Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17126

Search results for: immersed solid method

17126 A Unified Ghost Solid Method for the Elastic Solid-Solid Interface

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Boo Cheong Khoo


The Ghost Solid Method (GSM) based algorithms have been extensively used for numerical calculation of wave propagation in the limit of abrupt changes in materials. In this work, we present a unified version of the GSMs that can be successfully applied to both abrupt as well as smooth changes of the material properties in a medium. The application of this method enables us to use the previously-matured numerical algorithms which were developed to be applied to homogeneous mediums, with only minor modifications. This method is developed for one-dimensional settings and its extension to multi-dimensions is briefly discussed. Various numerical experiments are presented to show the applicability of this unified GSM to wave propagation problems in sharply as well as smoothly varying mediums.

Keywords: elastic solid, functionally graded material, ghost solid method, solid-solid interaction

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17125 Numerical Investigation of Flow Characteristics inside the External Gear Pump Using Urea Liquid Medium

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


In selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, the injection system is provided with unique dosing pump to govern the urea injection phenomenon. The urea based operating liquid from the AdBlue tank links up directly with the dosing pump unit to furnish appropriate high pressure for examining the flow characteristics inside the liquid pump. This work aims in demonstrating the importance of external gear pump to provide pertinent high pressure and respective mass flow rate for each rotation. Numerical simulations are conducted using immersed solid method technique for better understanding of unsteady flow characteristics within the pump. Parametric analyses have been carried out for the gear speed and mass flow rate to find the behavior of pressure fluctuations. In the simulation results, the outlet pressure achieves maximum magnitude with the increase in rotational speed and the fluctuations grow higher.

Keywords: AdBlue tank, external gear pump, immersed solid method, selective catalytic reduction

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17124 Comparison of Electrical Parameters of Oil-Immersed and Dry-Type Transformer Using Finite Element Method

Authors: U. Amin, A. Talib, S. A. Qureshi, M. J. Hossain, G. Ahmad


The choice evaluation between oil-immersed and dry-type transformers is often controlled by cost, location, and application. This paper compares the electrical performance of liquid- filled and dry-type transformers, which will assist the customer to choose the right and efficient ones for particular applications. An accurate assessment of the time-average flux density, electric field intensity and voltage distribution in an oil-insulated and a dry-type transformer have been computed and investigated. The detailed transformer modeling and analysis has been carried out to determine electrical parameter distributions. The models of oil-immersed and dry-type transformers are developed and solved by using the finite element method (FEM) to compare the electrical parameters. The effects of non-uniform and non-coherent voltage gradient, flux density and electric field distribution on the power losses and insulation properties of transformers are studied in detail. The results show that, for the same voltage and kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) rating, oil-immersed transformers have better insulation properties and less hysteresis losses than the dry-type.

Keywords: finite element method, flux density, transformer, voltage gradient

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17123 Numerical Simulation of Two-Dimensional Flow over a Stationary Circular Cylinder Using Feedback Forcing Scheme Based Immersed Boundary Finite Volume Method

Authors: Ranjith Maniyeri, Ahamed C. Saleel


Two-dimensional fluid flow over a stationary circular cylinder is one of the bench mark problem in the field of fluid-structure interaction in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Motivated by this, in the present work, a two-dimensional computational model is developed using an improved version of immersed boundary method which combines the feedback forcing scheme of the virtual boundary method with Peskin’s regularized delta function approach. Lagrangian coordinates are used to represent the cylinder and Eulerian coordinates are used to describe the fluid flow. A two-dimensional Dirac delta function is used to transfer the quantities between the sold to fluid domain. Further, continuity and momentum equations governing the fluid flow are solved using fractional step based finite volume method on a staggered Cartesian grid system. The developed code is validated by comparing the values of drag coefficient obtained for different Reynolds numbers with that of other researcher’s results. Also, through numerical simulations for different Reynolds numbers flow behavior is well captured. The stability analysis of the improved version of immersed boundary method is tested for different values of feedback forcing coefficients.

Keywords: Feedback Forcing Scheme, Finite Volume Method, Immersed Boundary Method, Navier-Stokes Equations

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17122 A Numerical Study of Force-Based Boundary Conditions in Multiparticle Collision Dynamics

Authors: Arturo Ayala-Hernandez, Humberto Hijar


We propose a new alternative method for imposing fluid-solid boundary conditions in simulations of Multiparticle Collision Dynamics. Our method is based on the introduction of an explicit potential force acting between the fluid particles and a surface representing a solid boundary. We show that our method can be used in simulations of plane Poiseuille flows. Important quantities characterizing the flow and the fluid-solid interaction like the slip coefficient at the solid boundary and the effective viscosity of the fluid, are measured in terms of the set of independent parameters defining the numerical implementation. We find that our method can be used to simulate the correct hydrodynamic flow within a wide range of values of these parameters.

Keywords: Multiparticle Collision Dynamics, fluid-solid, boundary conditions, molecular dynamics

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17121 Preparation of Li Ion Conductive Ceramics via Liquid Process

Authors: M. Kotobuki, M. Koishi


Li1.5Al0.5Ti1.5 (PO4)3(LATP) has received much attention as a solid electrolyte for lithium batteries. In this study, the LATP solid electrolyte is prepared by the co-precipitation method using Li3PO4 as a Li source. The LATP is successfully prepared and the Li ion conductivities of bulk (inner crystal) and total (inner crystal and grain boundary) are 1.1 × 10-3 and 1.1 × 10-4 S cm-1, respectively. These values are comparable to the reported values, in which Li2C2O4 is used as the Li source. It is conclude that the LATP solid electrolyte can be prepared by the co-precipitation method using Li3PO4 as the Li source and this procedure has an advantage in mass production over previous procedure using Li2C2O4 because Li3PO4 is lower price reagent compared with Li2C2O4.

Keywords: co-precipitation method, lithium battery, NASICON-type electrolyte, solid electrolyte

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17120 Application of Large Eddy Simulation-Immersed Boundary Volume Penalization Method for Heat and Mass Transfer in Granular Layers

Authors: Artur Tyliszczak, Ewa Szymanek, Maciej Marek


Flow through granular materials is important to a vast array of industries, for instance in construction industry where granular layers are used for bulkheads and isolators, in chemical engineering and catalytic reactors where large surfaces of packed granular beds intensify chemical reactions, or in energy production systems, where granulates are promising materials for heat storage and heat transfer media. Despite the common usage of granulates and extensive research performed in this field, phenomena occurring between granular solid elements or between solids and fluid are still not fully understood. In the present work we analyze the heat exchange process between the flowing medium (gas, liquid) and solid material inside the granular layers. We consider them as a composite of isolated solid elements and inter-granular spaces in which a gas or liquid can flow. The structure of the layer is controlled by shapes of particular granular elements (e.g., spheres, cylinders, cubes, Raschig rings), its spatial distribution or effective characteristic dimension (total volume or surface area). We will analyze to what extent alteration of these parameters influences on flow characteristics (turbulent intensity, mixing efficiency, heat transfer) inside the layer and behind it. Analysis of flow inside granular layers is very complicated because the use of classical experimental techniques (LDA, PIV, fibber probes) inside the layers is practically impossible, whereas the use of probes (e.g. thermocouples, Pitot tubes) requires drilling of holes inside the solid material. Hence, measurements of the flow inside granular layers are usually performed using for instance advanced X-ray tomography. In this respect, theoretical or numerical analyses of flow inside granulates seem crucial. Application of discrete element methods in combination with the classical finite volume/finite difference approaches is problematic as a mesh generation process for complex granular material can be very arduous. A good alternative for simulation of flow in complex domains is an immersed boundary-volume penalization (IB-VP) in which the computational meshes have simple Cartesian structure and impact of solid objects on the fluid is mimicked by source terms added to the Navier-Stokes and energy equations. The present paper focuses on application of the IB-VP method combined with large eddy simulation (LES). The flow solver used in this work is a high-order code (SAILOR), which was used previously in various studies, including laminar/turbulent transition in free flows and also for flows in wavy channels, wavy pipes and over various shape obstacles. In these cases a formal order of approximation turned out to be in between 1 and 2, depending on the test case. The current research concentrates on analyses of the flows in dense granular layers with elements distributed in a deterministic regular manner and validation of the results obtained using LES-IB method and body-fitted approach. The comparisons are very promising and show very good agreement. It is found that the size, number of elements and their distribution have huge impact on the obtained results. Ordering of the granular elements (or lack of it) affects both the pressure drop and efficiency of the heat transfer as it significantly changes mixing process.

Keywords: granular layers, heat transfer, immersed boundary method, numerical simulations

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17119 Definition of Service Angle of Android’S Robot Hand by Method of Small Movements of Gripper’S Axis Synthesis by Speed Vector

Authors: Valeriy Nebritov


The paper presents a generalized method for determining the service solid angle based on the assigned gripper axis orientation with a stationary grip center. Motion synthesis in this work is carried out in the vector of velocities. As an example, a solid angle of the android robot arm is determined, this angle being formed by the longitudinal axis of a gripper. The nature of the method is based on the study of sets of configuration positions, defining the end point positions of the unit radius sphere sweep, which specifies the service solid angle. From this the spherical curve specifying the shape of the desired solid angle was determined. The results of the research can be used in the development of control systems of autonomous android robots.

Keywords: android robot, control systems, motion synthesis, service angle

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17118 Effect of Bi-Dispersity on Particle Clustering in Sedimentation

Authors: Ali Abbas Zaidi


In free settling or sedimentation, particles form clusters at high Reynolds number and dilute suspensions. It is due to the entrapment of particles in the wakes of upstream particles. In this paper, the effect of bi-dispersity of settling particles on particle clustering is investigated using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. Immersed boundary method is used for particle fluid interactions and discrete element method is used for particle-particle interactions. The solid volume fraction used in the simulation is 1% and the Reynolds number based on Sauter mean diameter is 350. Both solid volume fraction and Reynolds number lie in the clustering regime of sedimentation. In simulations, the particle diameter ratio (i.e. diameter of larger particle to smaller particle (d₁/d₂)) is varied from 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. For each case of particle diameter ratio, solid volume fraction for each particle size (φ₁/φ₂) is varied from 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. For comparison, simulations are also performed for monodisperse particles. For studying particles clustering, radial distribution function and instantaneous location of particles in the computational domain are studied. It is observed that the degree of particle clustering decreases with the increase in the bi-dispersity of settling particles. The smallest degree of particle clustering or dispersion of particles is observed for particles with d₁/d₂ equal to 4:1 and φ₁/φ₂ equal to 1:2. Simulations showed that the reduction in particle clustering by increasing bi-dispersity is due to the difference in settling velocity of particles. Particles with larger size settle faster and knockout the smaller particles from clustered regions of particles in the computational domain.

Keywords: dispersion in bi-disperse settling particles, particle microstructures in bi-disperse suspensions, particle resolved direct numerical simulations, settling of bi-disperse particles

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17117 Solubility Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Anticancer Drug, Docetaxel Using a Novel Polymer, Soluplus via Solid Dispersion Technique

Authors: Adinarayana Gorajana, Venkata Srikanth Meka, Sanjay Garg, Lim Sue May


This study was designed to evaluate and enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drug, docetaxel through solid dispersion (SD) technique prepared using freeze drying method. Docetaxel solid dispersions were formulated with Soluplus in different weight ratios. Freeze drying method was used to prepare the solid dispersions. Solubility of the solid dispersions were evaluated respectively and the optimized of drug-solubilizers ratio systems were characterized with different analytical methods like Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the formation of complexes between drug and solubilizers. The solubility data revealed an overall improvement in solubility for all SD formulations. The ternary combination 1:5:2 gave the highest increase in solubility that is approximately 3 folds from the pure drug, suggesting the optimum drug-solubilizers ratio system. This data corresponds with the DSC and SEM analyses, which demonstrates presence of drug in amorphous state and the dispersion in the solubilizers in molecular level. The solubility of the poorly soluble drug, docetaxel was enhanced through preparation of solid dispersion formulations employing freeze drying method. Solid dispersion with multiple carrier system shows better solubility compared to single carrier system.

Keywords: docetaxel, freeze drying, soluplus, solid dispersion technique

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17116 Simulation and Experimental of Solid Mixing of Free Flowing Material Using Solid Works in V-Blender

Authors: Amina Bouhaouche, Zineb Kaoua, Lila Lahreche, Sid Ali Kaoua, Kamel Daoud


The objective of this study is to present a novel approach for analyzing the solid dispersion and mixing performance by a numerical simulation method using solid works software of a monodisperse particles for a large span of time reached 20 minutes. To assure the viability of a numerical simulation, an experimental study of a binary mixture of monodiperse particles taken as free flowing material in a V blender was developed on the basis of relative standard deviation curves, and the arrangement of the particles in the vessel. The experimental results were discussed and compared to the numerical simulation results.

Keywords: non-cohesive material, solid mixing, solid works, v-blender

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17115 Compensatory Increased Activities of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complexes from Eyes of Glucose-Immersed Zebrafish

Authors: Jisun Jun, Eun Ko, Sooim Shin, Kitae Kim, Moonsung Choi


Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistant, mitochondrial dysfunction. Diabetes is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy resulting in worsening vision and eventual blindness. In this study, eyes were enucleated from glucose-immersed zebrafish which is a good animal model to generate diabetes, and then mitochondria were isolated to evaluate activities of mitochondrial electron transfer complexes. Surprisingly, the amount of isolated mitochondria was increased in eyes from glucose-immersed zebrafish compared to those from non-glucose-immerged zebrafish. Spectrophotometric analysis for measuring activities of mitochondrial complex I, II, III, and IV revealed that mitochondria functions was even enhanced in eyes from glucose-immersed zebrafish. These results indicated that 3 days or 7 days glucose-immersion on zebrafish to induce diabetes might contribute metabolic compensatory mechanism to restore their mitochondrial homeostasis on the early stage of diabetes in eyes.

Keywords: diabetes, glucose immersion, mitochondrial complexes, zebrafish

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17114 Fire Smoke Removal over Cu-Mn-Ce Oxide Catalyst with CO₂ Sorbent Addition: Co Oxidation and in-situ CO₂ Sorption

Authors: Jin Lin, Shouxiang Lu, Kim Meow Liew


In a fire accident, fire smoke often poses a serious threat to human safety especially in the enclosed space such as submarine and space-crafts environment. Efficient removal of the hazardous gas products particularly a large amount of CO and CO₂ gases from these confined space is critical for the security of the staff and necessary for the post-fire environment recovery. In this work, Cu-Mn-Ce composite oxide catalysts coupled with CO₂ sorbents were prepared using wet impregnation method, solid-state impregnation method and wet/solid-state impregnation method. The as-prepared samples were tested dynamically and isothermally for CO oxidation and CO₂ sorption and further characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and desorption, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results showed that all the samples were able to catalyze CO into CO₂ and capture CO₂ in situ by chemisorption. Among all the samples, the sample synthesized by the wet/solid-state impregnation method showed the highest catalytic activity toward CO oxidation and the fine ability of CO₂ sorption. The sample prepared by the solid-state impregnation method showed the second CO oxidation performance, while the coupled sample using the wet impregnation method exhibited much poor CO oxidation activity. The various CO oxidation and CO₂ sorption properties of the samples might arise from the different dispersed states of the CO₂ sorbent in the CO catalyst, owing to the different preparation methods. XRD results confirmed the high-dispersed sorbent phase in the samples prepared by the wet and solid impregnation method, while that of the sample prepared by wet/solid-state impregnation method showed the larger bulk phase as indicated by the high-intensity diffraction peaks. Nitrogen adsorption and desorption results further revealed that the latter sample had a higher surface area and pore volume, which were beneficial for the CO oxidation over the catalyst. Hence, the Cu-Mn-Ce oxide catalyst coupled with CO₂ sorbent using wet/solid-state impregnation method could be a good choice for fire smoke removal in the enclosed space.

Keywords: CO oxidation, CO₂ sorption, preparation methods, smoke removal

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17113 Two-Dimensional Analysis and Numerical Simulation of the Navier-Stokes Equations for Principles of Turbulence around Isothermal Bodies Immersed in Incompressible Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Romulo D. C. Santos, Silvio M. A. Gama, Ramiro G. R. Camacho


In this present paper, the thermos-fluid dynamics considering the mixed convection (natural and forced convections) and the principles of turbulence flow around complex geometries have been studied. In these applications, it was necessary to analyze the influence between the flow field and the heated immersed body with constant temperature on its surface. This paper presents a study about the Newtonian incompressible two-dimensional fluid around isothermal geometry using the immersed boundary method (IBM) with the virtual physical model (VPM). The numerical code proposed for all simulations satisfy the calculation of temperature considering Dirichlet boundary conditions. Important dimensionless numbers such as Strouhal number is calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Nusselt number, drag and lift coefficients, velocity and pressure. Streamlines and isothermal lines are presented for each simulation showing the flow dynamics and patterns. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations for mixed convection were discretized using the finite difference method for space and a second order Adams-Bashforth and Runge-Kuta 4th order methods for time considering the fractional step method to couple the calculation of pressure, velocity, and temperature. This work used for simulation of turbulence, the Smagorinsky, and Spalart-Allmaras models. The first model is based on the local equilibrium hypothesis for small scales and hypothesis of Boussinesq, such that the energy is injected into spectrum of the turbulence, being equal to the energy dissipated by the convective effects. The Spalart-Allmaras model, use only one transport equation for turbulent viscosity. The results were compared with numerical data, validating the effect of heat-transfer together with turbulence models. The IBM/VPM is a powerful tool to simulate flow around complex geometries. The results showed a good numerical convergence in relation the references adopted.

Keywords: immersed boundary method, mixed convection, turbulence methods, virtual physical model

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17112 Inverse Scattering of Two-Dimensional Objects Using an Enhancement Method

Authors: A.R. Eskandari, M.R. Eskandari


A 2D complete identification algorithm for dielectric and multiple objects immersed in air is presented. The employed technique consists of initially retrieving the shape and position of the scattering object using a linear sampling method and then determining the electric permittivity and conductivity of the scatterer using adjoint sensitivity analysis. This inversion algorithm results in high computational speed and efficiency, and it can be generalized for any scatterer structure. Also, this method is robust with respect to noise. The numerical results clearly show that this hybrid approach provides accurate reconstructions of various objects.

Keywords: inverse scattering, microwave imaging, two-dimensional objects, Linear Sampling Method (LSM)

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17111 Parametric Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Abir Yahya, Hacen Dhahri, Khalifa Slimi


The present paper deals with a numerical simulation of temperature field inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components. The temperature distribution is investigated using a co-flow planar SOFC comprising the air and fuel channel and two-ceramic electrodes, anode and cathode, separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for the numerical simulation of the physical problem. The effects of inlet temperature, anode thermal conductivity and current density on temperature distribution are discussed. It was found that temperature distribution is very sensitive to the inlet temperature and the current density.

Keywords: heat sources, Lattice Boltzmann method, solid oxide fuel cell, temperature

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17110 Contribution to the Analytical Study of Barrier Surface Waves: Decomposition of the Solution

Authors: T. Zitoun, M. Bouhadef


When a partially or completely immersed solid moves in a liquid such as water, it undergoes a force called hydrodynamic drag. Reducing this force has always been the objective of hydrodynamic engineers to make water slide better on submerged bodies. This paper deals with the examination of the different terms composing the analytical solution of the flow over an obstacle embedded at the bottom of a hydraulic channel. We have chosen to use a linear method to study a two-dimensional flow over an obstacle, in order to understand the evolution of the drag. We set the following assumptions: incompressible inviscid fluid, irrotational flow, low obstacle height compared to the water height. Those assumptions allow overcoming the difficulties associated with modelling these waves. We will mathematically formulate the equations that allow the determination of the stream function, and then the free surface equation. A similar method is used to determine the exact analytical solution for an obstacle in the shape of a sinusoidal arch.

Keywords: analytical solution, free-surface wave, hydraulic channel, inviscid fluid

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17109 Determination of Alkali Treatment Conditions Effects That Influence the Variability of Kenaf Fiber Mean Cross-Sectional Area

Authors: Mohd Yussni Hashim, Mohd Nazrul Roslan, Shahruddin Mahzan Mohd Zin, Saparudin Ariffin


Fiber cross-sectional area value is a crucial factor in determining the strength properties of natural fiber. Furthermore, unlike synthetic fiber, a diameter and cross-sectional area of natural fiber has a large variation along and between the fibers. This study aims to determine the main and interaction effects of alkali treatment conditions that influence kenaf bast fiber mean cross-sectional area. Three alkali treatment conditions at two different levels were selected. The conditions setting were alkali concentrations at two and ten w/v %; fiber immersed temperature at room temperature and 1000C; and fiber immersed duration for 30 and 480 minute. Untreated kenaf fiber was used as a control unit. Kenaf bast fiber bundle mounting tab was prepared according to ASTM C1557-03. The cross-sectional area was measured using a Leica video analyzer. The study result showed that kenaf fiber bundle mean cross-sectional area was reduced 6.77% to 29.88% after alkali treatment. From the analysis of variance, it shows that the interaction of alkali concentration and immersed time has a higher magnitude at 0.1619 compared to alkali concentration and immersed temperature interaction that was 0.0896. For the main effect, alkali concentration factor contributes to the higher magnitude at 0.1372 which indicated the decrease pattern of variability when the level changed from lower to the higher level. Then, it was followed by immersed temperature at 0.1261 and immersed time at 0.0696 magnitudes.

Keywords: natural fiber, kenaf bast fiber bundles, alkali treatment, cross-sectional area

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17108 Efficient Implementation of Finite Volume Multi-Resolution Weno Scheme on Adaptive Cartesian Grids

Authors: Yuchen Yang, Zhenming Wang, Jun Zhu, Ning Zhao


An easy-to-implement and robust finite volume multi-resolution Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) scheme is proposed on adaptive cartesian grids in this paper. Such a multi-resolution WENO scheme is combined with the ghost cell immersed boundary method (IBM) and wall-function technique to solve Navier-Stokes equations. Unlike the k-exact finite volume WENO schemes which involve large amounts of extra storage, repeatedly solving the matrix generated in a least-square method or the process of calculating optimal linear weights on adaptive cartesian grids, the present methodology only adds very small overhead and can be easily implemented in existing edge-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes with minor modifications. Also, the linear weights of this adaptive finite volume multi-resolution WENO scheme can be any positive numbers on condition that their sum is one. It is a way of bypassing the calculation of the optimal linear weights and such a multi-resolution WENO scheme avoids dealing with the negative linear weights on adaptive cartesian grids. Some benchmark viscous problems are numerical solved to show the efficiency and good performance of this adaptive multi-resolution WENO scheme. Compared with a second-order edge-based method, the presented method can be implemented into an adaptive cartesian grid with slight modification for big Reynolds number problems.

Keywords: adaptive mesh refinement method, finite volume multi-resolution WENO scheme, immersed boundary method, wall-function technique.

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17107 Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution (RESS) Carbon Dioxide as an Environmental Friendly Method for Ginger Rhizome Solid Oil Particles Formation

Authors: N. A. Zainuddin, I. Norhuda, I. S. Adeib, A. N. Mustapa, S. H. Sarijo


Recently, RESS (Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution) method has been used by researchers to produce fine particles for pharmaceutical drug substances. Since RESS technology acknowledges a lot of benefits compare to conventional method of ginger extraction, it is suggested to use this method to explore particle formation of bioactive compound from powder ginger. The objective of this research is to produce direct solid oil particles formation from ginger rhizome which contains valuable compounds by using RESS-CO2 process. RESS experiments were carried using extraction pressure of 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000psi and at different extraction temperature of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70°C for 40 minutes extraction time and contant flowrate (24ml/min). From the studies conducted, it was found that at extraction pressure 5000psi and temperature 40°C, the smallest particle size obtained was 2.22μm on 99 % reduction from the original size of 370μm.

Keywords: particle size, RESS, solid oil particle, supercritical carbon dioxide,

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17106 Forecasting Solid Waste Generation in Turkey

Authors: Yeliz Ekinci, Melis Koyuncu


Successful planning of solid waste management systems requires successful prediction of the amount of solid waste generated in an area. Waste management planning can protect the environment and human health, hence it is tremendously important for countries. The lack of information in waste generation can cause many environmental and health problems. Turkey is a country that plans to join European Union, hence, solid waste management is one of the most significant criteria that should be handled in order to be a part of this community. Solid waste management system requires a good forecast of solid waste generation. Thus, this study aims to forecast solid waste generation in Turkey. Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression models will be used for this aim. Many models will be run and the best one will be selected based on some predetermined performance measures.

Keywords: forecast, solid waste generation, solid waste management, Turkey

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17105 Sediment Patterns from Fluid-Bed Interactions: A Direct Numerical Simulations Study on Fluvial Turbulent Flows

Authors: Nadim Zgheib, Sivaramakrishnan Balachandar


We present results on the initial formation of ripples from an initially flattened erodible bed. We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow over a fixed sinusoidal bed coupled with hydrodynamic stability analysis. We use the direct forcing immersed boundary method to account for the presence of the sediment bed. The resolved flow provides the bed shear stress and consequently the sediment transport rate, which is needed in the stability analysis of the Exner equation. The approach is different from traditional linear stability analysis in the sense that the phase lag between the bed topology, and the sediment flux is obtained from the DNS. We ran 11 simulations at a fixed shear Reynolds number of 180, but for different sediment bed wavelengths. The analysis allows us to sweep a large range of physical and modelling parameters to predict their effects on linear growth. The Froude number appears to be the critical controlling parameter in the early linear development of ripples, in contrast with the dominant role of particle Reynolds number during the equilibrium stage.

Keywords: direct numerical simulation, immersed boundary method, sediment-bed interactions, turbulent multiphase flow, linear stability analysis

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17104 Preliminary Study on the Removal of Solid Uranium Compound in Nuclear Fuel Production System

Authors: Bai Zhiwei, Zhang Shuxia


By sealing constraint, the system of nuclear fuel production penetrates a trace of air in during its service. The vapor in the air can react with material in the system and generate solid uranium compounds. These solid uranium compounds continue to accumulate and attached to the production equipment and pipeline of system, which not only affects the operation reliability of production equipment and give off radiation hazard as well after system retired. Therefore, it is necessary to select a reasonable method to remove it. Through the analysis of physicochemical properties of solid uranium compounds, halogenated fluoride compounds are selected as a cleaning agent, which can remove solid uranium compounds effectively. This paper studied the related chemical reaction under the condition of static test and results show that the selection of high fluoride halogen compounds can be removed solid uranium compounds completely. The study on the influence of reaction pressure with the reaction rate discovered a phenomenon that the higher the pressure, the faster the reaction rate.

Keywords: fluoride halogen compound, remove, radiation, solid uranium compound

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17103 Effect of Aging Treatment on Tensile Properties of AZ91D Mg Alloy

Authors: Ju Hyun Won, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


Phase equilibria of AZ91D Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, which revealed that solid solution treatment, could be performed at temperatures from 400 to 450 °C. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy without Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420 °C and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. In the case of AZ91D Mg alloy with some Ca and Y, however, a little amount of intermetallic particles were observed after solid solution treatment. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200 °C for 10 hrs.

Keywords: Mg alloy, AZ91D, nonflammable alloy, phase equilibrium, peak aging

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17102 Analysis of the Impacts and Challenges of Conventional Solid Waste Management in Urban Centers of Developing Countries

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, J. Mohammed Umar, U. M. Bashir


Solid waste management continued to be the biggest threat to the sustainability of urban centers of developing countries. Most streets corners of these urban centers are characterized by heaps of uncollected wastes at drains, public spaces and road sides destroying the aesthetic qualities and environmental ecosystems of these cities. Also, harboring disease vectors and rodents putting the health of the populace at risk, thus posing a serious challenge to the municipalities who are in most cases responsible for the solid waste management in these cities. The typical or commonest method adapted by these agencies in dealing with the solid waste management is the conventional approach; focusing mainly on waste collection ,treatment(composting and incineration)and disposal giving little consideration to the 3RS, of waste reduce, re-used and recycled. The resultant consequence being huge budget spending in solid waste management as high as 80% but little collection rate as low as 50%. This paper attempt to analyze the impacts and effects of the conventional solid waste management practices on the stakeholders in solid waste management; the municipal authorities, the communities, formal and informal waste managers, the NGOs and CBOs and suggests appropriate measures that would lessen the effects.

Keywords: conventional waste management, solid waste, waste stakeholders, developing countries

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17101 Thixomixing as Novel Method for Fabrication Aluminum Composite with Carbon and Alumina Fibers

Authors: Ebrahim Akbarzadeh, Josep A. Picas Barrachina, Maite Baile Puig


This study focuses on a novel method for dispersion and distribution of reinforcement under high intensive shear stress to produce metal composites. The polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based short carbon fiber (Csf) and Nextel 610 alumina fiber were dispersed under high intensive shearing at mushy zone in semi-solid of A356 by a novel method. The bundles and clusters were embedded by infiltration of slurry into the clusters, thus leading to a uniform microstructure. The fibers were embedded homogenously into the aluminum around 576-580°C with around 46% of solid fraction. Other experiments at 615°C and 568°C which are contained 0% and 90% solid respectively were not successful for dispersion and infiltration of aluminum into bundles of Csf. The alumina fiber has been cracked by high shearing load. The morphologies and crystalline phase were evaluated by SEM and XRD. The adopted thixo-process effectively improved the adherence and distribution of Csf into Al that can be developed to produce various composites by thixomixing.

Keywords: aluminum, carbon fiber, alumina fiber, thixomixing, adhesion

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17100 Assessment of Solid Waste Management in General Mohammed Inuwa Wushishi Housing Estate, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Garba Inuwa Kuta, Mohammed, Adamu, Mohammed Ahmed Emigilati, Ibrahim Ishiaku, Kudu Dangana


The study sought to identify the problems of solid waste management in General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. The two broad types of data, the secondary and primary data were used in the study. Questionnaires and personal observations were also used to collect some of the data. Factors impeding the effective and efficient solid waste management were identified. The study revealed that sacks disposal method and open dumping are the most commonly used method of disposal, about 30.0% of the respondent use sacks disposal method in the estate while 24.9% dump their refuse on the floor. Wrong attitudes and perceptions of the people about sanitation issues contributed to solid waste management problems of General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. Majority of the households did not educate their members on the need to clean their surroundings and refuse to buy drum for waste disposal from Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) on the basis that the drums are expensive. Virtually, all the people depended on Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) facilities for the disposal of their household refuse. Solid waste management problems were partly the results of NISEPA’s inability to cope with the situation because of lack of equipment. It was recommended that there should be an increase in enlightenment to the people on domestic waste disposal to keep the surroundings clean.

Keywords: housing estate, assessment, solid waste, disposal, management

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17099 Numerical Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction Using Two-Way Method

Authors: Samira Laidaoui, Mohammed Djermane, Nazihe Terfaya


The fluid-structure coupling is a natural phenomenon which reflects the effects of two continuums: fluid and structure of different types in the reciprocal action on each other, involving knowledge of elasticity and fluid mechanics. The solution for such problems is based on the relations of continuum mechanics and is mostly solved with numerical methods. It is a computational challenge to solve such problems because of the complex geometries, intricate physics of fluids, and complicated fluid-structure interactions. The way in which the interaction between fluid and solid is described gives the largest opportunity for reducing the computational effort. In this paper, a problem of fluid structure interaction is investigated with two-way coupling method. The formulation Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) was used, by considering a dynamic grid, where the solid is described by a Lagrangian formulation and the fluid by a Eulerian formulation. The simulation was made on the ANSYS software.

Keywords: ALE, coupling, FEM, fluid-structure, interaction, one-way method, two-way method

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17098 Reference Intensity Ratio Semi-Quantitative Analysis of Cordierite-Mullite Synthesis by a Solid State Method

Authors: D. Wattanasiriwech, S. Wattanasiriwech


In this paper, attempt to synthesize designed cordierite-mullite system with various ratios was performed using a solid-state method. Alumina, quartz, magnesia, and talc were used as starting materials for the synthesis. Talc was added for two purposes; to assist the reaction progress and to be the Mg source. The raw materials were mixed and fired at 1350°C for 2 h and 1400°C for 2 and 4 h. The resulting phase compositions were analysed using the Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR) semi-quantitative analysis method. The highest amount of cordierite up to Cordierite phase 96% could be obtained at the firing scheme of 1400°C for 4 h in the C100-M0. Mullite could not be formed at the selected scheme if talc did not present so no pure mullite was observed in the selected firing regime. The highest amount of mullite co-existed with cordierite and other phases were 74%.

Keywords: RIR semi-quantitative analysis, cordierite-mullite system, solid state synthesis, X-Ray diffraction

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17097 Seed Priming Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for Germination and Emergence

Authors: Pakize Ozlem Kurt Polat, Gizem Metin, Koksal Yagdi


In order to evaluate the effect of the different sources of salt on germination and early growth of five wheat cultivars (Katea, Bezostaja, Koksal-2000, Golia, Pehlivan) an experiment was conducted at the seed laboratory of the Uludag University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Field Crops in Bursa/Turkey. Seeds were applied in five different resources media (KCl % 2, KCl %4, KNO₃ %0,5, KH₂PO₄ %0,5, PEG %10) and distilled water as the control). The seed was fully immersed in priming media at a temperature of 24ᵒC for durations of 12 and 24hours. Six different agronomic characters (seed germination, stem length, stem weight, radicle length, fresh weight, dry weight) were measured in 7th days and 14th days. Maximum seed germination percentage of seven days are Pehlivan was observed when the seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ and Katea by distilled water as a control. The most stem length and stem weight were obtained for seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ %0,5 with Katea and Bezostja immersed in priming media at 12h intervals beginning 7d after planting. Seeds were applied KH₂PO₄ %0,5 media produced maximum radicle length by Koksal and dry weight by Katea. The freshest weight obtains in Katea by KNO₃ %0,5 immersed in priming media at 24h. The most germination percent, dry weight, stem length of fourteen days was observed in Katea which subjected to KH₂PO₄ %0,5 solution. The most radicle length was observed Katea and Koksal in media of KH₂PO₄ %0,5. The most stem length was obtained for seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ %0,5 and KNO₃ with Katea and Bezostaja. When the applied chemicals and all days examined KH₂PO₄ %0,5 treatment in fourteen days and immersed for the duration of 24 hours had better effects than other medias, seven days treatments and 12hours immersed. As a result of this research, the best response of media for the wheat germination can be said that the KH₂PO₄ %0,5 immersed in priming media at 24h intervals beginning 14 days after planting.

Keywords: germination, priming, seedling growth, wheat

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