Estimated Output Energy of the Induction Motor to both the Asymmetry Supply Voltage and the Machine Parameters

Authors: Eyhab El-Kharashi, Maher El-Dessouki

Abstract:

The paper is dedicated to precise assessment of the induction motor output energy during the unbalanced operation. Since many years ago and until now the voltage complex unbalance factor (CVUF) is used only to assess the output energy of the induction motor while this output energy for asymmetry supply voltage does not depend on the value of unbalanced voltage only but also on the machine parameters. The paper illustrates the variation of the two unbalance factors, complex voltage unbalance factor (CVUF) and impedance unbalance factor (IUF), with positive sequence voltage component, reveals that degree and manner of unbalance in supply voltage. From this point of view the paper delineates the current unbalance factor (CUF) to exactly reflect the output energy during unbalanced operation. The paper proceeds to illustrate the importance of using this factor in the multi-machine system to precise prediction of the output energy during the unbalanced operation. The use of the proposed unbalance factor (CUF) avoids the accumulation of the error due to more than one machine in the system which is expected if only the complex voltage unbalance factor (CVUF) is used.

Keywords: induction motor, electromagnetic torque, voltage unbalance, energy conversion

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1601 High Speed Response Single-Inductor Dual-Output DC-DC Converter with Hysteretic Control

Authors: Y. Kobori, S. Tanaka, N. Tsukiji, N. Takai, H. Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes two kinds of new single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) DC-DC switching converters with ripple-based hysteretic control. First SIDO converters of type 1 utilize the triangular signal generated by the CR-circuit connected across the inductor. This triangular signal is used for generating the PWM signal instead of the saw-tooth signal used in the conventional converters. Second SIDO converters of type 2 utilize the triangular signal generated by the CR-circuit connected across the voltage error amplifier. This paper describes circuit topologies, Operation principles, simulation results and experimental results of the proposed SIDO converters. In simulation results of both type of SIDO converters, static output voltage ripples are less than 5mVpp and over/under shoots of the dynamic load regulations for the output current step are less than +/- 10mV. In experimental results of single output converter of type 2, static output voltage ripples are about 20mVpp. Output ripples of SIDO type 1 converter are about 80mVpp.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, switching converter, SIDO converter, hysteretic control, ripple-based control

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1600 Output-Feedback Control Design for a General Class of Systems Subject to Sampling and Uncertainties

Authors: Tomas Menard

Abstract:

The synthesis of output-feedback control law has been investigated by many researchers since the last century. While many results exist for the case of Linear Time Invariant systems whose measurements are continuously available, nowadays, control laws are usually implemented on micro-controller, then the measurements are discrete-time by nature. This fact has to be taken into account explicitly in order to obtain a satisfactory behavior of the closed-loop system. One considers here a general class of systems corresponding to an observability normal form and which is subject to uncertainties in the dynamics and sampling of the output. Indeed, in practice, the modeling of the system is never perfect, this results in unknown uncertainties in the dynamics of the model. We propose here an output feedback algorithm which is based on a linear state feedback and a continuous-discrete time observer. The main feature of the proposed control law is that only discrete-time measurements of the output are needed. Furthermore, it is formally proven that the state of the closed loop system exponentially converges toward the origin despite the unknown uncertainties. Finally, the performances of this control scheme are illustrated with simulations.

Keywords: dynamical systems, output feedback control law, sampling, uncertain systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
1599 Comparison of Automated Zone Design Census Output Areas with Existing Output Areas in South Africa

Authors: T. Mokhele, O. Mutanga, F. Ahmed

Abstract:

South Africa is one of the few countries that have stopped using the same Enumeration Areas (EAs) for census enumeration and dissemination. The advantage of this change is that confidentiality issue could be addressed for census dissemination as the design of geographic unit for collection is mainly to ensure that this unit is covered by one enumerator. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the performance of automated zone design output areas against non-zone design developed geographies using the 2001 census data, and 2011 census to some extent, as the main input. The comparison of the Automated Zone-design Tool (AZTool) census output areas with the Small Area Layers (SALs) and SubPlaces based on confidentiality limit, population distribution, and degree of homogeneity, as well as shape compactness, was undertaken. Further, SPSS was employed for validation of the AZTool output results. The results showed that AZTool developed output areas out-perform the existing official SAL and SubPlaces with regard to minimum population threshold, population distribution and to some extent to homogeneity. Therefore, it was concluded that AZTool program provides a new alternative to the creation of optimised census output areas for dissemination of population census data in South Africa.

Keywords: AZTool, enumeration areas, small areal layers, South Africa

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1598 Novel Approach to Design of a Class-EJ Power Amplifier Using High Power Technology

Authors: F. Rahmani, F. Razaghian, A. R. Kashaninia

Abstract:

This article proposes a new method for application in communication circuit systems that increase efficiency, PAE, output power and gain in the circuit. The proposed method is based on a combination of switching class-E and class-J and has been termed class-EJ. This method was investigated using both theory and simulation to confirm ~72% PAE and output power of > 39 dBm. The combination and design of the proposed power amplifier accrues gain of over 15dB in the 2.9 to 3.5 GHz frequency bandwidth. This circuit was designed using MOSFET and high power transistors. The load- and source-pull method achieved the best input and output networks using lumped elements. The proposed technique was investigated for fundamental and second harmonics having desirable amplitudes for the output signal.

Keywords: power amplifier (PA), high power, class-J and class-E, high efficiency

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1597 Single-Inductor Multi-Output Converters with Four-Level Output Voltages

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Murong Li, Feng Zhao, Shu Wu, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an electrolytic capacitor-less transformer-less AC-DC LED driver with a current ripple canceller. The proposed LED driver includes a diode bridge, a buck-boost converter, a negative feedback controller and a current ripple cancellation circuit. The current ripple canceller works as a bi-directional current converter using a sub-inductor, a sub-capacitor and two switches for controlling current flow. LED voltage is controlled in order to regulate LED current by the negative feedback controller using a current sense resistor. There are two capacitors with capacitance of 5 uF. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for our proposed circuit. In addition, we show the line regulation for input voltage variation from 85V to 130V. The output voltage ripple is 2V and the LED current ripple is 65 mA which is less than 20% of the average of LED current of 350 mA.

Keywords: DC-DC buck converter, four-level output voltage, single inductor multi output (SIMO), switching converter

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1596 New Series Input Parallel Output LLC DC/DC Converter with the Input Voltage Balancing Capacitor for the Electric System of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Kang Hyun Yi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new parallel output LLC DC/DC converter for electric vehicle. The electric vehicle has two batteries. One is a high voltage battery for the powertrain of the vehicle and the other is a low voltage battery for the vehicle electric system. The low voltage is charged from the high voltage battery and the high voltage input and the high current output DC/DC converter is needed. Therefore, the new LLC converter with the input voltage compensation is proposed for the high voltage input and the low voltage output DC/DC converter. The proposed circuit has two LLC converters with the series input voltage from the battery for the powertrain and the parallel output low battery voltage for the vehicle electric system because the battery voltage for the powertrain and the electric power for the vehicle become high. Also, the input series voltage compensation capacitor is used for balancing the input current in the two LLC converters. The proposed converter has an equal electric stress of the semiconductor parts and the reactive components, high efficiency and good heat dissipation.

Keywords: electric vehicle, LLC DC/DC converter, input voltage balancing, parallel output

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
1595 Transient Signal Generator For Fault Indicator Testing

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Ali Alfallah

Abstract:

This paper describes an application for testing of a fault indicator but it could be used for other network protection testing. The application is created in the LabVIEW environment and consists of three parts. The first part of the application is determined for transient phenomenon generation and imitates voltage and current transient signal at ground fault originate. The second part allows to set sequences of trend for each current and voltage output signal, up to six trends for each phase. The last part of the application generates harmonic signal with continuously controllable amplitude of current or voltage output signal and phase shift of each signal can be changed there. Further any sub-harmonics and upper harmonics can be added to selected current output signal

Keywords: signal generator-fault indicator, harmonic signal generator, voltage output

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1594 Renewable Integration Algorithm to Compensate Photovoltaic Power Using Battery Energy Storage System

Authors: Hyung Joo Lee, Jin Young Choi, Gun Soo Park, Kyo Sun Oh, Dong Jun Won

Abstract:

The fluctuation of the output of the renewable generator caused by weather conditions must be mitigated because it imposes strain on the system and adversely affects power quality. In this paper, we focus on mitigating the output fluctuation of the photovoltaic (PV) using battery energy storage system (BESS). To satisfy tight conditions of system, proposed algorithm is developed. This algorithm focuses on adjusting the integrated output curve considering state of capacity (SOC) of the battery. In this paper, the simulation model is PSCAD / EMTDC software. SOC of the battery and the overall output curve are shown using the simulation results. We also considered losses and battery efficiency.

Keywords: photovoltaic generation, battery energy storage system, renewable integration, power smoothing

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1593 Power Quality Audit Using Fluke Analyzer

Authors: N. Ravikumar, S. Krishnan, B. Yokeshkumar

Abstract:

In present days, the power quality issues are increases due to non-linear loads like fridge, AC, washing machines, induction motor, etc. This power quality issues will affects the output voltages, output current, and output power of the total performance of the generator. This paper explains how to test the generator using the Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser. This Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser is used to measure the voltage, current, power, energy, total harmonic distortion (THD), current harmonics, voltage harmonics, power factor, and frequency. The Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser have several advantages. They are i) it will records output in analog and digital format. ii) the fluke analyzer will records at every 0.25 sec. iii) it will also measure all the electrical parameter at a time.

Keywords: THD, harmonics, power quality, TNEB, Fluke 435

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1592 Development of PSS/E Dynamic Model for Controlling Battery Output to Improve Frequency Stability in Power Systems

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Soon-Ryul Nam

Abstract:

The power system frequency falls when disturbance such as rapid increase of system load or loss of a generating unit occurs in power systems. Especially, increase in the number of renewable generating units has a bad influence on the power system because of loss of generating unit depending on the circumstance. Conventional technologies use frequency droop control battery output for the frequency regulation and balance between supply and demand. If power is supplied using the fast output characteristic of the battery, power system stability can be further more improved. To improve the power system stability, we propose battery output control using ROCOF (Rate of Change of Frequency) in this paper. The bigger the power difference between the supply and the demand, the bigger the ROCOF drops. Battery output is controlled proportionally to the magnitude of the ROCOF, allowing for faster response to power imbalances. To simulate the control method of battery output system, we develop the user defined model using PSS/E and confirm that power system stability is improved by comparing with frequency droop control.

Keywords: PSS/E user defined model, power deviation, frequency droop control, ROCOF (rate of change of frequency)

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1591 Static Output Feedback Control of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Using Sliding Mode Technique

Authors: Yankun Yang, Xinggang Yan, Konstantinos Sirlantzis, Gareth Howells

Abstract:

This paper presents a static output feedback sliding mode control method to regulate a two-wheeled inverted pendulum system with considerations of matched and unmatched uncertainties. A sliding surface is designed and the associated sliding motion stability is analysed based on the reduced-order dynamics. A static output sliding mode control law is synthesised to drive the system to the sliding surface and maintain a sliding motion afterwards. The nonlinear bounds on the uncertainties are employed in the stability analysis and control design to improve the robustness. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control.

Keywords: two-wheeled inverted pendulum, output feedback sliding mode control, nonlinear systems, robotics

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1590 Modelling the Effect of Head and Bucket Splitter Angle on the Power Output of a Pelton Turbine

Authors: J. A. Ujam, J. L. Chukwuneke, C. H. Achebe, G. O. R. Ikwu

Abstract:

This work investigates the effect of head and bucket splitter angle on the power output of a pelton turbine (water turbine), so as to boost the efficiency of Hydro-electric power generation systems. A simulation program was developed using MatLab to depict the force generated by the bucket as the water jet strikes the existing splitter angle (100 to 150) and predicted (10 to 250) splitter angles. Result shows that in addition to the existing splitter angle, six more angles have been investigated for the two operating conditions to give maximum power. The angles are 250, 60 and 190 for high head and low flow with increased pressure while low head and high flow with decreased pressure are 230, 210 and 30 in order of the maximum generating power. The Turbine power output for simulation was more than that of the experiment. This was as a result of their head conditions and the bucket splitter angle.

Keywords: bucket splitter angle, force, head, modelling, pelton turbine, power output, shaft output

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1589 High Efficiency ZPS-PWM Dual-Output Converters with EMI Reduction Method

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

In this paper, we study a Pulse-WidthModulation (PWM) controlled Zero-Voltage-Switching (ZVS) for single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) converters. This method can meet the industry demands for high efficiency due to ZVS and small size and low cost, thanks to single-inductor per multiple voltages. We show the single inductor single-output (SISO) ZVS buck converter with its operation and simulation and then the experimental results. Next proposed ZVS-PWM controlled SIDO converters are explained in the simulation. Finally we have proposed EMI reduction method with spread spectrum.

Keywords: DC-DC switching converter, zero-oltage switching control, single-inductor dual-output converter, EMI reduction, spread spectrum

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1588 ANFIS Approach for Locating Faults in Underground Cables

Authors: Magdy B. Eteiba, Wael Ismael Wahba, Shimaa Barakat

Abstract:

This paper presents a fault identification, classification and fault location estimation method based on Discrete Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for medium voltage cable in the distribution system. Different faults and locations are simulated by ATP/EMTP, and then certain selected features of the wavelet transformed signals are used as an input for a training process on the ANFIS. Then an accurate fault classifier and locator algorithm was designed, trained and tested using current samples only. The results obtained from ANFIS output were compared with the real output. From the results, it was found that the percentage error between ANFIS output and real output is less than three percent. Hence, it can be concluded that the proposed technique is able to offer high accuracy in both of the fault classification and fault location.

Keywords: ANFIS, fault location, underground cable, wavelet transform

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1587 Environmental Sustainability and Energy Consumption: The Role of Financial Development in OPEC-1 Countries

Authors: Isah Wada

Abstract:

The current research investigates the role of financial development in an environmental sustainability-energy consumption nexus for OPEC-1 member countries. The empirical findings suggest that financial development increases environmental sustainability but energy consumption and real output expansion diminishes environmental sustainability, generally. Thus, whilst real output and financial development accelerates energy consumption, environmental sustainability quality diminishes clean energy initiatives. Even more so, energy consumption and financial development stimulates real output growth. The result empirically demonstrates that policy advocates must address broader issues relating to financial development whilst seeking to achieve environmental sustainability due largely to energy consumption.

Keywords: energy consumption, environmental sustainability, financial development, OPEC, real output

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1586 Design, Analysis and Construction of a 250vac 8amps Arc Welding Machine

Authors: Anthony Okechukwu Ifediniru, Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Isidore Uche Uju

Abstract:

This article is centered on the design, analysis, construction, and test of a locally made arc welding machine that operates on 250vac with 8 amp output taps ranging from 60vac to 250vac at a fixed frequency, which is of benefit to urban areas; while considering its cost-effectiveness, strength, portability, and mobility. The welding machine uses a power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the metal at the welding point. A current selector coil needed for current selection is connected to the primary winding. Electric power is supplied to the primary winding of its transformer and is transferred to the secondary winding by induction. The voltage and current output of the secondary winding are connected to the output terminal, which is used to carry out welding work. The output current of the machine ranges from 110amps for low current welding to 250amps for high current welding. The machine uses a step-down transformer configuration for stepping down the voltage in order to obtain a high current level for effective welding. The welder can adjust the output current within a certain range. This allows the welder to properly set the output current for the type of welding that is being performed. The constructed arc welding machine was tested by connecting the work piece to it. Since there was no shock or spark from the transformer’s laminated core and was successfully used to join metals, it confirmed and validated the design.

Keywords: AC current, arc welding machine, DC current, transformer, welds

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1585 Parameter Estimation of False Dynamic EIV Model with Additive Uncertainty

Authors: Dalvinder Kaur Mangal

Abstract:

For the past decade, noise corrupted output measurements have been a fundamental research problem to be investigated. On the other hand, the estimation of the parameters for linear dynamic systems when also the input is affected by noise is recognized as more difficult problem which only recently has received increasing attention. Representations where errors or measurement noises/disturbances are present on both the inputs and outputs are usually called errors-in-variables (EIV) models. These disturbances may also have additive effects which are also considered in this paper. Parameter estimation of false EIV problem using equation error, output error and iterative prefiltering identification schemes with and without additive uncertainty, when only the output observation is corrupted by noise has been dealt in this paper. The comparative study of these three schemes has also been carried out.

Keywords: errors-in-variable (EIV), false EIV, equation error, output error, iterative prefiltering, Gaussian noise

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