Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: Jason P. Michaud

59 Empirical Heat Transfer Correlations of Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers in Pulsatile Flow

Authors: Jason P. Michaud, Connor P. Speer, David A. Miller, David S. Nobes

Abstract:

An experimental study on finned-tube radiators has been conducted. Three radiators found in desktop computers sized for 120 mm fans were tested in steady and pulsatile flows of ambient air over a Reynolds number range of  50 < Re < 900. Water at 60 °C was circulated through the radiators to maintain a constant fin temperature during the tests. For steady flow, it was found that the heat transfer rate increased linearly with the mass flow rate of air. The pulsatile flow experiments showed that frequency of pulsation had a negligible effect on the heat transfer rate for the range of frequencies tested (0.5 Hz – 2.5 Hz). For all three radiators, the heat transfer rate was decreased in the case of pulsatile flow. Linear heat transfer correlations for steady and pulsatile flow were calculated in terms of Reynolds number and Nusselt number.

Keywords: finned-tube heat exchangers, heat transfer correlations, pulsatile flow, computer radiators

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58 Parents' Perception on the Use of Mobile Technology by Young Children

Authors: Jason Gan

Abstract:

Technology has been around for many years, those that play a crucial part of our lives have evolved quick and fast, from televisions to computers and now mobile technology has also become a part of our lives. However in Singapore a nation with a strong reliance and following in technology, how are young children (0 to 8 years old) coping with these high technology equipment especially mobile technology and why and what are parents doing to manage this trend in the nation. This study aims to uncover some of the parents’ perception behind the use of mobile technology by their children.

Keywords: technology, preschoolers, ICT and Singapore, early childhood

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57 Chemical Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Zizyphus lotus Leaves

Authors: Zakaria Boual, Abdellah Kemassi, Toufik Chouana, Philippe Michaud, Mohammed Didi Ould El Hadj

Abstract:

In order to investigate the prebiotic potential of oligosaccharides prepared by chemical hydrolysis of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from Zizyphus lotus leaves, the effect of oligosaccharides on bacterial growth was studied. The chemical composition of WSP was evaluated by colorimetric assays revealed the average values: 7.05±0.73% proteins and 86.21±0.74% carbohydrates, among them 64.81±0.42% are neutral sugar and the rest 16.25±1.62% are uronic acids. The characterization of monosaccharides was determined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) was found to be composed of galactose (23.95%), glucose (21.30%), rhamnose (20.28%), arabinose (9.55%), and glucuronic acid (22.95%). The effects of oligosaccharides on the growth of lactic acid bacteria were compared with those of fructo-oligosaccharide (RP95). The oligosaccharides concentration was 1g/L of man rogosa sharpe broth. Bacterial growth was assessed during 2, 4.5, 6.5, 9, 12, 16 and 24 h by measuring the optical density of the cultures at 600 nm (OD600) and pH values. During fermentation, pH in broth cultures decreased from 6.7 to 5.87±0.15. The enumeration of lactic acid bacteria indicated that oligosaccharides led to a significant increase in bacteria (P≤0.05) compared to the control. The fermentative metabolism appeared to be faster on RP95 than on oligosaccharides from Zizyphus lotus leaves. Both RP95 and oligosaccharides showed clear prebiotic effects, but had differences in fermentation kinetics because of to the different degree of polymerization. This study shows the prebiotic effectiveness of oligosaccharides, and provides proof for the selection of leaves of Zizyphus lotus for use as functional food ingredients.

Keywords: Zizyphus lotus, polysaccharides, characterization, prebiotic effects

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56 Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach for Ensuring Community Satisfaction on Public-Private Partnership Projects

Authors: Jason Salim, Zhouyang Lu

Abstract:

Private sector involvement in Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects may raise public suspicion, as PPP is often mistaken as merely a partnership between private and government agencies without consideration for greater “public” (community). This public marginalization is crucial to be dealt with because undermining opinion of majority may cause problems such as protests and/ or low demand. Game theory approach applied in this paper shows that probability of public acceptance towards a project is affected by overall public’s perception on Private sectors’ possible profit accumulation from the project. On the contrary, goodwill of the government and private coalition alone is not enough to minimize the probability of public opposition towards a PPP project. Additionally, the threat of loss or damage raised from public opposition does not affect the profit-maximization behavior of Private sectors.

Keywords: community satisfaction, game theory, non-cooperative, PPP, public policy

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55 Assessing Student Collaboration in Music Ensemble Class: From the Formulation of Grading Rubrics to Their Effective Implementation

Authors: Jason Sah

Abstract:

Music ensemble class is a non-traditional classroom in the sense that it is always a group effort during rehearsal. When measuring student performance ability in class, it is imperative that the grading rubric includes a collaborative skill component. Assessments that stop short of testing students' ability to make music with others undermine the group mentality by elevating individual prowess. Applying empirical and evidence-based methodology, this research develops a grading rubric that defines the criteria for assessing collaborative skill, and then explores different strategies for implementing this rubric in a timely and effective manner. Findings show that when collaborative skill is regularly tested, students gradually shift their attention from playing their own part well to sharing their part with others.

Keywords: assessment, ensemble class, grading rubric, student collaboration

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
54 Optimal Linear Quadratic Digital Tracker for the Discrete-Time Proper System with an Unknown Disturbance

Authors: Jason Sheng-Hong Tsai, Faezeh Ebrahimzadeh, Min-Ching Chung, Shu-Mei Guo, Leang-San Shieh, Tzong-Jiy Tsai, Li Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, we first construct a new state and disturbance estimator using discrete-time proportional plus integral observer to estimate the system state and the unknown external disturbance for the discrete-time system with an input-to-output direct-feedthrough term. Then, the generalized optimal linear quadratic digital tracker design is applied to construct a proportional plus integral observer-based tracker for the system with an unknown external disturbance to have a desired tracking performance. Finally, a numerical simulation is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new application of our proposed approach.

Keywords: non-minimum phase system, optimal linear quadratic tracker, proportional plus integral observer, state and disturbance estimator

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53 From Manipulation to Citizen Control: A Case Study Revealing the Level of Participation in the Citizen Participatory Audit

Authors: Mark Jason E. Arca, Jay Vee R. Linatoc, Rex Francis N. Lupango, Michael Joe A. Ramirez

Abstract:

Participation promises an avenue for citizens to take part in governance, but it does not necessarily mean effective participation. The proper integration of participants in the decision-making process should be properly addressed to ensure effectiveness. This study explores the integration of the participants in the decision-making process to reveal the level of participation in the Solid Waste Management audit done by the Citizen Participatory Audit (CPA), a program under the supervision of the Commission on Audit. Specifically, this study will use the experience of participation to identify emerging themes that will help reveal the level of participation through the integrated ladder of participation. The researchers used key informant interviews to gather necessary data from the actors of the program. The findings revealed that the level of participation present in the CPA is at the Placation level, a level below the program’s targeted level of participation. The study also allowed the researchers to reveal facilitating factors in the program that contributed to a better understanding of the practice of participation.

Keywords: citizen participation, culture of participation, ladder of participation, level of participation

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52 A Topological Approach for Motion Track Discrimination

Authors: Tegan H. Emerson, Colin C. Olson, George Stantchev, Jason A. Edelberg, Michael Wilson

Abstract:

Detecting small targets at range is difficult because there is not enough spatial information present in an image sub-region containing the target to use correlation-based methods to differentiate it from dynamic confusers present in the scene. Moreover, this lack of spatial information also disqualifies the use of most state-of-the-art deep learning image-based classifiers. Here, we use characteristics of target tracks extracted from video sequences as data from which to derive distinguishing topological features that help robustly differentiate targets of interest from confusers. In particular, we calculate persistent homology from time-delayed embeddings of dynamic statistics calculated from motion tracks extracted from a wide field-of-view video stream. In short, we use topological methods to extract features related to target motion dynamics that are useful for classification and disambiguation and show that small targets can be detected at range with high probability.

Keywords: motion tracks, persistence images, time-delay embedding, topological data analysis

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51 Design and Construction of an Impulse Current Generator for Lightning Strike Experiments

Authors: Kamran Yousefpour, Mojtaba Rostaghi-Chalaki, Jason Warden, Chanyeop Park

Abstract:

There has been a rising trend in using impulse current generators to investigate the lightning strike protection of materials including aluminum and composites in structures such as wind turbine blade and aircraft body. The focus of this research is to present a new impulse current generator built in the High Voltage Lab at Mississippi State University. The generator is capable of producing component A and D of the natural lightning discharges in accordance with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standard, which is widely used in the aerospace industry. The generator can supply lightning impulse energy up to 400 kJ with the capability of producing impulse currents with magnitudes greater than 200 kA. The electrical circuit and physical components of an improved impulse current generator are described and several lightning strike waveforms with different amplitudes is presented for comparing with the standard waveform. The results of this study contribute to the fundamental understanding the functionality of the impulse current generators and present a new impulse current generator developed at the High Voltage Lab of Mississippi State University.

Keywords: impulse current generator, lightning, society of automotive engineers, capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
50 Teaching in the Post Truth Era: A Narrative Analysis of Modern Anti-Scientific Discourses in the Classroom

Authors: Jason T. Hilton

Abstract:

The ‘post-truth era’ is marked by a shift toward a period in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief. Applying narrative analysis techniques to current public discourses in education that run counter to scientific findings, it becomes possible to identify weakness in modern pedagogy and suggest ways to counter false narratives in the classroom. Results of this study indicate that a failure to engage with popular narratives lessens teachers’ ability to be convincing in the classroom, even when presenting information supported by scientific evidence. This study seeks to empower teachers by illustrating the influence of story within the post-truth era and the ways in which narrative and rhetorical elements take hold in social media contexts. Equipped with this knowledge, teachers can create a shift in pedagogy, away from transmission of knowledge toward the crafting of powerful narratives, built upon evidence, and connected to the lives of modern learners.

Keywords: 21st century learner, critical pedagogy, culture, narrative, post-truth era, social media

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49 Assessment of Prevalent Diseases Caused by Mining Activities in the Northern Part of Mindanao Island, Philippines

Authors: Odinah Cuartero-Enteria, Kyla Rita Mercado, Jason Salamanes, Aian Pecasales, Sherwin Sabado

Abstract:

The northern part of Mindanao Island, Philippines has sizable reserve of mineral resources. Years ago, mining activities have been flourishing which resulted to both local economic gain but with environmental concerns. This study investigates the prevalent diseases by mining activities in these areas. The study was done using the secondary data gathered from the Rural Health Units (RHU) of the selected areas. The study further determined the prevalent diseases that existed in the three areas from years 2005, 2010 and 2015 indicating before the mining activities and when mining activities are present. The results show that areas which are far from mining activities have fewer cases of patients suffering from air-borne diseases. The top ten most common diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, influenza, upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and skin diseases were caused by air-borne due to air pollution. Hence, the places where mining activities are present contribute to the prevalent diseases. Thus, addressing the air pollution caused by mining activities is very important.

Keywords: Philippines, Mindanao Island, mining activities, pollution, prevalent diseases

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48 Assessing Immunization across Life Stages of the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) to the Pathogenic Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)

Authors: Kerri L. Surbaugh, Lakmini Y. Mallikarachchi, Jason R. Rohr

Abstract:

Emerging diseases are key factors in the disconcerting rate of contemporary amphibian declines. The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), ranks among the chief pathogenic challenges to vulnerable amphibian populations. Although live Bd can immunosuppress amphibian hosts, amphibian exposure to dead Bd can induce an adaptive immune response, leading to acquired resistance to the pathogen. In this experiment, dose and duration of flash-frozen Bd were manipulated over a variety of life-stages of the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and the magnitude of acquired resistance to the pathogen was quantified via qPCR analyses of spore abundance post subsequent live Bd challenges. It was found that Cuban treefrogs can develop resistance to Bd and that life stage, dose and duration thresholds exist for acquired resistance. This experiment will aid in facilitating the development of a vaccine against Bd which could be used on location and could help curb worldwide amphibian declines associated with this pathogen.

Keywords: acquired resistance, ecoimmunology, emerging infectious disease, fungal host response, fungal pathogen, immunization

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47 An Integrated DANP-PROMETHEE II Approach for Air Traffic Controllers’ Workload Stress Problem

Authors: Jennifer Loar, Jason Montefalcon, Kissy Mae Alimpangog, Miriam Bongo

Abstract:

The demanding, professional roles that air traffic controllers (ATC) play in air transport operation provided the main motivation of this paper. As the controllers’ workload stress becomes more complex due to various stressors, the challenge to overcome these in the pursuit of improving the efficiency of controllers and safety level of aircrafts has been relevant. Therefore, in order to determine the main stressors and surface the best alternative, two widely-known multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, DANP and PROMETHEE II, are applied. The proposed method is demonstrated in a case study at Mactan Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP). The results showed that the main stressors are high air traffic volume, extraneous traffic, unforeseen events, limitations and reliability of equipment, noise/distracter, micro climate, bad posture, relations with supervisors and colleagues, private life conditions/relationships, and emotional conditions. In the outranking of alternatives, compartmentalization is believed to be the most preferred alternative to overcome controllers’ workload stress. This implies that compartmentalization can best be applied to reduce controller workload stress.

Keywords: air traffic controller, DANP, MCDM, PROMETHEE II, workload stress

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46 Abundance and Diversity of Fruit Flies (Tephritidae: Diptera) In Citrus Orchards in Sindhuli, Nepal

Authors: Debraj Adhikari, Resham Bahadur Thapa, Samudra Lal Joshi, Jason Jinping Du, Sundar Tiwari

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to keep a record of fruit fly species (Tephritidae: Diptera) in the sweet orange orchards of Sindhuli district, Nepal. Male fruit fly species were trapped and collected fortnightly using para-pheromone lures (methyl eugenol and cue lure) in Steiner traps at 25 orchards starting in March 2019 and continuing until February 2021. During the monitoring period, there was a significant variation in the occurrence of the fruit fly species. Fruit flies were captured in greater numbers during warm and rainy months (June, July, August, September) than during dry and winter months (December, January, February). Higher numbers of fruit flies were trapped in methyl eugenol than cue lure traps. Bactrocera dorsalis, B. zonata were major fruit fly species trapped in the methyl eugenol trap. Whereas, Zeugodacus tau, Z. cucurbitae, Z. scutellaris, and Dacus longicornis were major fruit fly species trapped in the cue lure trap. The findings of this study could be used to develop a long-term pest management strategy for the agro-ecological system.

Keywords: bactrocera, cue lure, methyl eugenol, monitoring, zeugodacus

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45 In vivo Antiplatelet Activity Test of Wet Extract of Mimusops elengi L.'s Leaves on DDY Strain Mice as an Effort to Treat Atherosclerosis

Authors: Dewi Tristantini, Jason Jonathan

Abstract:

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is one of the deathliest diseases which is caused by atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a disease that plaque builds up inside the arteries. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, platelet, and other substances found in blood. The current treatment of atherosclerosis is to provide antiplatelet therapy treatment, but such treatments often cause gastrointestinal irritation, muscle pain and hormonal imbalance. Mimusops elengi L.’s leaves can be utilized as a natural and cheap antiplatelet’s source because it contains flavonoids such as quertecin. Antiplatelet aggregation effect of Mimusops elengi L.’s leaves’ wet extract was measured by bleeding time on DDY strain mice with the test substances were given orally during the period of 8 days. The bleeding time was measured on first day and 9th day. Empirically, the dose which is used for humans is 8.5 g of leaves in 600 ml of water. This dose is equivalent to 2.1 g of leaves in 350 ml of water for mice. The extract was divided into 3 doses for mice: 0.05 ml/day; 0.1 ml/day; 0.2 ml/day. After getting the percentage of the increase in bleeding time, data were analyzed by analysis of variance test (Anova), followed by individual comparison within the groups by LSD test. The test substances above respectively increased bleeding time 21%, 62%, and 128%. As the conclusion, the 0.02 ml/day dose of Mimusops elengi L.’s leaves’ wet extract could increase bleeding time better than clopidogrel as positive controls with 110% increase in bleeding time.

Keywords: antiplatelets, atheroschlerosis, bleeding time, Mimusops elengi

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44 Fan-Subbing in East Asia: Audience Involvement in Transnational Media Flows

Authors: Jason D. Lin, Christine Sim

Abstract:

This paper examines the nature of transnational media flows in East Asia, specifically expounding on the popularity of Korean dramas in China and Taiwan. Situated in interdisciplinary academic work from cultural studies, media studies, and linguistics, this project locates the significance of certain genres and regions in determining why some are subject to flow while others remain within domestic borders. Moreover, transnational flows can take one of two routes –official translations and adaptations by media corporations and subtitles written by fans in online communities. The work of 'fan-subbing' has allowed for a more democratized showcase of what bilingual fans consume and are invested in sharing, rather than what major media companies deem relevant and monetizable. This reflects a culture of relatability driven by audiences rather than by corporate direction. Of course, a variety of technological, political, and economic factors play imperative roles in how both professional and fan-made subtitles flowed across borders and between nations. While fan-subbed media may be subject to criticism because of a lack of formal regulation, these limitations can, in some cases, be overcome by the agency afforded to audiences in the digital landscape. Finally, this paper offers a critical lens for deliberating the lasting impact of fan involvement on both professional practices and the flows of mainstream media throughout East Asia.

Keywords: audience studies, bilingual, cultural proximity, fan-subbing, online communities, subtitles

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
43 Additive Friction Stir Manufacturing Process: Interest in Understanding Thermal Phenomena and Numerical Modeling of the Temperature Rise Phase

Authors: Antoine Lauvray, Fabien Poulhaon, Pierre Michaud, Pierre Joyot, Emmanuel Duc

Abstract:

Additive Friction Stir Manufacturing (AFSM) is a new industrial process that follows the emergence of friction-based processes. The AFSM process is a solid-state additive process using the energy produced by the friction at the interface between a rotating non-consumable tool and a substrate. Friction depends on various parameters like axial force, rotation speed or friction coefficient. The feeder material is a metallic rod that flows through a hole in the tool. Unlike in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) where abundant literature exists and addresses many aspects going from process implementation to characterization and modeling, there are still few research works focusing on AFSM. Therefore, there is still a lack of understanding of the physical phenomena taking place during the process. This research work aims at a better AFSM process understanding and implementation, thanks to numerical simulation and experimental validation performed on a prototype effector. Such an approach is considered a promising way for studying the influence of the process parameters and to finally identify a process window that seems relevant. The deposition of material through the AFSM process takes place in several phases. In chronological order these phases are the docking phase, the dwell time phase, the deposition phase, and the removal phase. The present work focuses on the dwell time phase that enables the temperature rise of the system composed of the tool, the filler material, and the substrate and due to pure friction. Analytic modeling of heat generation based on friction considers as main parameters the rotational speed and the contact pressure. Another parameter considered influential is the friction coefficient assumed to be variable due to the self-lubrication of the system with the rise in temperature or the materials in contact roughness smoothing over time. This study proposes, through numerical modeling followed by experimental validation, to question the influence of the various input parameters on the dwell time phase. Rotation speed, temperature, spindle torque, and axial force are the main monitored parameters during experimentations and serve as reference data for the calibration of the numerical model. This research shows that the geometry of the tool as well as fluctuations of the input parameters like axial force and rotational speed are very influential on the temperature reached and/or the time required to reach the targeted temperature. The main outcome is the prediction of a process window which is a key result for a more efficient process implementation.

Keywords: numerical model, additive manufacturing, friction, process

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42 Nanoparticle Emission Characteristics during Methane Pyrolysis in a Laminar Premixed Flame

Authors: Mohammad Javad Afroughi, Farjad Falahati, Larry W. Kostiuk, Jason S. Olfert

Abstract:

This study investigates the physical characteristics of nanoparticles generated during pyrolysis of methane in hot products of a premixed propane-air flame. An inverted burner is designed to provide a laminar premixed propane-air flame (35 SLPM) then introduce methane co-flow to be pyrolyzed within a closed cylindrical chamber (20 cm in diameter and 68 cm in length). The formed products are discharged through an exhaust with a sampling branch to measure emission characteristics. Carbon particles are sampled with a preheated nitrogen dilution system, and the size distribution of particles formed by pyrolysis is measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Dilution ratio is calculated using simultaneously measured CO2 concentrations in the exhaust products and diluted samples. Results show that particle size distribution (PSD) is strongly affected by dilution ratio and preheating temperature. PSD becomes unstable at high dilution ratios (typically above 700 times) and/or low preheating temperatures (below 40° C). At a suitable dilution ratio of 55 and preheating temperature up to 70° C, the median diameter of PSD increases from 20 to 220 nm following the introduction of 0.5 SLPM of methane to the propane-air premixed flame. Furthermore, with pyrolysis of methane, total particle number concentration and estimated total mass concentration of particles in the size range of 14 to 700 nm, increase from 1.12 to 3.90 *107 cm-3 and from 0.11 to 154 µg L-1, respectively.

Keywords: laminar premixed flame, methane pyrolysis, nanoparticle physical characteristics, particle mass concentration, particle number concentration, particle size distribution (PSD)

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41 Nuclear Mitochondrial Pseudogenes in Anastrepha fraterculus Complex

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Ayyamperumal Jeyaprakash, Gary Steck, Jason Stanley, Leroy Whilby

Abstract:

Exotic, invasive tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a major threat to fruit and vegetable industries in the United States. The establishment of pest fruit fly in the agricultural industries and produce severe ecological and economic impacts on agricultural diversification and trade. Detection and identification of these agricultural pests in a timely manner will facilitate the possibility of eradication from newly invaded areas. Identification of larval stages to species level is difficult, but is required to determine pest loads and their pathways into the United States. The aim of this study is the New World genus, Anastrepha which includes pests of major economic importance. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were amplified from Anastrepha fraterculus specimens collected from South America (Ecuador and Peru). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterize the Anastrepha fraterculus complex at a molecular level. During phylogenetics analysis numerous nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) were discovered in different specimens. The numts are nonfunctional copies of the mtDNA present in the nucleus and are easily coamplified with the mitochondrial COI gene copy by using conserved universal primers. This is problematic for DNA Barcoding, which attempts to characterize all living organisms by using the COI gene. This study is significant for national quarantine use, as morphological diagnostics to separate larvae of the various members remain poorly developed.

Keywords: tephritid, Anastrepha fraterculus, COI, numts

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40 Visual Servoing for Quadrotor UAV Target Tracking: Effects of Target Information Sharing

Authors: Jason R. King, Hugh H. T. Liu

Abstract:

This research presents simulation and experimental work in the visual servoing of a quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to stabilize overtop of a moving target. Most previous work in the field assumes static or slow-moving, unpredictable targets. In this experiment, the target is assumed to be a friendly ground robot moving freely on a horizontal plane, which shares information with the UAV. This information includes velocity and acceleration information of the ground target to aid the quadrotor in its tracking task. The quadrotor is assumed to have a downward-facing camera which is fixed to the frame of the quadrotor. Only onboard sensing for the quadrotor is utilized for the experiment, with a VICON motion capture system in place used only to measure ground truth and evaluate the performance of the controller. The experimental platform consists of an ArDrone 2.0 and a Create Roomba, communicating using Robot Operating System (ROS). The addition of the target’s information is demonstrated to help the quadrotor in its tracking task using simulations of the dynamic model of a quadrotor in Matlab Simulink. A nested PID control loop is utilized for inner-loop control the quadrotor, similar to previous works at the Flight Systems and Controls Laboratory (FSC) at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS). Experiments are performed with ground truth provided by an indoor motion capture system, and the results are analyzed. It is demonstrated that a velocity controller which incorporates the additional information is able to perform better than the controllers which do not have access to the target’s information.

Keywords: quadrotor, target tracking, unmanned aerial vehicle, UAV, UAS, visual servoing

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39 Comparison of Low Velocity Impact Test on Coir Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

Authors: Ricardo Mendoza, Jason Briceño, Juan F. Santa, Gabriel Peluffo, Mauricio Márquez, Beatriz Cardozo, Carlos Gutiérrez

Abstract:

The most common controlled method to obtain impact strength of composites materials is performing a Charpy Impact Test which consists of a pendulum with calibrated mass and length released from a known height. In fact, composites components experience impact events in normal operations such as when a tool drops or a foreign object strikes it. These events are categorized into low velocity impact (LVI) which typically occurs at velocities below 10m/s. In this study, the major aim was to calculate the absorbed energy during the impact. Tests were performed on three types of composite panels: fiberglass laminated panels, coir fiber reinforced polyester and coir fiber reinforced polyester subjected to water immersion for 48 hours. Coir fibers were obtained in local plantations of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. They were alkali treated in 5% aqueous NaOH solution for 2h periods. Three type of shape impactors were used on drop-weight impact test including hemispherical, ogive and pointed. Failure mechanisms and failure modes of specimens were examined using an optical microscope. Results demonstrate a reduction in absorbed energy correlated with the increment of water absorption of the panels. For each level of absorbed energy, it was possible to associate a different fracture state. This study compares results of energy absorbed obtained from two impact test methods.

Keywords: coir fiber, polyester composites, low velocity impact, Charpy impact test, drop-weight impact test

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38 Planktivorous Fish Schooling Responses to Current at Natural and Artificial Reefs

Authors: Matthew Holland, Jason Everett, Martin Cox, Iain Suthers

Abstract:

High spatial-resolution distribution of planktivorous reef fish can reveal behavioural adaptations to optimise the balance between feeding success and predator avoidance. We used a multi-beam echosounder to record bathymetry and the three-dimensional distribution of fish schools associated with natural and artificial reefs. We utilised generalised linear models to assess the distribution, orientation, and aggregation of fish schools relative to the structure, vertical relief, and currents. At artificial reefs, fish schooled more closely to the structure and demonstrated a preference for the windward side, particularly when exposed to strong currents. Similarly, at natural reefs fish demonstrated a preference for windward aspects of bathymetry, particularly when associated with high vertical relief. Our findings suggest that under conditions with stronger current velocity, fish can exercise their preference to remain close to structure for predator avoidance, while still receiving an adequate supply of zooplankton delivered by the current. Similarly, when current velocity is low, fish tend to disperse for better access to zooplankton. As artificial reefs are generally deployed with the goal of creating productivity rather than simply attracting fish from elsewhere, we advise that future artificial reefs be designed as semi-linear arrays perpendicular to the prevailing current, with multiple tall towers. This will facilitate the conversion of dispersed zooplankton into energy for higher trophic levels, enhancing reef productivity and fisheries.

Keywords: artificial reef, current, forage fish, multi-beam, planktivorous fish, reef fish, schooling

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37 Application of a Series of New Platinum Organometallic Complexes Derived from Bidentate Schiff Base Ligands in the Hydrogenative and Dehydrogenative Silylation of Styrene

Authors: M. Belhadj Lachachi, Tayeb Benabdallah, M. Hadj Youcef, Jason M. Lynama

Abstract:

The application of inorganic chemistry to catalysis and environmental chemistry is a rapidly developing field, and novel catalytic metal complexes are now having an impact on the industrial development practice. Advances in organometallic chemistry are crucial for improving the design of compounds to reduce toxic side effects and understand their mechanisms of action. The reaction of platinum(II) organometallic complexes with bidentate Schiff bases derived from 2-Hydroxynaphtalydeneaniline have been carried out. It concerns N,N’-naphtalidene para-nitroaniline (1-a), the, the N,N’-naphtalidene para-ethoxyaniline (1-b), the N,N’-naphtalideneaniline (1-c), the N,N’-naphtalidene para-chloroaniline (1-d) and the N,N’-naphtalidene para-methoxyaniline (1-e). The ligands were fully characterized by I.R., elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, ESI Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Diffraction. The resulting metal complexes were obtained as a cationic species, through a simple substitution reaction, leading to two geometric isomers [1, 2], and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, LIFDI Mass Spectrometry and supported by Elemental Analysis and X-Ray diffraction. Furthermore, a bimetallic platinum complex was prepared from the same ligands and dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum and characterized by X-Ray diffraction [3]The catalytic properties of the prepared platinum complexes in the hydrogenative and dehydrogenative silylation of styrene were investigated, and reaction kinetics conversion to products was determined by 1H-NMR and confirmed by GC-MS. This presentation will detail a comparison of the catalytic activity of five platinum organometallic complexes bearing different Schiff base ligands in the hydrosilylation of styrene, varying the experimental conditions of temperature, nature of the complex and the loading of the catalyst.

Keywords: catalysis, hydrosilylation, organometallic, schiff base

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36 Excited State Structural Dynamics of Retinal Isomerization Revealed by a Femtosecond X-Ray Laser

Authors: Przemyslaw Nogly, Tobias Weinert, Daniel James, Sergio Carbajo, Dmitry Ozerov, Antonia Furrer, Dardan Gashi, Veniamin Borin, Petr Skopintsev, Kathrin Jaeger, Karol Nass, Petra Bath, Robert Bosman, Jason Koglin, Matthew Seaberg, Thomas Lane, Demet Kekilli, Steffen Brünle, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Wenting Wu, Christopher Milne, Thomas A. White, Anton Barty, Uwe Weierstall, Valerie Panneels, Eriko Nango, So Iwata, Mark Hunter, Igor Schapiro, Gebhard Schertler, Richard Neutze, Jörg Standfuss

Abstract:

Ultrafast isomerization of retinal is the primary step in a range of photoresponsive biological functions including vision in humans and ion-transport across bacterial membranes. We studied the sub-picosecond structural dynamics of retinal isomerization in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin using an X-ray laser. Twenty snapshots with near-atomic spatial and temporal resolution in the femtosecond regime show how the excited all-trans retinal samples conformational states within the protein binding pocket prior to passing through a highly-twisted geometry and emerging in the 13-cis conformation. The aspartic acid residues and functional water molecules in proximity of the retinal Schiff base respond collectively to formation and decay of the initial excited state and retinal isomerization. These observations reveal how the protein scaffold guides this remarkably efficient photochemical reaction.

Keywords: bacteriorhodopsin, free-electron laser, retinal isomerization mechanism, time-resolved crystallography

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35 Making Permanent Supportive Housing Work for Vulnerable Populations

Authors: Olayinka Ariba, Abe Oudshoorn, Steve Rolfe, Carrie Anne Marshall, Deanna Befus, Jason Gilliland, Miranda Crockett, Susana Caxaj, Sarah McLean, Amy Van Berkum, Natasha Thuemler

Abstract:

Background: Secure housing is a platform for health and well-being. Those who struggle with housing stability have complex life and health histories and often require some support services such as the provision of permanent supportive housing. Poor access to supportive resources creates an exacerbation of chronic homelessness, particularly affecting individuals who need immediate access to mental health and addiction supports. This paper presents the first phase of a three-part study examining how on-site support impacts housing stability for recently-re-housed persons. Method: This study utilized a community-based participatory research methodology. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with permanent supportive housing residents from a single-site dwelling. Interpretative description analysis was used to draw common themes and understand the experiences and challenges of housing support. Results: Three interconnected themes were identified: 1) Available and timely supports; 2) Affordability; and 3) Community, but with independence as desired. These interconnected components are helping residents transition from homelessness or long-term mental health inpatient care to live in the community. Despite some participant concerns about resident conflicts, staff availability, and affordability, this has been a welcome and successful move for most. Conclusion: Supportive housing is essential for successful tenancies as a platform for health and well-being among Canada’s most vulnerable and, from the perspective of persons recently re-housed, permanent supportive housing is a worthwhile investment.

Keywords: homelessness, supportive housing, rehoused, housing stability

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34 High-Risk Gene Variant Profiling Models Ethnic Disparities in Diabetes Vulnerability

Authors: Jianhua Zhang, Weiping Chen, Guanjie Chen, Jason Flannick, Emma Fikse, Glenda Smerin, Yanqin Yang, Yulong Li, John A. Hanover, William F. Simonds

Abstract:

Ethnic disparities in many diseases are well recognized and reflect the consequences of genetic, behavior, and environmental factors. However, direct scientific evidence connecting the ethnic genetic variations and the disease disparities has been elusive, which may have led to the ethnic inequalities in large scale genetic studies. Through the genome-wide analysis of data representing 185,934 subjects, including 14,955 from our own studies of the African America Diabetes Mellitus, we discovered sets of genetic variants either unique to or conserved in all ethnicities. We further developed a quantitative gene function-based high-risk variant index (hrVI) of 20,428 genes to establish profiles that strongly correlate with the subjects' self-identified ethnicities. With respect to the ability to detect human essential and pathogenic genes, the hrVI analysis method is both comparable with and complementary to the well-known genetic analysis methods, pLI and VIRlof. Application of the ethnicity-specific hrVI analysis to the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) national repository, containing 20,791 cases and 24,440 controls, identified 114 candidate T2DM-associated genes, 8.8-fold greater than that of ethnicity-blind analysis. All the genes identified are defined as either pathogenic or likely-pathogenic in ClinVar database, with 33.3% diabetes-associated and 54.4% obesity-associated genes. These results demonstrate the utility of hrVI analysis and provide the first genetic evidence by clustering patterns of how genetic variations among ethnicities may impede the discovery of diabetes and foreseeably other disease-associated genes.

Keywords: diabetes-associated genes, ethnic health disparities, high-risk variant index, hrVI, T2DM

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33 Effects of Accelerated Environment Aging on the Mechanical Properties of a Coir Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite

Authors: Ricardo Mendoza, Jason Briceño, Juan F. Santa, Gabriel Peluffo, Mauricio Márquez, Beatriz Cardozo, Carlos Gutiérrez

Abstract:

Coir natural fiber reinforced polyester composites were exposed to an accelerated environment aging in order to study the influence on the mechanical properties. Coir fibers were obtained in local plantations of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. A physical and mechanical characterization was necessary to found the best behavior between three types of coconut. Composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique and samples were cut by water jet technique. An accelerated aging test simulates environmental climate conditions in a hygrothermal and ultraviolet chamber. Samples were exposed to the UV/moisture rich environment for 500 and 1000 hours. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM G154. An additional water absorption test was carried out by immersing specimens in a water bath. Mechanical behaviors of the composites were tested by tensile, flexural and impact test according to ASTM standards, after aging and compared with unaged composite specimens. It was found that accelerated environment aging affects mechanical properties in comparison with unaged ones. Tensile and flexural strength were lower after aging, meantime elongation at break and flexural deflection increased. Impact strength was found that reduced after aging. Other result revealed that the percentage of moisture uptake increased with aging. This results showed that composite materials reinforced with natural fibers required an improvement adding a protective barrier to reduce water absorption and increase UV resistance.

Keywords: coir fiber, polyester composites, environmental aging, mechanical properties

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32 Assessment of the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken Fern) Invasion on the Grassland Plateau in Nyika National Park

Authors: Andrew Kanzunguze, Lusayo Mwabumba, Jason K. Gilbertson, Dominic B. Gondwe, George Z. Nxumayo

Abstract:

Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution of invasive plants in protected areas provides a base from which hypotheses explaining proliferation of plant invasions can be made alongside development of relevant invasive plant monitoring programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of bracken fern on the grassland plateau of Nyika National Park over the past 30 years (1986-2016) as well as to determine the current extent of the invasion. Remote sensing, machine learning, and statistical modelling techniques (object-based image analysis, image classification and linear regression analysis) in geographical information systems were used to determine both the spatial and temporal distribution of bracken fern in the study area. Results have revealed that bracken fern has been increasing coverage on the Nyika plateau at an estimated annual rate of 87.3 hectares since 1986. This translates to an estimated net increase of 2,573.1 hectares, which was recorded from 1,788.1 hectares (1986) to 4,361.9 hectares (2016). As of 2017 bracken fern covered 20,940.7 hectares, approximately 14.3% of the entire grassland plateau. Additionally, it was observed that the fern was distributed most densely around Chelinda camp (on the central plateau) as well as in forest verges and roadsides across the plateau. Based on these results it is recommended that Ecological Niche Modelling approaches be employed to (i) isolate the most important factors influencing bracken fern proliferation as well as (ii) identify and prioritize areas requiring immediate control interventions so as to minimize bracken fern proliferation in Nyika National Park.

Keywords: bracken fern, image classification, Landsat-8, Nyika National Park, spatio-temporal distribution

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31 Characterising the Dynamic Friction in the Staking of Plain Spherical Bearings

Authors: Jacob Hatherell, Jason Matthews, Arnaud Marmier

Abstract:

Anvil Staking is a cold-forming process that is used in the assembly of plain spherical bearings into a rod-end housing. This process ensures that the bearing outer lip conforms to the chamfer in the matching rod end to produce a lightweight mechanical joint with sufficient strength to meet the pushout load requirement of the assembly. Finite Element (FE) analysis is being used extensively to predict the behaviour of metal flow in cold forming processes to support industrial manufacturing and product development. On-going research aims to validate FE models across a wide range of bearing and rod-end geometries by systematically isolating and understanding the uncertainties caused by variations in, material properties, load-dependent friction coefficients and strain rate sensitivity. The improved confidence in these models aims to eliminate the costly and time-consuming process of experimental trials in the introduction of new bearing designs. Previous literature has shown that friction coefficients do not remain constant during cold forming operations, however, the understanding of this phenomenon varies significantly and is rarely implemented in FE models. In this paper, a new approach to evaluate the normal contact pressure versus friction coefficient relationship is outlined using friction calibration charts generated via iterative FE models and ring compression tests. When compared to previous research, this new approach greatly improves the prediction of forming geometry and the forming load during the staking operation. This paper also aims to standardise the FE approach to modelling ring compression test and determining the friction calibration charts.

Keywords: anvil staking, finite element analysis, friction coefficient, spherical plain bearing, ring compression tests

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30 Implementation of an Induction Programme to Help the International Medical Graduates in the NHS

Authors: Mohammad K. Rumjaun, Sana Amjed, Muhammad A. Ghazi, Safa G. Attar, Jason Raw

Abstract:

Background: National Health Service (NHS) in England is one of the leading healthcare systems in the world and it heavily relies on the recruitment of overseas doctors. 30.7% of the doctors currently serving in NHS are overseas doctors. Most of these doctors do not receive the essential induction required to work in the NHS when they first arrive and therefore, they mostly struggle to work effectively in the first few months of their new jobs as compared to UK graduates. In our hospital, the clinical need for a dedicated induction programme for the International Medical Graduates (IMGs) was identified for their initial settling period and this programme was designed to achieve this. Methods: A questionnaire was designed for the previous 7 IMGs (Group 1) in order to identify the difficulties they faced in their initial phase. Thereafter, an induction programme consisting of presentations explaining the NHS and hospital framework, communication skills practice sessions, the clinical ceiling of care and patient simulation training was implemented for 6 new IMGs (Group 2). Another survey was done and compared with the previous. Results: After this programme, group 2 required only 1 week to understand the complexity of the IT systems as compared 3 weeks in group 1. 83% of group 2 was well-supported for their on-call duties after this programme as compared to 29% and 100% of group 2 was aware of their role in the job after the induction as compared to 0%. Furthermore, group 2 was able to function independently and confidently in their roles after only 1 month as compared to an average of 3 months for group 1. After running the PDSA cycles, our results show clear evidence that this programme has tremendously benefitted the IMGs in settling in the NHS. The IMGs really appreciated this initiative and have given positive feedback. Conclusion: Leaving your home country to begin your career in a different country is not an easy transition and undoubtedly, everyone struggles. It is important to invest in a well-structured induction programme for the IMGs in the initial phase of their jobs as this will improve not only their confidence and efficacy but also patients’ safety.

Keywords: induction programme, international medical graduates, NHS, overseas doctors struggles.

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