Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4227

Search results for: flow arrangement

4227 Numerical Simulation of Multiple Arrays Arrangement of Micro Hydro Power Turbines

Authors: M. A. At-Tasneem, N. T. Rao, T. M. Y. S. Tuan Ya, M. S. Idris, M. Ammar

Abstract:

River flow over micro hydro power (MHP) turbines of multiple arrays arrangement is simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software to obtain the flow characteristics. In this paper, CFD software is used to simulate the water flow over MHP turbines as they are placed in a river. Multiple arrays arrangement of MHP turbines lead to generate large amount of power. In this study, a river model is created and simulated in CFD software to obtain the water flow characteristic. The process then continued by simulating different types of arrays arrangement in the river model. A MHP turbine model consists of a turbine outer body and static propeller blade in it. Five types of arrangements are used which are parallel, series, triangular, square and rhombus with different spacing sizes. The velocity profiles on each MHP turbines are identified at the mouth of each turbine bodies. This study is required to obtain the arrangement with increasing spacing sizes that can produce highest power density through the water flow variation.

Keywords: micro hydro power, CFD, arrays arrangement, spacing sizes, velocity profile, power

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
4226 Determination of Flow Arrangement for Optimum Performance in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Ahmed Salisu Atiku

Abstract:

This task involves the determination of the flow arrangement for optimum performance and the calculation of total heat transfer of two identical double pipe heat exchangers in series. The inner pipe contains the cold water stream at 27°C, whilst the outer pipe contains the two hot stream of water at 50°C and 90 °C which can be mixed in any way desired. The analysis was carried out using counter flow arrangement due to its good heat transfer ability. The best way of heating this cold stream was found out to be passing the 90°C hot stream through the two heat exchangers. The outlet temperature of the cold stream was found to be 39.6°C and overall heat transfer of 131.3 kW. Though starting with 50°C hot stream in the first heat exchanger followed by 90°C hot stream in the second heat exchanger gives an outlet temperature almost the same as 90°C hot stream alone, but the heat transfer is low. The reason for the low heat transfer was that only the heat transfer in the second heat exchanger is considered. Whilst the reason behind high outlet temperature was that the cold stream was already preheated by the first stream.

Keywords: cold stream, flow arrangement, heat exchanger, hot stream

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
4225 Numerical Simulation of Two-Dimensional Porous Cylinder Flow in In-Line Arrangement

Authors: Hamad Alhajeri, Abdulrahman Almutairi, A. H. Alenezi, M. H. Alhajeri, Ayedh Alajmi

Abstract:

The flow around three porous cylinders in inline arrangement is investigated in this paper computationally using the commercial code FLUENT. The arrangement generally operates with the dirty gases passing through the porous cylinders, the particulate material being deposited on the outside of the cylinders. However, in a combined cycle power plant, filtration is required to allow the hot exhaust gases to be fed to a turbine without causing any physical damage to the turbine blades. Three cylinder elements are placed in a two-dimensional rectangle duct with fixed face velocity and varying the velocity ratio between the approach and face velocity. Particle trajectories are obtained for a number of particle diameters and different inlet (approach) velocity to face filtration velocity ratios to investigate the behavior of particles around the cylinder.

Keywords: porous cylinders, CFD, fluid flow, filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
4224 Numerical Simulation of Flow Past Inline Tandem Cylinders in Uniform Shear Flow

Authors: Rajesh Bhatt, Dilip Kumar Maiti

Abstract:

The incompressible shear flow past a square cylinder placed parallel to a plane wall of side length A in presence of upstream rectangular cylinder of height 0.5A and width 0.25A in an inline tandem arrangement are numerically investigated using finite volume method. The discretized equations are solved by an implicit, time-marching, pressure correction based SIMPLE algorithm. This study provides the qualitative insight in to the dependency of basic structure (i.e. vortex shedding or suppression) of flow over the downstream square cylinder and the upstream rectangular cylinder (and hence the aerodynamic characteristics) on inter-cylinder spacing (S) and Reynolds number (Re). The spacing between the cylinders is varied systematically from S = 0.5A to S = 7.0A so the sensitivity of the flow structure between the cylinders can be inspected. A sudden jump in strouhal number is observed, which shows the transition of flow pattern in the wake of the cylinders. The results are presented at Re = 100 and 200 in term of Strouhal number, RMS and mean of lift and drag coefficients and contour plots for different spacing.

Keywords: square cylinder, vortex shedding, isolated, tandem arrangement, spacing distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
4223 Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow around Two Cam Shaped Cylinders in Tandem Arrangement

Authors: Arash Mir Abdolah Lavasani, M. Ebrahimisabet

Abstract:

In this paper, the 2-D unsteady viscous flow around two cam shaped cylinders in tandem arrangement is numerically simulated in order to study the characteristics of the flow in turbulent regimes. The investigation covers the effects of high subcritical and supercritical Reynolds numbers and L/D ratio on total drag coefficient. The equivalent diameter of cylinders is 27.6 mm The space between center to center of two cam shaped cylinders is define as longitudinal pitch ratio and it varies in range of 1.5 < L/D < 6. Reynolds number base on equivalent circular cylinder varies in range of 27×103 < Re < 166×103 Results show that drag coefficient of both cylinders depends on pitch ratio. However drag coefficient of downstream cylinder is more dependent on the pitch ratio.

Keywords: cam shaped, tandem, numerical, drag coefficient, turbulent

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
4222 3D Numerical Simulation on Annular Diffuser Temperature Distribution Enhancement by Different Twist Arrangement

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe

Abstract:

The influence of twist arrangement on the temperature distribution in an annular diffuser fitted with twisted rectangular hub is investigated. Different pitches (Y = 120 mm, 100 mm, 80 mm, and 60 mm) for the twist arrangements are simulated to be compared. The geometry of the annular diffuser and the inlet condition for the hub arrangements are kept constant. The result reveals that using twisted rectangular hub insert with different pitches will force the temperature to distribute in a circular direction. However, temperature distribution will be enhanced with the length pitch increases.

Keywords: numerical simulation, twist arrangement, annular diffuser, temperature distribution, swirl flow, pitches

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
4221 The Effect of Global Solar Radiation on the Thermal and Thermohydraulic Performance of Double Flow Corrugated Absorber Solar Air Heater

Authors: Suresh Prasad Sharma, Som Nath Saha

Abstract:

This paper deals with the effect of Global Solar Radiation (GSR) on the performance of double flow solar air heater having corrugated plate as an absorber. An analytical model of a double flow solar air heater has been presented, and a computer program in C++ language has been developed to calculate the outlet air temperature, heat gain, pressure drop for estimating the thermal and thermohydraulic efficiencies. The performance of double flow corrugated absorber is compared with double flow flat plate and conventional solar air heaters. It is found that the double flow arrangement effectively increases the air temperature rise and efficiencies in comparison to a conventional collector. However, corrugated absorber is more superior to that of flat plate double flow solar air heater. The results indicate that increasing the solar radiation leads to achieve higher air temperature rise and efficiencies.

Keywords: corrugated absorber, double flow, flat plate, solar air heater

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
4220 Temperature Distribution Simulation of Divergent Fluid Flow with Helical Arrangement

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe

Abstract:

Numerical study is performed to investigate the temperature distribution in an annular diffuser fitted with helical tape hub. Different pitches (Y = 20 mm, and Y = 30 mm) for the helical tape are studied with different heights (H = 20 mm, 22 mm, and 24 mm) to be compared. The geometry of the annular diffuser and the inlet condition for both hub arrangements are kept constant. The result obtains that using helical tape insert with different pitches and different heights will force the temperature to distribute in a helical direction; however the use of helical tape hub with height (H = 22 mm) for both pitches enhance the temperature distribution in a good manner.

Keywords: helical tape, divergent fluid flow, temperature distribution, swirl flow, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
4219 Genetic Algorithm Methods for Determination Over Flow Coefficient of Medium Throat Length Morning Glory Spillway Equipped Crest Vortex Breakers

Authors: Roozbeh Aghamajidi

Abstract:

Shaft spillways are circling spillways used generally for emptying unexpected floods on earth and concrete dams. There are different types of shaft spillways: Stepped and Smooth spillways. Stepped spillways pass more flow discharges through themselves in comparison to smooth spillways. Therefore, awareness of flow behavior of these spillways helps using them better and more efficiently. Moreover, using vortex breaker has great effect on passing flow through shaft spillway. In order to use more efficiently, the risk of flow pressure decreases to less than fluid vapor pressure, called cavitations, should be prevented as far as possible. At this research, it has been tried to study different behavior of spillway with different vortex shapes on spillway crest on flow. From the viewpoint of the effects of flow regime changes on spillway, changes of step dimensions, and the change of type of discharge will be studied effectively. Therefore, two spillway models with three different vortex breakers and three arrangements have been used to assess the hydraulic characteristics of flow. With regard to the inlet discharge to spillway, the parameters of pressure and flow velocity on spillway surface have been measured at several points and after each run. Using these kinds of information leads us to create better design criteria of spillway profile. To achieve these purposes, optimization has important role and genetic algorithm are utilized to study the emptying discharge. As a result, it turned out that the best type of spillway with maximum discharge coefficient is smooth spillway with ogee shapes as vortex breaker and 3 number as arrangement. Besides it has been concluded that the genetic algorithm can be used to optimize the results.

Keywords: shaft spillway, vortex breaker, flow, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
4218 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer in Square Duct with Turbulators

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, Hamad M. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of heat transfer in U-duct with turbulators is presented in this paper. The duct passages used to cool internally the blades in gas turbine. The study is focused in the flow behavior and the Nusselt number (Nu) distributions. The model of the u-duct contains two square legs that are connected by 180* turn. Four turbulators are located in each surface of the leg and distributed in a staggered arrangement. The turbulator height and width are equal to 0.1 of the duct width, and the turbulator height is 0.1 of the distance between the turbulators. The Reynolds number (Re) used in this study is 95000 and the inlet velocity is 10 m/s. It was noticed that, after the flow resettles from the interruptions generated by the first turbulator or the turn, the flow construct two eddies, one large and the other is small after and before the turbulator, respectively. The maximum values of the Nu are found at a distance of approximately one turbulator width w before of the flow reattachment point.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, rib, heat transfer, blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
4217 Optimization of an Electro-Submersible Pump for Crude Oil Extraction Processes

Authors: Deisy Becerra, Nicolas Rios, Miguel Asuaje

Abstract:

The Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) is one of the most artificial lifting methods used in the last years, which consists of a serial arrangement of centrifugal pumps. One of the main concerns when handling crude oil is the formation of O/W or W/O (oil/water or water/oil) emulsions inside the pump, due to the shear rate imparted and the presence of high molecular weight substances that act as natural surfactants. Therefore, it is important to perform an analysis of the flow patterns inside the pump to increase the percentage of oil recovered using the centrifugal force and the difference in density between the oil and the water to generate the separation of liquid phases. For this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model was developed on STAR-CCM+ software based on 3D geometry of a Franklin Electric 4400 4' four-stage ESP. In this case, the modification of the last stage was carried out to improve the centrifugal effect inside the pump, and a perforated double tube was designed with three different holes configurations disposed at the outlet section, through which the cut water flows. The arrangement of holes used has different geometrical configurations such as circles, rectangles, and irregular shapes determined as grating around the tube. The two-phase flow was modeled using an Eulerian approach with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, which predicts the distribution and movement of larger interfaces in immiscible phases. Different water-oil compositions were evaluated, such as 70-30% v/v, 80-20% v/v and 90-10% v/v, respectively. Finally, greater recovery of oil was obtained. For the several compositions evaluated, the volumetric oil fraction was greater than 0.55 at the pump outlet. Similarly, it is possible to show an inversely proportional relationship between the Water/Oil rate (WOR) and the volumetric flow. The volumetric fractions evaluated, the oil flow increased approximately between 41%-10% for circular perforations and 49%-19% for rectangular shaped perforations, regarding the inlet flow. Besides, the elimination of the pump diffuser in the last stage of the pump reduced the head by approximately 20%.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamic, CFD, electrical submersible pump, ESP, two phase flow, volume of fluid, VOF, water/oil rate, WOR

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4216 Air Flow Characteristics and Pressure Distributions for Staggered Wing Shaped Tubes Bundle

Authors: Sayed A. Elsayed, Emad Z. Ibrahim, Osama M. Mesalhy, Mohamed A. Abdelatief

Abstract:

An experimental and numerical study has been conducted to clarify fluid flow characteristics and pressure drop distributions of a cross-flow heat exchanger employing staggered wing-shaped tubes at different angels of attack. The water-side Rew and the air-side Rea were at 5 x 102 and at from 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103, respectively. Three cases of the tubes arrangements with various angles of attack, row angles of attack and 90° cone angles were employed at the considered Rea range. Correlation of pressure drop coefficient Pdc in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied cases were presented. The flow pattern around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle were predicted by using commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. Results indicated that the values of Pdc were increased by increasing the angle of attack from 0° to 45°, while the opposite was true for angles of attack from 135° to 180°. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those, previously, obtained for similar available studies showed good agreements.

Keywords: wing-shaped tubes, cross-flow cooling, staggered arrangement, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
4215 Effects of Viscous and Pressure Forces in Vortex and Wake Induced Vibrations

Authors: Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Abouzar Kaboudian, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman

Abstract:

Cross-flow vortex-induced vibrations of a circular cylinder are compared with the wake-induced oscillations of the downstream cylinder of a tandem cylinder arrangement. It is known that the synchronization of the frequency of vortex shedding with the natural frequency of the structure leads to large amplitude motions. In the case of tandem cylinders, the large amplitudes of the downstream cylinder found are compared to single cylinder setup. In this work, in the tandem arrangement, the upstream cylinder is fixed and the downstream cylinder is free to oscillate in transverse direction. We show that the wake from the upstream cylinder interacts with the downstream cylinder which influences the response of the coupled system. Extensive numerical experiments have been performed on single cylinder as well as tandem cylinder arrangements in cross-flow. Here, the wake interactions in connection to the forces generated are systematically studied. The ratio of the viscous loads to the pressure loads is found to play a major role in the displacement response of the single and tandem cylinder arrangements, as the viscous forces dissipate the energy.

Keywords: circular cylinder, vortex-shedding, VIV, wake-induced, vibrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
4214 Cadaveric Study of Lung Anatomy: A Surgical Overview

Authors: Arthi Ganapathy, Rati Tandon, Saroj Kaler

Abstract:

Introduction: A thorough knowledge of variations in lung anatomy is of prime significance during surgical procedures like lobectomy, pneumonectomy, and segmentectomy of lungs. The arrangement of structures in the lung hilum act as a guide in performing such procedures. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures in the right lung is eparterial bronchus, pulmonary artery, hyparterial bronchus and pulmonary veins from above downwards. In the left lung, it is pulmonary artery, principal bronchus and pulmonary vein from above downwards. The arrangement of hilar structures from anterior to posterior in both the lungs is pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and principal bronchus. The bronchial arteries are very small and usually the posterior most structures in the hilum of lungs. Aim: The present study aims at reporting the variations in hilar anatomy (arrangement and number) of lungs. Methodology: 75 adult formalin fixed cadaveric lungs from the department of Anatomy AIIMS New Delhi were observed for variations in the lobar anatomy. Arrangement of pulmonary hilar structures was meticulously observed, and any deviation in the pattern of presentation was recorded. Results: Among the 75 adult lung specimens observed 36 specimens were of right lung and the rest of left lung. Seven right lung specimens showed only 2 lobes with an oblique fissure dividing them and one left lung showed 3 lobes. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures was seen in 22 right lungs and 23 left lungs. Rest of the lung specimens (14 right and 16 left) showed a varied pattern of arrangement of hilar structures. Some of them showed alterations in the sequence of arrangement of pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, bronchus, and others in the number of these structures. Conclusion: Alterations in the pattern of arrangement of structures in the lung hilum are quite frequent. A compromise in knowledge of such variations will result in inadvertent complications like intraoperative bleeding during surgical procedures.

Keywords: fissures, hilum, lobes, pulmonary

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
4213 Contribution to the Study of the Rill Density Effects on Soil Erosion: Laboratory Experiments

Authors: L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

Rills begin to be generated once overland flow shear capacity overcomes the soil surface resistance. This resistance depends on soil texture, the arrangement of soil particles and on chemical and physical properties. The rill density could affect soil erosion, especially when the distance between the rills (interrill) contributes to the variation of the rill characteristics, and consequently on sediment concentration. To investigate this point, agricultural sandy soil, a soil tray of 0.2x1x3m³ and a piece of hardwood rectangular in shape to build up rills were the base of this work. The results have shown that small lines have been developed between the rills and the flow acceleration increased in comparison to the flow on the flat surface (interrill). Sediment concentration increased with increasing rill number (density).

Keywords: artificial rainfall, experiments, rills, soil erosion, transport capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
4212 Numerical Study of Heat Release of the Symmetrically Arranged Extruded-Type Heat Sinks

Authors: Man Young Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this numerical study, we want to present the design of highly efficient extruded-type heat sink. The symmetrically arranged extruded-type heat sinks are used instead of a single extruded or swaged-type heat sink. In this parametric study, the maximum temperatures, the base temperatures between heaters, and the heat release rates were investigated with respect to the arrangements of heat sources, air flow rates, and amounts of heat input. Based on the results we believe that the use of both side of heat sink is to be much better for release the heat than the use of single side. Also from the results, it is believed that the symmetric arrangement of heat sources is recommended to achieve a higher heat transfer from the heat sink.

Keywords: heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation, symmetrical arrangement

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
4211 Analyses for Primary Coolant Pump Coastdown Phenomena for Jordan Research and Training Reactor

Authors: Yazan M. Alatrash, Han-ok Kang, Hyun-gi Yoon, Shen Zhang, Juhyeon Yoon

Abstract:

Flow coastdown phenomena are very important to secure nuclear fuel integrity during loss of off-site power accidents. In this study, primary coolant flow coastdown phenomena are investigated for the Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) using a simulation software package, Modular Modelling System (MMS). Two MMS models are built. The first one is a simple model to investigate the characteristics of the primary coolant pump only. The second one is a model for a simulation of the Primary Coolant System (PCS) loop, in which all the detailed design data of the JRTR PCS system are modelled, including the geometrical arrangement data. The same design data for a PCS pump are used for both models. Coastdown curves obtained from the two models are compared to study the PCS loop coolant inertia effect on a flow coastdown. Results showed that the loop coolant inertia effect is found to be small in the JRTR PCS loop, i.e., about one second increases in a coastdown half time required to halve the coolant flow rate. The effects of different flywheel inertia on the flow coastdown are also investigated. It is demonstrated that the coastdown half time increases with the flywheel inertia linearly. The designed coastdown half time is proved to be well above the design requirement for the fuel integrity.

Keywords: flow coastdown, loop inertia, modelling, research reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
4210 Flow Duration Curve Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo

Abstract:

Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of river ecosystem. Then, it is very serious to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude were determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 day. According the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. In order to maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m3.s-1.

Keywords: ardabil, environmental flow, flow duration curve, Gharasou river

Procedia PDF Downloads 533
4209 Influence of Mooring Conditions on Side-By-Side Offloading System Safety Performance

Authors: Liu Shengnan, Sun Liping, Zhu Jianxun

Abstract:

Based on three dimensional potential flow theory, hydrodynamic response analysis is carried on the multi floating bodies system composed of FPSO moored with yoke and shuttle tanker. It considered hydrodynamic interaction between FPSO and shuttle tanker, interaction between the hull and yoke mooring systems, hawsers, fenders, and then focuses on hawsers of the side-by-side offloading system. The influence of hawsers parameters on system safety is studied in respects of hawser stiffness, length and arrangement. Through analysis in different environment conditions and two typical loading conditions, it can be found that a better safety performance can be achieved through these three ways including enlarging the number of hawsers as well as the stiffness of hawsers, changing the length and arrangement of hawsers.

Keywords: yoke mooring, side-by-side offloading, multi floating body, hawser, safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
4208 Investigation Effect of External Flow to Exhaust Gas Flow at Heavy Commercial Vehicle with CFD

Authors: F. Kantaş, D. Boyacı, C. Dinç

Abstract:

Exhaust systems plays an important role in thermal heat management. Exhaust manifold picks burned gas from engine and exhaust pipes transmit exhaust gas to muffler, exhaust gas is reacted chemically to avoid noxious gas and sound is reduced in muffler then gas is threw out with tail pipe from muffler. Exhaust gas flows out from tail pipe and this hot gas flows to many parts that available around tail pipe and muffler, like spare tire, transmission, pipes etc. These parts are heated by hot exhaust gas. Also vehicle on ride, external flow effects exhaust gas flow and exhaust gas behavior is changed. It's impossible to understand which parts are heated by hot exhaust gas in tests. To understand this phenomena, exhaust gas flow is solved in CFD also external flow due to vehicle movement must be solved with exhaust gas flow. Because external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior with many parameters. This paper investigates external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior and other critical parameters effect exhaust gas flow behavior, like different tail pipe design, exhaust gas mass flow in critic vehicle driving situations.

Keywords: exhaust, gas flow, vehicle, external flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
4207 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda

Abstract:

In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75 mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: flow visualization, pressure measurement, reverse flow, vortex tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
4206 Finite Volume Method for Flow Prediction Using Unstructured Meshes

Authors: Juhee Lee, Yongjun Lee

Abstract:

In designing a low-energy-consuming buildings, the heat transfer through a large glass or wall becomes critical. Multiple layers of the window glasses and walls are employed for the high insulation. The gravity driven air flow between window glasses or wall layers is a natural heat convection phenomenon being a key of the heat transfer. For the first step of the natural heat transfer analysis, in this study the development and application of a finite volume method for the numerical computation of viscous incompressible flows is presented. It will become a part of the natural convection analysis with high-order scheme, multi-grid method, and dual-time step in the future. A finite volume method based on a fully-implicit second-order is used to discretize and solve the fluid flow on unstructured grids composed of arbitrary-shaped cells. The integrations of the governing equation are discretised in the finite volume manner using a collocated arrangement of variables. The convergence of the SIMPLE segregated algorithm for the solution of the coupled nonlinear algebraic equations is accelerated by using a sparse matrix solver such as BiCGSTAB. The method used in the present study is verified by applying it to some flows for which either the numerical solution is known or the solution can be obtained using another numerical technique available in the other researches. The accuracy of the method is assessed through the grid refinement.

Keywords: finite volume method, fluid flow, laminar flow, unstructured grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
4205 Estimation and Forecasting Debris Flow Phenomena on the Highway of the 'TRACECA' Corridor

Authors: Levan Tsulukidze

Abstract:

The paper considers debris flow phenomena and forecasting of them in the corridor of ‘TRACECA’ on the example of river Naokhrevistkali, as well as the debris flow -type channel passing between the villages of Vale-2 and Naokhrevi. As a result of expeditionary and reconnaissance investigations, as well as using empiric dependencies, the debris flow expenditure has been estimated in case of different debris flow provisions.

Keywords: debris flow, Traceca corridor, forecasting, river Naokhrevistkali

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
4204 Experimental Study of Flow Characteristics for a Cylinder with Respect to Attached Flexible Strip Body of Various Reynolds Number

Authors: S. Teksin, S. Yayla

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate details of flow structure in downstream of a circular cylinder base mounted on a flat surface in a rectangular duct with the dimensions of 8000 x 1000 x 750 mm in deep water flow for the Reynolds number 2500, 5000 and 7500. A flexible strip was attached to behind the cylinder and compared the bare body. Also, it was analyzed that how boundary layer affects the structure of flow around the cylinder. Diameter of the cylinder was 60 mm and the length of the flexible splitter plate which had a certain modulus of elasticity was 150 mm (L/D=2.5). Time-averaged velocity vectors, vortex contours, streamwise and transverse velocity components were investigated via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity vectors and vortex contours were displayed through the sections in which boundary layer effect was not present. On the other hand, streamwise and transverse velocity components were monitored for both cases, i.e. with and without boundary layer effect. Experiment results showed that the vortex formation occured in a larger area for L/D=2.5 and the point where the vortex was maximum from the base of the cylinder was shifted. Streamwise and transverse velocity component contours were symmetrical with reference to the center of the cylinder for all cases. All Froud numbers based on the Reynolds numbers were quite smaller than 1. The flow characteristics of velocity component values of attached circular cylinder arrangement decreased approximately twenty five percent comparing to bare cylinder case.

Keywords: partical image velocimetry, elastic plate, cylinder, flow structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
4203 Influence of the Seat Arrangement in Public Reading Spaces on Individual Subjective Perceptions

Authors: Jo-Han Chang, Chung-Jung Wu

Abstract:

This study involves a design proposal. The objective of is to create a seat arrangement model for public reading spaces that enable free arrangement without disturbing the users. Through a subjective perception scale, this study explored whether distance between seats and direction of seats influence individual subjective perceptions in a public reading space. This study also involves analysis of user subjective perceptions when reading in the settings on 3 seats at different directions and with 5 distances between seats. The results may be applied to public chair design. This study investigated that (a) whether different directions of seats and distances between seats influence individual subjective perceptions and (b) the acceptable personal space between 2 strangers in a public reading space. The results are shown as follows: (a) the directions of seats and distances between seats influenced individual subjective perceptions. (b) subjective evaluation scores were higher for back-to-back seat directions with Distances A (10 cm) and B (62 cm) compared with face-to-face and side-by-side seat directions; however, when the seat distance exceeded 114 cm (Distance C), no difference existed among the directions of seats. (c) regarding reading in public spaces, when the distance between seats is 10 cm only, we recommend arranging the seats in a back-to-back fashion to increase user comfort and arrangement of face-to-face and side- by-side seat directions should be avoided. When the seat arrangement is limited to face-to-face design, the distance between seats should be increased to at least 62 cm. Moreover, the distance between seats should be increased to at least 114 cm for side- by-side seats to elevate user comfort.

Keywords: individual subjective perceptions, personal space, seat arrangement, direction, distances

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
4202 Numerical Solution of 1-D Shallow Water Equations at Junction for Sub-Critical and Super-Critical Flow

Authors: Mohamed Elshobaki, Alessandro Valiani, Valerio Caleffi

Abstract:

In this paper, we solve 1-D shallow water equation for sub-critical and super-critical water flow at junction. The water flow at junction has been studied for the last 50 years from the physical-hydraulic point of views and for numerical computations need more attention. For numerical simulation, we need to establish an inner boundary condition at the junction to avoid an oscillation which rise from the waves interactions at the junction. Indeed, we introduce a new boundary condition at the junction based on the mass conservation, total head, and the admissible wave relations between the flow parameters in the three branches to predict the water depths and discharges at the junction. These boundary conditions are valid for sub-critical flow and super-critical flow.

Keywords: numerical simulation, junction flow, sub-critical flow, super-critical flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
4201 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

Authors: A. J. Nazari, S. Honma

Abstract:

This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

Keywords: fractional flow, oil displacement, relative permeability, simultaneously flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
4200 Numerical Simulations for Nitrogen Flow in Piezoelectric Valve

Authors: Pawel Flaszynski, Piotr Doerffer, Jan Holnicki-Szulc, Grzegorz Mikulowski

Abstract:

Results of numerical simulations for transonic flow in a piezoelectric valve are presented. The valve is the main part of an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber. Flow structure in the valve domain and the influence of the flow non-uniformity in the valve on a mass flow rate is investigated. Numerical simulation results are compared with experimental data.

Keywords: pneumatic valve, transonic flow, numerical simulations, piezoelectric valve

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
4199 Conceptional Design of a Hyperloop Capsule with Linear Induction Propulsion System

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Samar F. Abdel Fattah

Abstract:

High-speed transportation is a growing concern. To develop high-speed rails and to increase high-speed efficiencies, the idea of Hyperloop was introduced. The challenge is to overcome the difficulties of managing friction and air-resistance which become substantial when vehicles approach high speeds. In this paper, we are presenting the methodologies of the capsule design which got a design concept innovation award at SpaceX competition in January, 2016. MATLAB scripts are written for the levitation and propulsion calculations and iterations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the air flow around the capsule considering the effect of the axial-flow air compressor and the levitation cushion on the air flow. The design procedures of a single-sided linear induction motor are analyzed in detail and its geometric and magnetic parameters are determined. A structural design is introduced and Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to analyze the stresses in different parts. The configuration and the arrangement of the components are illustrated. Moreover, comments on manufacturing are made.

Keywords: high-speed transportation, hyperloop, railways transportation, single-sided linear induction Motor (SLIM)

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4198 Effect of Longitudinal Fins on Air-Flow Characteristics for Wing-Shaped Tubes in Cross Flow

Authors: Sayed Ahmed El Sayed, Osama M. Mesalhy, Mohamed A. Abdelatief

Abstract:

A numerical study has been conducted to clarify fluid flow characteristics, pressure distributions, and skin friction coefficient over a wing-shaped tubes bundle in staggered arrangement with the placement of longitudinal fins (LF) at downstream position of the tube. The air-side Rea were at 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103. The tubes bundle were employed with various fin height [hf] and fin thickness (δ) from (2 mm ≤ hf ≤ 12 mm) and (1.5 mm ≤ δ ≤ 3.5 mm) respectively at the considered Rea range. The flow pattern around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle was predicted using the commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. The distribution of average skin friction coefficient around wing-shaped tubes bundle is studied. Correlation of pressure drop coefficient Pdc and skin friction coefficient (Cf) in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied cases were presented. Results indicated that the values of Pdc for hf = 6 mm are lower than these of NOF and hf = 2 mm by about 11 % and 13 % respectively for considered Rea range. Cf decreases as Rea increases. LFTH with hf = 6 mm offers lower form drag than that with hf = 12 mm and that of NOF. The lowest values of the pumping power are achieved for arrangements of hf = 6 mm for the considered Rea range. δ has negligible effect on skin friction coefficient, while has a slightly variation in ∆Pa. The wing-shaped tubes bundle heat exchanger with hf = 6 mm has the lowest values of ∆Pa, Pdc, Cf, and pumping power and hence the best performance comparing with the other bundles. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those obtained by similar previous studies showed good agreements.

Keywords: longitudinal fins, skin friction, flow characteristics, FLUENT, wing-shaped tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 407