Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1184

Search results for: bucket splitter angle

1184 Modelling the Effect of Head and Bucket Splitter Angle on the Power Output of a Pelton Turbine

Authors: J. A. Ujam, J. L. Chukwuneke, C. H. Achebe, G. O. R. Ikwu

Abstract:

This work investigates the effect of head and bucket splitter angle on the power output of a pelton turbine (water turbine), so as to boost the efficiency of Hydro-electric power generation systems. A simulation program was developed using MatLab to depict the force generated by the bucket as the water jet strikes the existing splitter angle (100 to 150) and predicted (10 to 250) splitter angles. Result shows that in addition to the existing splitter angle, six more angles have been investigated for the two operating conditions to give maximum power. The angles are 250, 60 and 190 for high head and low flow with increased pressure while low head and high flow with decreased pressure are 230, 210 and 30 in order of the maximum generating power. The Turbine power output for simulation was more than that of the experiment. This was as a result of their head conditions and the bucket splitter angle.

Keywords: bucket splitter angle, force, head, modelling, pelton turbine, power output, shaft output

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1183 Flow Analysis for Different Pelton Turbine Bucket by Applying Computation Fluid Dynamic

Authors: Sedat Yayla, Azhin Abdullah

Abstract:

In the process of constructing hydroelectric power plants, the Pelton turbine, which is characterized by its simple manufacturing and construction, is performed in high head and low water flow. Parameters of the turbine have to be comprised in the designing process for obtaining hydraulic turbine with the highest efficiency during different operating conditions. The present investigation applied three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In addition, the bucket of Pelton turbine models with different splitter angle and inlet velocity values were examined for determining the force and visualizing the flow pattern on the bucket. The study utilized two diverse bucket models at various inlet velocities (20, 25, 30,35and 40m/s) and four different splitter angles (55, 75,90and 115 degree) for finding out the impacts of every single parameter on the effective force on the bucket. The acquired outcomes revealed that there is a linear relationship between force and inlet velocity on the bucket. Furthermore, the results also uncovered that the relationship between splitter angle and force on the bucket is linear until 90 degree.

Keywords: bucket design, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), free surface flow, two-phase flow, volume of fluid (VOF)

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1182 Bending Effect on POF Splitter Performance for Different Thickness of Fiber Cores

Authors: L. S. Supian, Mohd Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Norhana Arsad

Abstract:

Experimental study has been done to study the performance on polymer optical fiber splitter characterization when different bending radii are applied on splitters with different fiber cores. The splitters with different cores pair are attached successively to splitter platform of ellipse-shape geometrical blocks of several bending radii. A force is exerted upon the blocks thus the splitter in order to encourage the splitting of energy between the two fibers. The aim of this study is to investigate which fiber core pair gives the optimum performance that goes with each bending radius in order to develop an effective splitter.

Keywords: splitter, macro-bending, cores, geometrical blocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
1181 Compact Low Loss Design of SOI 1x2 Y-Branch Optical Power Splitter with S-Bend Waveguide and Study on the Variation of Transmitted Power with Various Waveguide Parameters

Authors: Nagaraju Pendam, C. P. Vardhani

Abstract:

A simple technology–compatible design of silicon-on-insulator based 1×2 optical power splitter is proposed. For developing large area Opto-electronic Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) devices, the power splitter is a key passive device. The SOI rib- waveguide dimensions (height, width, and etching depth, refractive indices, length of waveguide) leading simultaneously to single mode propagation. In this paper a low loss optical power splitter is designed by using R Soft cad tool and simulated by Beam propagation method, here s-bend waveguides proposed. We concentrate changing the refractive index difference, branching angle, width of the waveguide, free space wavelength of the waveguide and observing transmitted power, effective refractive index in the designed waveguide, and choosing the best simulated results to be fabricated on silicon-on insulator platform. In this design 1550 nm free spacing are used.

Keywords: beam propagation method, insertion loss, optical power splitter, rib waveguide, transmitted power

Procedia PDF Downloads 557
1180 Optimization of Flip Bucket Dents in Order to Reduce Scour Hole Depth (Plunge Pool) Using a Comprehensive Physical Model

Authors: Majid Galoie, Khodadad Safavi, Abdolreza Karami Nejad, Reza Roshan

Abstract:

Scour downstream of a flip bucket in a plunge pool is caused by impingement of water jet force. In order to reduce this force and consequently reduce scour hole depth, flip buckets may equip by dents. The minimum scour hole depth might be occurred by optimization of dents (number, shape, placement) on flip buckets. In this study, a comprehensive physical model has been developed and various options for dents have been investigated. The experimental data for each dent option such as scour hole depth, angle of impingement jet, piezometric pressure in tail-water and jet trajectory have been measured for various discharges. Finally, the best option can be found by analysis of the experimental results which has been expressed in this paper.

Keywords: scouring process, plunge pool, scour hole depth, physical model, flip bucket

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1179 Numerical Study of Base Drag Reduction Using Locked Vortex Flow Management Technique for Lower Subsonic Regime

Authors: Kailas S. Jagtap, Karthik Sundarraj, Nirmal Kumar, S. Rajnarasimha, Prakash S. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The issue of turbulence base streams and the drag related to it have been of important attention for rockets, missiles, and aircraft. Different techniques are used for base drag reduction. This paper presents the numerical study of numerous drag reduction technique. The base drag or afterbody drag of bluff bodies can be reduced easily using locked vortex drag reduction technique. For bluff bodies having a cylindrical shape, the base drag is much larger compared to streamlined bodies. For such bodies using splitter plates, the vortex can be trapped between the base and the plate, which results in smooth flow. Splitter plate with round and curved corner shapes has influence in drag reduction. In this paper, the comparison is done between single splitter plate as different positions and with the bluff body. Base drag for the speed of 30m/s can be reduced about 20% to 30% by using single splitter plate as compared to the bluff body.

Keywords: base drag, bluff body, splitter plate, vortex flow, ANSYS, fluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1178 Examining the Effects of Production Method on Aluminium A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp Composite for Hydro Turbine Bucket Application

Authors: Williams S. Ebhota, Freddie L. Inambao

Abstract:

This study investigates the use of centrifugal casting method to fabricate functionally graded aluminium A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite for hydro turbine bucket application. The study includes the design and fabrication of a permanent mould. The mould was put into use and the buckets of A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite were cast, cut and machined into specimens. Some specimens were given T6 heat treatment and the specimens were prepared for different examinations accordingly. The SiCp particles were found to be more at inner periphery of the bucket. The maximum hardness of As-Cast A356 and A356-10%SiCp composite was recorded at the inner periphery to be 60 BRN and 95BRN, respectively. And these values were appreciated to 98BRN and 122BRN for A356 alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite, respectively. It was observed that the ultimate tensile stress and yield tensile stress prediction curves show the same trend.

Keywords: A356 alloy, A356-10%SiCp composite, centrifugal casting, Pelton bucket, turbine blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
1177 Physical Tests on Localized Fluidization in Offshore Suction Bucket Foundations

Authors: Li-Hua Luu, Alexis Doghmane, Abbas Farhat, Mohammad Sanayei, Pierre Philippe, Pablo Cuellar

Abstract:

Suction buckets are promising innovative foundations for offshore wind turbines. They generally feature the shape of an inverted bucket and rely on a suction system as a driving agent for their installation into the seabed. Water is pumped out of the buckets that are initially placed to rest on the seabed, creating a net pressure difference across the lid that generates a seepage flow, lowers the soil resistance below the foundation skirt, and drives them effectively into the seabed. The stability of the suction mechanism as well as the possibility of a piping failure (i.e., localized fluidization within the internal soil plug) during their installation are some of the key questions that remain open. The present work deals with an experimental study of localized fluidization by suction within a fixed bucket partially embedded into a submerged artificial soil made of spherical beads. The transient process, from the onset of granular motion until reaching a stationary regime for the fluidization at the embedded bucket wall, is recorded using the combined optical techniques of planar laser-induced fluorescence and refractive index matching. To conduct a systematic study of the piping threshold for the seepage flow, we vary the beads size, the suction pressure, and the initial depth for the bucket. This experimental modelling, by dealing with erosion-related phenomena from a micromechanical perspective, shall provide qualitative scenarios for the local processes at work which are missing in the offshore practice so far.

Keywords: fluidization, micromechanical approach, offshore foundations, suction bucket

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
1176 Performance Improvement of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angle in Kuwait

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali

Abstract:

In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In this study the PV system is installed facing south, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods and aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1175 Aerodynamic Investigation of Rear Vehicle by Geometry Variations on the Backlight Angle

Authors: Saud Hassan

Abstract:

This paper shows simulation for the prediction of the flow around the backlight angle of the passenger vehicle. The CFD simulations are carried out on different car models. The Ahmed model “bluff body” used as the stander model to study aerodynamics of the backlight angle. This paper described the airflow over the different car models with different backlight angles and also on the Ahmed model to determine the trailing vortices with the varying backlight angle of a passenger vehicle body. The CFD simulation is carried out with the Ahmed body which has simplified car model mainly used in automotive industry to investigate the flow over the car body surface. The main goal of the simulation is to study the behavior of trailing vortices of these models. In this paper the air flow over the slant angle of 0,5o, 12.5o, 20o, 30o, 40o are considered. As investigating on the rear backlight angle two dimensional flows occurred at the rear slant, on the other hand when the slant angle is 30o the flow become three dimensional. Above this angle sudden drop occurred in drag.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Ahemd vehicle , backlight angle, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
1174 Definition of Service Angle of Android’S Robot Hand by Method of Small Movements of Gripper’S Axis Synthesis by Speed Vector

Authors: Valeriy Nebritov

Abstract:

The paper presents a generalized method for determining the service solid angle based on the assigned gripper axis orientation with a stationary grip center. Motion synthesis in this work is carried out in the vector of velocities. As an example, a solid angle of the android robot arm is determined, this angle being formed by the longitudinal axis of a gripper. The nature of the method is based on the study of sets of configuration positions, defining the end point positions of the unit radius sphere sweep, which specifies the service solid angle. From this the spherical curve specifying the shape of the desired solid angle was determined. The results of the research can be used in the development of control systems of autonomous android robots.

Keywords: android robot, control systems, motion synthesis, service angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
1173 Performance of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angles

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali

Abstract:

In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In the study the PV system is installed facing South, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods, aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
1172 Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors: A Case Study for Bursa, Turkey

Authors: N. Arslanoglu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimum tilt angle for the solar collector in order to collect the maximum solar radiation. The optimum angle for tilted surfaces varying from 0 to 90 in steps of 1was computed. In present study, a theoretical model is used to predict the global solar radiation on a tilted surface and to obtain the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Bursa, Turkey. Global solar energy radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle is calculated for specific periods. It is determined that the optimum slope angle varies between 0 (June) and 59 (December) throughout the year. In winter (December, January, and February) the tilt should be 55, in spring (March, April, and May) 19.6, in summer (June, July, and August) 5.6, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 44.3. The yearly average of this value was obtained to be 31.1 and this would be the optimum fixed slope throughout the year.

Keywords: Bursa, global solar radiation, optimum tilt angle, tilted surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
1171 Measurement of the Quadriceps Angle with Respect to Various Body Parameters in Arab Countries

Authors: Ramada R. Khasawneh, Mohammed Z. Allouh, Ejlal Abu-El Rub

Abstract:

The quadriceps angle (Q angle), formed between the quadriceps muscles and the patella tendon, is considered clinically as a very important parameter which displays the biomechanical effect of the quadriceps muscle on the knee, and it is also regarded as a crucial factor for the proper posture and movement of the knee patella. This study had been conducted to measure the normal Q angle values range in the Arab nationalities and determine the correlation between Q angle values and several body parameters, including gender, height, weight, dominant side, and the condylar distance of the femur. The study includes 500 healthy Arab students from Yarmouk University and Jordan University of Science and Technology. The Q angle of those volunteers was measured using a universal manual Goniometer with the subjects in the upright weight-bearing position. It was found that the Q angle was greater in women than in men. The analysis of the data revealed an insignificant increase in the dominant side of the Q angle. In addition, the Q was significantly higher in the taller people of both sexes. However, the Q angle did not present any considerable correlation with weight in the study population; conversely, it was observed that there was a link with the condylar distance of the femur in both sexes. It was also noticed that the Q angle increased remarkably when there was an increase in the condylar distance. Consequently, it turned out that the gender, height, and the condylar distance were momentous factors that had an impact on the Q angle in our study samples. However, weight and dominance factors did not show to have any influence on the values in our study.

Keywords: Q angle, Jordanian, anatomy, condylar distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
1170 Hybrid GA-PSO Based Pitch Controller Design for Aircraft Control System

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Rajput, Ravi Kumar Jatoth, Nagu Bhookya, Bhasker Boda

Abstract:

In this paper proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller is used to control the pitch angle of the aircraft when the elevation angle is changed or modified. The pitch angle is dependent on elevation angle; a change in one corresponds to a change in the other. The PID controller helps in restricted change of pitch rate in response to the elevation angle. The PID controller is dependent on different parameters like Kp, Ki, Kd which change the pitch rate as they change. Various methodologies are used for changing those parameters for getting a perfect time response pitch angle, as desired or wished by a concerned person. While reckoning the values of those parameters, trial and guessing may prove to be futile in order to provide comfort to passengers. So, using some metaheuristic techniques can be useful in handling these errors. Hybrid GA-PSO is one such powerful algorithm which can improve transient and steady state response and can give us more reliable results for PID gain scheduling problem.

Keywords: pitch rate, elevation angle, PID controller, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, phugoid

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1169 Pythagorean-Platonic Lattice Method for Finding all Co-Prime Right Angle Triangles

Authors: Anthony Overmars, Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for determining all of the co-prime right angle triangles in the Euclidean field by looking at the intersection of the Pythagorean and Platonic right angle triangles and the corresponding lattice that this produces. The co-prime properties of each lattice point representing a unique right angle triangle are then considered. This paper proposes a conjunction between these two ancient disparaging theorists. This work has wide applications in information security where cryptography involves improved ways of finding tuples of prime numbers for secure communication systems. In particular, this paper has direct impact in enhancing the encryption and decryption algorithms in cryptography.

Keywords: Pythagorean triples, platonic triples, right angle triangles, co-prime numbers, cryptography

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1168 Relationship Between Dynamic Balance, Jumping Performance and Q-angle in Soccer Players

Authors: Tarik Ozmen

Abstract:

The soccer players need good dynamic balance and jumping performance for dribbling, crossing rival, and to be effective in high balls during soccer game. The quadriceps angle (Q-angle) is used to assess biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint in the musculoskeletal medicine. The Q angle is formed by the intersection of two lines drawing from the anterior superior iliac spine to the centre of the patella and to the midline of the tibia tuberosity. Studies have shown that the Q angle is inversely associated with quadriceps femoris strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Thirty male soccer players (mean ± SD: age, 15.23 ± 0.56 years, height, 170 ± 8.37 cm, weight, 61.36 ± 6.04 kg) participated as volunteer in this study. Dynamic balance of the participants were evaluated at directions of anterior (A), posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) with Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Each participant was instructed to reach as far as with the non-dominant leg in each of the 3 directions while maintaining dominant leg stance. Leg length was used to normalize excursion distances by dividing the distance reached by leg length and then multiplying the result by 100. The jumping performance was evaluated by squat jump using a contact mat. A universal (standard) goniometer was used to measure the Q angle in standing position. The Q angle was not correlated with directions of SEBT (A: p = 0.32, PM: p = 0.06, PL: p = 0.37). The squat jump height was not correlated with Q-angle (p = 0.21). The findings of this study suggest that there are no significant relationships between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Further studies should investigate relationship between balance ability, athletic performance and Q-angle with larger sample size in soccer players.

Keywords: balance, jump height, Q angle, soccer

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
1167 The Influence of Winding Angle on Functional Failure of FRP Pipes

Authors: Roham Rafiee, Hadi Hesamsadat

Abstract:

In this study, a parametric finite element modeling is developed to analyze failure modes of FRP pipes subjected to internal pressure. First-ply failure pressure and functional failure pressure was determined by a progressive damage modeling and then it is validated using experimental observations. The influence of both winding angle and fiber volume fraction is studied on the functional failure of FRP pipes and it corresponding pressure. It is observed that despite the fact that increasing fiber volume fraction will enhance the mechanical properties, it will be resulted in lower values for functional failure pressure. This shortcoming can be compensated by modifying the winding angle in angle plies of pipe wall structure.

Keywords: composite pipe, functional failure, progressive modeling, winding angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
1166 Tensile Properties of 3D Printed PLA under Unidirectional and Bidirectional Raster Angle: A Comparative Study

Authors: Shilpesh R. Rajpurohit, Harshit K. Dave

Abstract:

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) gains popularity in recent times, due to its capability to create prototype as well as functional end use product directly from CAD file. Parts fabricated using FDM process have mechanical properties comparable with those of injection-molded parts. However, performance of the FDM part is severally affected by the poor mechanical properties of the part due to nature of layered structure of printed part. Mechanical properties of the part can be improved by proper selection of process variables. In the present study, a comparative study between unidirectional and bidirectional raster angle has been carried out at a combination of different layer height and raster width. Unidirectional raster angle varied at five different levels, and bidirectional raster angle has been varied at three different levels. Fabrication of tensile specimen and tensile testing of specimen has been conducted according to ASTM D638 standard. From the results, it can be observed that higher tensile strength has been obtained at 0° raster angle followed by 45°/45° raster angle, while lower tensile strength has been obtained at 90° raster angle. Analysis of fractured surface revealed that failure takes place along with raster deposition direction for unidirectional and zigzag failure can be observed for bidirectional raster angle.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, fused deposition modeling, unidirectional, bidirectional, raster angle, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
1165 Extracting the Failure Criterion to Evaluate the Strength of Cracked Drills under Torque Caused by Drilling

Authors: A. Falsafi, M. Dadkhah, S. Shahidi

Abstract:

The destruction and defeat of drill pipes and drill rigs in oil wells often combined with a combination of shear modulus II and III. In such a situation, the strength and load bearing capacity of the drill are evaluated based on the principles of fracture mechanics and crack growth criteria. In this paper, using the three-dimensional stress equations around the Turkish frontier, the relations of the tense-tense criterion (MTS) are extracted for the loading of the combined II and III modulus. It is shown that in crisp deflection under loading of combination II and III, the level of fracture is characterized by two different angles: the longitudinal angle of deflection θ and the angle of the deflection of the alpha. Based on the relationships obtained from the MTS criterion, the failure criteria, the longitudinal angle of the theta failure and the lateral angle of the failure of the alpha are presented. Also, the role of Poisson's coefficient on these parameters is investigated in these graphs.

Keywords: most tangential tension criterion, longitudinal angle of failure, side angle of fracture, drills crack

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
1164 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an RC Airplane Wing Using a NACA 2412 Profile at Different Angle of Attacks

Authors: Huseyin Gokberk, Shian Gao

Abstract:

CFD analysis of the relationship between the coefficients of lift and drag with respect to the angle of attack on a NACA 2412 wing section of an RC plane is conducted. Both the 2D and 3D models are investigated with the turbulence model. The 2D analysis has a free stream velocity of 10m/s at different AoA of 0°, 2°, 5°, 10°, 12°, and 15°. The induced drag and drag coefficient increased throughout the changes in angles even after the critical angle had been exceeded, whereas the lift force and coefficient of lift increased but had a limit at the critical stall angle, which results in values to reduce sharply. Turbulence flow characteristics are analysed around the aerofoil with the additions caused due to a finite 3D model. 3D results highlight how wing tip vortexes develop and alter the flow around the wing with the effects of the tapered configuration.

Keywords: CFD, turbulence modelling, aerofoil, angle of attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
1163 Required SNR for PPM in Downlink Gamma-Gamma Turbulence Channel

Authors: Selami Şahin

Abstract:

In this paper, in order to achieve sufficient bit error rate (BER) according to zenith angle of the satellite to ground station, SNR requirement is investigated utilizing pulse position modulation (PPM). To realize explicit results, all parameters such as link distance, Rytov variance, scintillation index, wavelength, aperture diameter of the receiver, Fried's parameter and zenith angle have been taken into account. Results indicate that after some parameters are determined since the constraints of the system, to achieve desired BER, required SNR values are in wide range while zenith angle changes from small to large values. Therefore, in order not to utilize high link margin, either SNR should adjust according to zenith angle or link should establish with predetermined intervals of the zenith angle.

Keywords: Free-space optical communication, optical downlink channel, atmospheric turbulence, wireless optical communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
1162 Determination of Optimum Fin Wave Angle and Its Effect on the Performance of an Intercooler

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei, Seyyed Amin Hakim, Nahid Taherian

Abstract:

Fins play an important role in increasing the efficiency of compact shell and tube heat exchangers by increasing heat transfer. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimum fin wave angle, as one of the geometric parameters affecting the efficiency of the heat exchangers. To this end, finite volume method is used to model and simulate the flow in heat exchanger. In this study, computational fluid dynamics simulations of wave channel are done. The results show that the wave angle affects the temperature output of the heat exchanger.

Keywords: fin wave angle, tube, intercooler, optimum, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
1161 Effect of Rolling Parameters on Thin Strip Profile in Cold Rolling

Authors: H. B. Tibar, Z. Y. Jiang

Abstract:

In this study, the influence of rolling process parameters such as the work roll cross angle and work roll shifting value on the strip shape and profile of aluminum have been investigated under dry conditions at a speed ratio of 1.3 using Hille 100 experimental mill. The strip profile was found to improve significantly with increase in work roll cross angle from 0o to 1o, with an associated decrease in rolling force. The effect of roll shifting (from 0 to 8mm) was not as significant as the roll cross angle. However, an increase in work roll shifting value achieved a similar decrease in rolling force as that of work roll cross angle. The effect of work roll shifting was also found to be maximum at an optimum roll speed of 0.0986 m/s for the desired thickness. Of all these parameters, the most significant effect of the strip shape profile was observed with variation of work roll cross angle. However, the rolling force can be a significantly reduced by either increasing the the work roll cross angle or work roll shifting.

Keywords: rolling speed ratio, strip shape, work roll cross angle, work roll shifting

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
1160 128-Multidetector CT for Assessment of Optimal Depth of Electrode Array Insertion in Cochlear Implant Operations

Authors: Amina Sultan, Mohamed Ghonim, Eman Oweida, Aya Abdelaziz

Abstract:

Objective: To assess the diagnostic reliability of multi-detector CT in pre and post-operative evaluation of cochlear implant candidates. Material and Methods: The study includes 40 patients (18 males and 22 females); mean age 5.6 years. They were classified into two groups: Group A (20 patients): cochlear implant device was Nucleus-22 and Group B (20 patients): the device was MED-EL. Cochlear length (CL) and cochlear height (CH) were measured pre-operatively by 128-multidetector CT. Electrode length (EL) and insertion depth angle (α) were measured post-operatively by MDCT. Results: For Group A mean CL was 9.1 mm ± 0.4 SD; mean CH was 4.1 ± 0.3 SD; mean EL was 18 ± 2.7 SD; mean α angle was 299.05 ± 37 SD. Significant statistical correlation (P < 0.05) was found between preoperative CL and post-operative EL (r²=0.6); as well as EL and α angle (r²=0.7). Group B's mean CL was 9.1 mm ± 0.3 SD; mean CH was 4.1 ± 0.4 SD; mean EL was 27 ± 2.1 SD; mean α angle was 287.6 ± 41.7 SD. Significant statistical correlation was found between CL and EL (r²= 0.6) and α angle (r²=0.5). Also, a strong correlation was found between EL and α angle (r²=0.8). Significant statistical difference was detected between the two devices as regards to the electrode length. Conclusion: Multidetector CT is a reliable tool for preoperative planning and post-operative evaluation of the outcomes of cochlear implant operations. Cochlear length is a valuable prognostic parameter for prediction of the depth of electrode array insertion which can influence criteria of device selection.

Keywords: angle of insertion (α angle), cochlear implant (CI), cochlear length (CL), Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
1159 The Effect of the Hexagonal Ring Interior Angle on Energy Absorption Capability

Authors: Shada Bennbaia, Elsadig Mahdi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of changing the interior angle of a hexagonal passive energy absorber is investigated. Aluminum hexagonal structures have been tested under in-plane quasi-static compression tests. These hexagonal structures are designed to have varying interior angle values to study their crushing behavior and the relationship between the angle and the energy absorption capability. It was found that the structures with angles 40° and 45° showed an almost perfectly stable crushing mechanism with low initial peak force. Thus, hexagonal structures with these angels can be used in the vehicle's crumple zones to absorb energy during collisions. The larger angles required high initial peak force to start crushing, which indicates that these structures are best suited in applications where high load carrying capacity is needed.

Keywords: energy absorption, crushing force efficiency, crushing mechanism, hexagonal angle, peak force

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1158 Effect of Injector Installation Angle on the Thermal Behaviors of UWS in a Diesel SCR Catalytic Muffler Systems

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

To reduce the NOx emission in a Diesel vehicle, such various after treatment systems as SCR, LNC, and LNT are frequently visited as promising systems. Among others, urea-based SCR systems are known to be stable, effective technologies that can reduce NOx emissions most efficiently from diesel exhaust systems. In this study, therefore, effect of urea injector installation angle on the evaporation and mixing characteristics is investigated to find optimum operation conditions. It can be found that the injection angle significantly affects the thermal behavior of the urea-water solution in the diesel exhaust gases.

Keywords: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), evaporation, thermolysis, urea-water solution (UWS), injector installation angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1157 Unconfined Laminar Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer around a Square Cylinder with an Angle of Incidence

Authors: Rafik Bouakkaz

Abstract:

A finite-volume method simulation is used to investigate two dimensional unsteady flow of nanofluids and heat transfer characteristics past a square cylinder inclined with respect to the main flow in the laminar regime. The computations are carried out of nanoparticle volume fractions varying from 0 ≤ ∅ ≤ 5% for an inclination angle in the range 0° ≤ δ ≤ 45° at a Reynolds number of 100. The variation of stream line and isotherm patterns are presented for the above range of conditions. Also, it is noticed that the addition of nanoparticles enhances the heat transfer. Hence, the local Nusselt number is found to increase with increasing value of the concentration of nanoparticles for the fixed value of the inclination angle.

Keywords: copper nanoparticles, heat transfer, square cylinder, inclination angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
1156 Comparison of the Center of Pressure, Gait Angle, and Gait Time in Female College Students and Elderly Women

Authors: Dae-gun Kim, Hyun-joo Kang

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aging on center of pressure, gait angle and gait time. Methods: 29 healthy female college students(FCS) and 28 elderly women (EW) were recruited to participate in this study. A gait analysis system( Gaitview, Korea) was used to collect the center of pressure in static state and gait angle with gait time in dynamic state. Results: Results of the center of pressure do not have significant differences between two groups. In the gait angle test, the FCS showed 1.56±5.2° on their left while the EW showed 9.76±6.54° on their left. In their right, the FCS showed 2.85±6.47° and the EW showed 10.27±6.97°. In the gait angle test, there was a significant difference in the gait time between the female college students and elderly women. A significant difference was evident in the gait time. The FCS on the left was 0.87±0.1sec while the EW’s was 1.28±0.44sec. The FCS on the right was 0.86±0.09sec and the EW was 1.1±0.21sec. The results of this study revealed that the elderly participants aging musculoskeletal system and subsequent changes in their posture altered gait angle and gait time. Therefore, this widening is due to their need to leave their feet on the ground longer for stability slowing their movement. Conclusions: In conclusion, it is advisable to develop an exercise program for the elderly focusing on stability the prevention of falls.

Keywords: center of pressure, gait angle, gait time, elderly women

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1155 Dosimetric Dependence on the Collimator Angle in Prostate Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

Authors: Muhammad Isa Khan, Jalil Ur Rehman, Muhammad Afzal Khan Rao, James Chow

Abstract:

Purpose: This study investigates the dose-volume variations in planning target volume (PTV) and organs-at-risk (OARs) using different collimator angles for smart arc prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Awareness of the collimator angle for PTV and OARs sparing is essential for the planner because optimization contains numerous treatment constraints producing a complex, unstable and computationally challenging problem throughout its examination of an optimal plan in a rational time. Materials and Methods: Single arc VMAT plans at different collimator angles varied systematically (0°-90°) were performed on a Harold phantom and a new treatment plan is optimized for each collimator angle. We analyzed the conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), gradient index (GI), monitor units (MUs), dose-volume histogram, mean and maximum doses to PTV. We also explored OARs (e.g. bladder, rectum and femoral heads), dose-volume criteria in the treatment plan (e.g. D30%, D50%, V30Gy and V38Gy of bladder and rectum; D5%,V14Gy and V22Gy of femoral heads), dose-volume histogram, mean and maximum doses for smart arc VMAT at different collimator angles. Results: There was no significance difference found in VMAT optimization at all studied collimator angles. However, if 0.5% accuracy is concerned then collimator angle = 45° provides higher CI and lower HI. Collimator angle = 15° also provides lower HI values like collimator angle 45°. It is seen that collimator angle = 75° is established as a good for rectum and right femur sparing. Collimator angle = 90° and collimator angle = 30° were found good for rectum and left femur sparing respectively. The PTV dose coverage statistics for each plan are comparatively independent of the collimator angles. Conclusion: It is concluded that this study will help the planner to have freedom to choose any collimator angle from (0°-90°) for PTV coverage and select a suitable collimator angle to spare OARs.

Keywords: VMAT, dose-volume histogram, collimator angle, organs-at-risk

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