Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Gareth Howells

13 Static Output Feedback Control of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Using Sliding Mode Technique

Authors: Yankun Yang, Xinggang Yan, Konstantinos Sirlantzis, Gareth Howells

Abstract:

This paper presents a static output feedback sliding mode control method to regulate a two-wheeled inverted pendulum system with considerations of matched and unmatched uncertainties. A sliding surface is designed and the associated sliding motion stability is analysed based on the reduced-order dynamics. A static output sliding mode control law is synthesised to drive the system to the sliding surface and maintain a sliding motion afterwards. The nonlinear bounds on the uncertainties are employed in the stability analysis and control design to improve the robustness. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control.

Keywords: two-wheeled inverted pendulum, output feedback sliding mode control, nonlinear systems, robotics

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12 Adaptation in Translation of 'Christmas Every Day' Short Story by William Dean Howells

Authors: Mohsine Khazrouni

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to highlight the importance of adaptation in translation. To convey the message, the translator needs to take into account not only the text but also extra-linguistic factors such as the target audience. The present paper claims that adaptation is an unavoidable translation strategy when dealing with texts that are heavy with religious and cultural themes. The translation task becomes even more challenging when dealing with children’s literature as the audience are children whose comprehension, experience and world knowledge are limited. The study uses the Arabic translation of the short story ‘Christmas Every Day’ as a case study. The short story will be translated, and the pragmatic problems involved will be discussed. The focus will be on the issue of adaptation. i.e., the source text should be adapted to the target language audience`s social and cultural environment.

Keywords: pragmatic adaptation, Arabic translation, children's literature, equivalence

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11 Researching and Interpreting Art: Analyzing Whose Voice Matters

Authors: Donna L. Roberts

Abstract:

Beyond the fundamental question of what is (and what isn’t) art, one then moves to the question of what about art, or a specific artwork, matters. If there is an agreement that something is art, the next step is to answer the obvious, ‘So what? What does it mean?’ In answering these questions, one must decide how to focus the proverbial microscope –i.e., what level of perspective is relevant as a point of view for this analysis- the artwork itself, the artist’s intention, the viewer’s interpretation, the artwork’s reflection of the larger artistic movement, the social, political, and historical context of art? One must determine what product and what contexts are meaningful when experiencing and interpreting art. Is beauty really in the eye of the beholder? Or is it more important what the creator was trying to say than what the critic or observer heard? The fact that so many artists –from Rembrandt to Van Gogh to Picasso- include among their works at least one self-portrait seems to scream their point –I matter. But, Is a piece more impactful because of the persona behind it? Or does that persona impose limits and close one’s mind to the possibilities of interpretation? In the popular art text visual culture, Richard Howells argues against a biographical focus on the artist in the analysis of art. Similarly, abstract expressionist Mark Rothko, along with several of his contemporaries of the genre, often did not title his paintings for the express purpose of not imposing a specific meaning or interpretation on the piece. And yet, he once said, ‘The people who weep before my pictures are having the same religious experience I had when I painted them,’ thus alluding to a desire for a shared connection and revelation. This research analyzes the arguments for differing levels of interpretation and points of view when considering a work of art and/or the artist who created it.

Keywords: art analysis, art interpretation, art theory, artistic perspective

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10 Palatability of a Garlic and Citrus Extract Feed Supplement to Enhance Energy Retention and Methane Production in Ruminants in vivo

Authors: Michael Graz, Andrew Shearer, Gareth Evans

Abstract:

Manipulation of rumen bacteria is receiving increasing attention as a way of controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are generated by the agricultural sector. Feed supplementation in particular is one of the ways in which this drive is being addressed, in particular with reference to livestock-generated GHG emissions. A blend of naturally occurring chemical extracts obtained from garlic and bitter orange extracts has been identified as a natural, sustainable and non-antibiotic based way of reducing methane production by ruminant livestock. In the current study, the acceptability and impact of this blend of natural extracts on feed rations of beef cattle was trialed in vivo on a commercial farm in Europe. Initial findings have demonstrated acceptable palatability, with all animals accepting the feed supplement into their ration both when it was mixed into the total daily ration and when used as a part of their high energy rations. Measurement of the impact of this feed supplement on productivity weight gain and milk quality is ongoing. In conclusion, this field study confirmed the palatability of the combination of garlic and citrus extracts and hence pointed to possibility of the extract blend to improve digestion, enhance body energy retention and limit CH4 formation in relation to feed intake.

Keywords: citrus, garlic, methane reduction, palatability, ruminants

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9 A Mathematical Agent-Based Model to Examine Two Patterns of Language Change

Authors: Gareth Baxter

Abstract:

We use a mathematical model of language change to examine two recently observed patterns of language change: one in which most speakers change gradually, following the mean of the community change, and one in which most individuals use predominantly one variant or another, and change rapidly if they change at all. The model is based on Croft’s Utterance Selection account of language change, which views language change as an evolutionary process, in which different variants (different ‘ways of saying the same thing’) compete for usage in a population of speakers. Language change occurs when a new variant replaces an older one as the convention within a given population. The present model extends a previous simpler model to include effects related to speaker aging and interspeaker variation in behaviour. The two patterns of individual change (one more centralized and the other more polarized) were recently observed in historical language changes, and it was further observed that slower changes were more associated with the centralized pattern, while quicker changes were more polarized. Our model suggests that the two patterns of change can be explained by different balances between the preference of speakers to use one variant over another and the degree of accommodation to (propensity to adapt towards) other speakers. The correlation with the rate of change appears naturally in our model, and results from the fact that both differential weighting of variants and the degree of accommodation affect the time for change to occur, while also determining the patterns of change. This work represents part of an ongoing effort to examine phenomena in language change through the use of mathematical models. This offers another way to evaluate qualitative explanations that cannot be practically tested (or cannot be tested at all) in a real-world, large-scale speech community.

Keywords: agent based modeling, cultural evolution, language change, social behavior modeling, social influence

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8 Evaluation of Security and Performance of Master Node Protocol in the Bitcoin Peer-To-Peer Network

Authors: Muntadher Sallal, Gareth Owenson, Mo Adda, Safa Shubbar

Abstract:

Bitcoin is a digital currency based on a peer-to-peer network to propagate and verify transactions. Bitcoin is gaining wider adoption than any previous crypto-currency. However, the mechanism of peers randomly choosing logical neighbors without any knowledge about underlying physical topology can cause a delay overhead in information propagation, which makes the system vulnerable to double-spend attacks. Aiming at alleviating the propagation delay problem, this paper introduces proximity-aware extensions to the current Bitcoin protocol, named Master Node Based Clustering (MNBC). The ultimate purpose of the proposed protocol, that are based on how clusters are formulated and how nodes can define their membership, is to improve the information propagation delay in the Bitcoin network. In MNBC protocol, physical internet connectivity increases, as well as the number of hops between nodes, decreases through assigning nodes to be responsible for maintaining clusters based on physical internet proximity. We show, through simulations, that the proposed protocol defines better clustering structures that optimize the performance of the transaction propagation over the Bitcoin protocol. The evaluation of partition attacks in the MNBC protocol, as well as the Bitcoin network, was done in this paper. Evaluation results prove that even though the Bitcoin network is more resistant against the partitioning attack than the MNBC protocol, more resources are needed to be spent to split the network in the MNBC protocol, especially with a higher number of nodes.

Keywords: Bitcoin network, propagation delay, clustering, scalability

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7 SUMOylation Enhances Nurr1/1a Mediated Transactivation in a Neuronal Cell Type

Authors: Jade Edey, Andrew Bennett, Gareth Hathway

Abstract:

Nuclear receptor-related 1 protein (also known as Nurr1 or NR4A2) is an orphan nuclear receptor which plays a vital role in the development, survival and maintenance of dopaminergic (DA) neurons particularly in the substantia nigra (SN). Increasing research has investigated Nurr1’s additional role within microglia and astrocytes where it has been suggested to act as a negative regulator of inflammation; potentially offering neuroprotection. Considering both DA neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are commonly accepted constituents of Parkinson’s Disease (PD), understanding the mechanisms by which Nurr1 regulates inflammatory processes could provide an attractive therapeutic target. Nurr1 regulates inflammation via a transrepressive mechanism possibly dependent upon SUMOylation. In addition, Nurr1 can transactivate numerous genes involved in DA synthesis, such as Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH). A C-terminal splice variant of Nurr1, Nurr-1a, has been reported in both neuronal and glial cells. However, research into its transcriptional activity is minimal. We employed in vitro methods such as SUMO-Pulldown experiments alongside Luciferase reporter assays to investigate the SUMOylation status and transactivation capabilities of Nurr1 and Nurr-1a respectively. The SUMO-Pulldown assay demonstrated Nurr-1a undergoes significantly more SUMO modification than its full-length variant. Consequently, despite having less transcriptional activation than Nurr1, Nurr1a may play a more prominent role in repression of microglial inflammation. Contrary to published literature we also identified that SUMOylation enhances transcriptional activation by Nurr1 and Nurr1a. SUMOylation-dependent increases in Nurr1 and Nurr1a transcriptional activation were only evident in neuronal SHSY5Y cells but not in HEK293 cells. This research provides novel insight into the regulation of Nurr-1a and indicates differential effects of SUMOylation dependent regulation in neuronal and inflammatory cells.

Keywords: nuclear receptors, Parkinson’s disease, inflammation, transcriptional regulation

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6 Walking the Talk? Thinking and Acting – Teachers' and Practitioners' Perceptions about Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being, Do They 'Walk the Talk' ?

Authors: Kristy Howells, Catherine Meehan

Abstract:

This position paper presents current research findings into the proposed gap between teachers’ and practitioners’ thinking and acting about physical activity health and well-being in childhood. Within the new Primary curriculum, there is a focus on sustained physical activity within a Physical Education and healthy lifestyles in Personal, Health, Social and Emotional lessons, but there is no curriculum guidance about what sustained physical activity is and how it is defined. The current health guidance on birth to five suggests that children should not be inactive for long periods and specify light and energetic activities, however there is the a suggested period of time per day for young children to achieve, but the guidance does not specify how this should be measured. The challenge therefore for teachers and practitioners is their own confidence and understanding of what “good / moderate intensity” physical activity and healthy living looks like for children and the children understanding what they are doing. There is limited research about children from birth to eight years and also the perceptions and attitudes of those who work with this age group of children, however it was found that children at times can identify different levels of activity and it has been found that children can identify healthy foods and good choices for healthy living at a basic level. Authors have also explored teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning and found that teachers could act in accordance to their beliefs about their subject area only when their subject knowledge, understanding and confidence of that area is high. It has been proposed that confidence and competence of practitioners and teachers to integrate ‘well-being’ within the learning settings has been reported as being low. This may be due to them not having high subject knowledge. It has been suggested that children’s life chances are improved by focusing on well-being in their earliest years. This includes working with parents and families, and being aware of the environmental contexts that may impact on children’s wellbeing. The key is for practitioners and teachers to know how to implement these ideas effectively as these key workers have a profound effect on young children as role models and due to the time of waking hours spent with them. The position paper is part of a longitudinal study at Canterbury Christ Church University and currently we will share the research findings from the initial questionnaire (online, postal, and in person) that explored and evaluated the knowledge, competence and confidence levels of practitioners and teachers as to the structure and planning of sustained physical activity and healthy lifestyles and how this progresses with the children’s age.

Keywords: health, perceptions, physical activity, well-being

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5 Selective Guest Accommodation in Zn(II) Bimetallic: Organic Coordination Frameworks

Authors: Bukunola K. Oguntade, Gareth M. Watkins

Abstract:

The synthesis and characterization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is an area of coordination chemistry which has grown rapidly in recent years. Worldwide there has been growing concerns about future energy supplies, and its environmental impacts. A good number of MOFs have been tested for the adsorption of small molecules in the vapour phase. An important issue for potential applications of MOFs for gas adsorption and storage materials is the stability of their structure upon sorption. Therefore, study on the thermal stability of MOFs upon adsorption is important. The incorporation of two or more transition metals in a coordination polymer is a current challenge for designed synthesis. This work focused on the synthesis, characterization and small molecule adsorption properties of three microporous (one zinc monometal and two bimetallics) complexes involving Cu(II), Zn(II) and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid using the ambient precipitation and solvothermal method. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron microscopy, Thermogravimetry analysis and X-ray Powder diffraction. The N2-adsorption Isotherm showed the complexes to be of TYPE III in reference to IUPAC classification, with very small pores only capable for small molecule sorption. All the synthesized compounds were observed to contain water as guest. Investigations of their inclusion properties for small molecules in the vapour phase showed water and methanol as the only possible inclusion candidates with 10.25H2O in the monometal complex [Zn4(H2B4C)2.5(OH)3(H2O)]·10H2O but not reusable after a complete structural collapse. The ambient precipitation bimetallic; [(CuZnB4C(H2O)2]·5H2O, was found to be reusable and recoverable from structure collapse after adsorption of 5.75H2O. In addition, Solvo-[CuZnB4C(H2O)2.5]·2H2O obtained from solvothermal method show two cycles of rehydration with 1.75H2O and 0.75MeOH inclusion while structure remains unaltered upon dehydration and adsorption.

Keywords: adsorption, characterization, copper, metal -organic frameworks, zinc

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4 Crisis, Identity and Challenge: Next Steps for the ‘English’ Constitution

Authors: Carol Howells, Edwin Parks

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This paper explores the existing and evolving constitutional arrangements within the United Kingdom and within the wider international context of the EU. It considers the nature of an ‘English’ constitution and internal colonialism that underpins it. The debates over the UK’s exit from the EU have been many however the constitutional position of the devolved nations (Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales) is little understood or explored. Their constitutional position has been touched upon in academic debate (but not widely) and is only now beginning to receive attention. The paper considers the constitutional role of the legislatures within the UK; the UK Parliament Bill for exiting the European Union and provides a commentary on the Brexit process in relation to constitutional arrangements within the UK and EU. Questions arise over the constitutional framework and, whether, having delegated competencies, the UK Parliament can now legislate in relation to delegated competencies without the consent. The Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly are a permanent and a fixed feature of the UK’s constitution, but their position is set within the traditional concept of the ‘English’ constitution. The current situation is opaque and complex and raises significant constitutional questions. In relation to exit from the EU two of the nations did not vote in favour of Brexit and the third is in receipt of an inequitable funding settlement. Questions arise as to whether the work of modernising the UK’s constitution over the past twenty years in recognising the Nations and governments within those nations is now being unpicked and whether the piecemeal and unequal process of devolution and new constitutional arrangements hold weight. Questions of democratic legitimacy arise throughout. An advisory referendum (where no definition of the EU was provided) in which two of the four nations voted to leave the EU and two voted to remain has led the UK Government negotiating a wholesale exit from the EU based on ‘English’ constitutional law principles. Previous constitutional referendums in relation to devolution within the UK have been treated differently. Within the EU questions are being raised in relation to the focus on member states. The goals of the EU mention member countries and its purpose is seen as being to promote greater social, political and economic harmony among the nations of Europe. The emphasis on member states is proving challenging and has led flawed processes. Scrutiny of legislative proposals, historical developments, and social commentary reveal distinct national identities within the UK. Analysis of the debate, legislation and case law surrounding the exiting process from the EU reveal a muddled picture of a constitution in crisis and significant challenges to principles underpinning the rule of law. Suggestions are made for future reforms and a move towards new constitutional arrangements beyond the current ‘English’ constitution.

Keywords: English, constitution, parliament, devolved

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3 Test Method Development for Evaluation of Process and Design Effect on Reinforced Tube

Authors: Cathal Merz, Gareth O’Donnell

Abstract:

Coil reinforced thin-walled (CRTW) tubes are used in medicine to treat problems affecting blood vessels within the body through minimally invasive procedures. The CRTW tube considered in this research makes up part of such a device and is inserted into the patient via their femoral or brachial arteries and manually navigated to the site in need of treatment. This procedure replaces the requirement to perform open surgery but is limited by reduction of blood vessel lumen diameter and increase in tortuosity of blood vessels deep in the brain. In order to maximize the capability of these procedures, CRTW tube devices are being manufactured with decreasing wall thicknesses in order to deliver treatment deeper into the body and to allow passage of other devices through its inner diameter. This introduces significant stresses to the device materials which have resulted in an observed increase in the breaking of the proximal segment of the device into two separate pieces after it has failed by buckling. As there is currently no international standard for measuring the mechanical properties of these CRTW tube devices, it is difficult to accurately analyze this problem. The aim of the current work is to address this discrepancy in the biomedical device industry by developing a measurement system that can be used to quantify the effect of process and design changes on CRTW tube performance, aiding in the development of better performing, next generation devices. Using materials testing frames, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging, experiment planning, analysis of variance (ANOVA), T-tests and regression analysis, test methods have been developed for assessing the impact of process and design changes on the device. The major findings of this study have been an insight into the suitability of buckle and three-point bend tests for the measurement of the effect of varying processing factors on the device’s performance, and guidelines for interpreting the output data from the test methods. The findings of this study are of significant interest with respect to verifying and validating key process and design changes associated with the device structure and material condition. Test method integrity evaluation is explored throughout.

Keywords: neurovascular catheter, coil reinforced tube, buckling, three-point bend, tensile

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2 Fashion Utopias: The Role of Fashion Exhibitions and Fashion Archives to Defining (and Stimulating) Possible Future Fashion Landscapes

Authors: Vittorio Linfante

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Utopìa is a term that, since its first appearance in 1516, in Tommaso Moro’s work, has taken on different meanings and forms in various fields: social studies, politics, art, creativity, and design. The utopias, although of short duration and in their apparent impossibility, have been able to give a shape to the future, laying the foundations for our present and the future of the next generations. The Twentieth century was the historical period crossed by many changes, and it saw the most significant number of utopias not only social, political, and scientific but also artistic, architectural, in design, communication, and, last but not least, in fashion. Over the years, fashion has been able to interpret various utopistic impulses giving form to the most futuristic visions. From the Manifesto del Vestito by Giacomo Balla, through the functional experiments that led to the Tuta by Thayath and the Varst by Aleksandr Rodčenko and Varvara Stepanova, through the Space Age visions of Rudi Gernreich, Paco Rabanne and Pierre Cardin, and the Archizoom’s political actions and their fashion project Vestirsi è facile. Experiments that have continued to the present days through the (sometimes) excessive visions of Hussein Chalayan, Alexander McQueen, and Gareth Pugh or those that are more anchored to the market (but no fewer innovative and visionaries) by Prada, Chanel, and Raf Simmons. If, as Bauman states, it is true that we have entered in a phase of Retrotopia characterized by the inability to think about new forms of the future; it is necessary, more than ever, to redefine the role of history, of its narration and its mise en scène, within the contemporary creative process. A process that increasingly requires an in-depth knowledge of the past for the definition of a renewed discourse about design processes. A discourse in which words like archive, exhibition, curating, revival, vintage, and costume take on new meanings. The paper aims to investigate–through case studies, research, and professional projects–the renewed role of curating and preserving fashion artefacts. A renewed role that–in an era of Retrotopia–museums, exhibitions, and archives can (and must) assume, to contribute to the definition of new design paradigms, capable of overcoming the traditional categories of revival or costume in favour of a more contemporary “mash-up” approach. Mash-up in which past and present, craftsmanship and new technologies, revival and experimentation merge seamlessly. In this perspective, dresses (as well as fashion accessories) should be considered not only as finished products but as artefacts capable of talking about the past and of producing unpublished new stories at the same time. Archives, exhibitions (academic and not), and museums thus become powerful sources of inspiration for fashion: places and projects capable of generating innovation, becoming active protagonists of the contemporary fashion design processes.

Keywords: heritage, history, costume and fashion interface, performance, language, design research

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1 Elevated Systemic Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress and Cerebrovascular Function in Professional Rugby Union Players: The Link to Impaired Cognition

Authors: Tom S. Owens, Tom A. Calverley, Benjamin S. Stacey, Christopher J. Marley, George Rose, Lewis Fall, Gareth L. Jones, Priscilla Williams, John P. R. Williams, Martin Steggall, Damian M. Bailey

Abstract:

Introduction and aims: Sports-related concussion (SRC) represents a significant and growing public health concern in rugby union, yet remains one of the least understood injuries facing the health community today. Alongside increasing SRC incidence rates, there is concern that prior recurrent concussion may contribute to long-term neurologic sequelae in later-life. This may be due to an accelerated decline in cerebral perfusion, a major risk factor for neurocognitive decline and neurodegeneration, though the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. The present study hypothesised that recurrent concussion in current professional rugby union players would result in elevated systemic oxidative-nitrosative stress, reflected by a free radical-mediated reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and impaired cerebrovascular and cognitive function. Methodology: A longitudinal study design was adopted across the 2017-2018 rugby union season. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of South Wales Ethics Committee. Data collection is ongoing, and therefore the current report documents result from the pre-season and first half of the in-season data collection. Participants were initially divided into two subgroups; 23 professional rugby union players (aged 26 ± 5 years) and 22 non-concussed controls (27 ± 8 years). Pre-season measurements were performed for cerebrovascular function (Doppler ultrasound of middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) in response to hypocapnia/normocapnia/hypercapnia), cephalic venous concentrations of the ascorbate radical (A•-, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), NO (ozone-based chemiluminescence) and cognition (neuropsychometric tests). Notational analysis was performed to assess contact in the rugby group throughout each competitive game. Results: 1001 tackles and 62 injuries, including three concussions were observed across the first half of the season. However, no associations were apparent between number of tackles and any injury type (P > 0.05). The rugby group expressed greater oxidative stress as indicated by increased A•- (P < 0.05 vs. control) and a subsequent decrease in NO bioavailability (P < 0.05 vs. control). The rugby group performed worse in the Ray Auditory Verbal Learning Test B (RAVLT-B, learning, and memory) and the Grooved Pegboard test using both the dominant and non-dominant hands (visuomotor coordination, P < 0.05 vs. control). There were no between-group differences in cerebral perfusion at baseline (MCAv: 54 ± 13 vs. 59 ± 12, P > 0.05). Likewise, no between-group differences in CVRCO2Hypo (2.58 ± 1.01 vs. 2.58 ± 0.75, P > 0.05) or CVRCO2Hyper (2.69 ± 1.07 vs. 3.35 ± 1.28, P > 0.05) were observed. Conclusion: The present study identified that the rugby union players are characterized by impaired cognitive function subsequent to elevated systemic-oxidative-nitrosative stress. However, this appears to be independent of any functional impairment in cerebrovascular function. Given the potential long-term trajectory towards accelerated cognitive decline in populations exposed to SRC, prophylaxis to increase NO bioavailability warrants consideration.

Keywords: cognition, concussion, mild traumatic brain injury, rugby

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