Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 636

Search results for: open-cell aluminum foams

636 Energy Absorption Capacity of Aluminium Foam Manufactured by Kelvin Model Loaded Under Different Biaxial Combined Compression-Torsion Conditions

Authors: H. Solomon, A. Abdul-Latif, R. Baleh, I. Deiab, K. Khanafer


Aluminum foams were developed and tested due to their high energy absorption abilities for multifunctional applications. The aim of this research work was to investigate experimentally the effect of quasi-static biaxial loading complexity (combined compression-torsion) on the energy absorption capacity of highly uniform architecture open-cell aluminum foam manufactured by kelvin cell model. The two generated aluminum foams have 80% and 85% porosities, spherical-shaped pores having 11mm in diameter. These foams were tested by means of several square-section specimens. A patented rig called ACTP (Absorption par Compression-Torsion Plastique), was used to investigate the foam response under quasi-static complex loading paths having different torsional components (i.e., 0°, 37° and 53°). The main mechanical responses of the aluminum foams were studied under simple, intermediate and severe loading conditions. In fact, the key responses to be examined were stress plateau and energy absorption capacity of the two foams with respect to loading complexity. It was concluded that the higher the loading complexity and the higher the relative density, the greater the energy absorption capacity of the foam. The highest energy absorption was thus recorded under the most complicated loading path (i.e., biaxial-53°) for the denser foam (i.e., 80% porosity).

Keywords: open-cell aluminum foams, biaxial loading complexity, foams porosity, energy absorption capacity, characterization

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635 Production of Polyurethane Foams from Bark Wastes

Authors: Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, Liliana Rodrigues, Idalina Domingos, José Ferreira, Luís Teixeira de Lemos, Bruno Esteves


Currently, the polyurethanes industry is dependent on fossil resources to obtain their basic raw materials (polyols and isocyanate), as these are obtained from petroleum products. The aim of this work was to use biopolyols from liquefied Pseudotsuga (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) barks for the production of polyurethane foams and optimize the process. Liquefaction was done with glycerol catalyzed by KOH. Foams were produced following different formulations and using biopolyols from both barks. Subsequently, the foams were characterized according to their mechanical properties and the reaction of the foam formation was monitored by FTIR-ATR. The results show that it is possible to produce polyurethane foams using bio-based polyols and the liquefaction conditions are very important because they influence the characteristics of biopolyols and, consequently the characteristics of the foams. However, the process has to be further optimized so that it can obtain better quality foams.

Keywords: Bio-based polyol, mechanical tests, polyurethane foam, Pseudotsuga bark, renewable resources, Turkey oak bark

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
634 Mechanical Response of Aluminum Foam Under Biaxial Combined Quasi-Static Compression-Torsional Loads

Authors: Solomon Huluka, Akrum Abdul-Latif, Rachid Baleh


Metal foams have been developed intensively as a new class of materials for the last two decades due to their unique structural and multifunctional properties. The aim of this experimental work was to characterize the effect of biaxial loading complexity (combined compression-torsion) on the plastic response of highly uniform architecture open-cell aluminum foams of spherical porous with a density of 80%. For foam manufacturing, the Kelvin cells model was used to generate the generally spherical shape with a cell diameter of 11 mm. A patented rig called ACTP (Absorption par Compression-Torsion Plastique), was used to investigate the foam response under quasi-static complex loading paths having different torsional components (i.e. 0°, 45° and 60°). The key mechanical responses to be examined are yield stress, stress plateau, and energy absorption capacity. The collapse mode was also investigated. It was concluded that the higher the loading complexity, the greater the yield strength and the greater energy absorption capacity of the foam. Experimentally, it was also noticed that there were large softening effects that occurred after the first pick stress for both biaxial-45° and biaxial-60° loading.

Keywords: aluminum foam, loading complexity, characterization, biaxial loading

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633 In-Situ Quasistatic Compression and Microstructural Characterization of Aluminium Foams of Different Cell Topology

Authors: M. A. Islam, P. J. Hazell, J. P. Escobedo, M. Saadatfar


Quasistatic compression and micro structural characterization of closed cell aluminium foams of different pore size and cell distributions has been carried out. Metallic foams have good potential for lightweight structures for impact and blast mitigation and therefore it is important to find out the optimized foam structure (i.e. cell size, shape, relative density, and distribution) to maximize energy absorption. In this paper, we present results for two different aluminium metal foams of density 0.5 g/cc and 0.7 g/cc respectively that have been tested in quasi-static compression. The influence of cell geometry and cell topology on quasistatic compression behavior has been investigated using computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. The compression behavior and micro structural characterization will be presented.

Keywords: metal foams, micro-CT, cell topology, quasistatic compression

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632 Synthesis of Low-Cost Porous Silicon Carbide Foams from Renewable Sources

Authors: M. A. Bayona, E. M. Cordoba, V. R. Guiza


Highly porous carbon-based foams are used in a wide range of industrial applications, which include absorption, catalyst supports, thermal insulation, and biomaterials, among others. Particularly, silicon carbide (SiC) based foams have shown exceptional potential for catalyst support applications, due to their chemical inertness, large frontal area, low resistance to flow, low-pressure drop, as well as high resistance to temperature and corrosion. These properties allow the use of SiC foams in harsh environments with high durability. Commonly, SiC foams are fabricated from polysiloxane, SiC powders and phenolic resins, which can be costly or highly toxic to the environment. In this work, we propose a low-cost method for the fabrication of highly porous, three-dimensional SiC foams via template replica, using recycled polymeric sponges as sacrificial templates. A sucrose-based resin combined with a Si-containing pre-ceramic polymer was used as the precursor. Polymeric templates were impregnated with the precursor solution, followed by thermal treatment at 1500 °C under an inert atmosphere. Several synthesis parameters, such as viscosity and composition of the precursor solution (Si: Sucrose molar ratio), and the porosity of the template, were evaluated in terms of their effect on the morphology, composition and mechanical resistance of the resulting SiC foams. The synthesized composite foams exhibited a highly porous (50-90%) and interconnected structure, containing 30-90% SiC with a mechanical compressive strength between 0.01-0.1 MPa. The methodology employed here allowed the fabrication of foams with a varied concentration of SiC and with morphological and mechanical properties that contribute to the development of materials of high relevance in the industry, while using low-cost, renewable sources such as table sugar, and providing a recycling alternative for polymeric sponges.

Keywords: catalyst support, polymer replica technique, reticulated porous ceramics, silicon carbide

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631 Preparation and Properties of Gelatin-Bamboo Fibres Foams for Packaging Applications

Authors: Luo Guidong, Song Hang, Jim Song, Virginia Martin Torrejon


Due to their excellent properties, polymer packaging foams have become increasingly essential in our current lifestyles. They are cost-effective and lightweight, with excellent mechanical and thermal insulation properties. However, they constitute a major environmental and health concern due to litter generation, ocean pollution, and microplastic contamination of the food chain. In recent years, considerable efforts have been made to develop more sustainable alternatives to conventional polymer packaging foams. As a result, biobased and compostable foams are increasingly becoming commercially available, such as starch-based loose-fill or PLA trays. However, there is still a need for bulk manufacturing of bio-foams planks for packaging applications as a viable alternative to their fossil fuel counterparts (i.e., polystyrene, polyethylene, and polyurethane). Gelatin is a promising biopolymer for packaging applications due to its biodegradability, availability, and biocompatibility, but its mechanical properties are poor compared to conventional plastics. However, as widely reported for other biopolymers, such as starch, the mechanical properties of gelatin-based bioplastics can be enhanced by formulation optimization, such as the incorporation of fibres from different crops, such as bamboo. This research aimed to produce gelatin-bamboo fibre foams by mechanical foaming and to study the effect of fibre content on the foams' properties and structure. As a result, foams with virtually no shrinkage, low density (<40 kg/m³), low thermal conductivity (<0.044 W/m•K), and mechanical properties comparable to conventional plastics were produced. Further work should focus on developing formulations suitable for the packaging of water-sensitive products and processing optimization, especially the reduction of the drying time.

Keywords: biobased and compostable foam, sustainable packaging, natural polymer hydrogel, cold chain packaging

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630 Comparison of the Material Response Based on Production Technologies of Metal Foams

Authors: Tamas Mankovits


Lightweight cellular-type structures like metal foams have excellent mechanical properties, therefore the interest in these materials is widely spreading as load-bearing structural elements, e.g. as implants. Numerous technologies are available to produce metal foams. In this paper the material response of closed cell foam structures produced by direct foaming and additive technology is compared. The production technology circumstances are also investigated. Geometrical variations are developed for foam structures produced by additive manufacturing and simulated by finite element method to be able to predict the mechanical behavior.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, direct foaming, finite element method, metal foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
629 Foamability and Foam Stability of Gelatine-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solutions

Authors: Virginia Martin Torrejon, Song Hang


Gelatine foams are widely explored materials due to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and availability. They exhibit outstanding properties and are currently subject to increasing scientific research due to their potential use in different applications, such as biocompatible cellular materials for biomedical products or biofoams as an alternative to fossil-fuel-derived packaging. Gelatine is a highly surface-active polymer, and its concentrated solutions usually do not require surfactants to achieve low surface tension. Still, anionic surfactants like sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) strongly interact with gelatine, impacting its viscosity and rheological properties and, in turn, their foaming behaviour. Foaming behaviour is a key parameter for cellular solids produced by mechanical foaming as it has a significant effect on the processing and properties of cellular materials. Foamability mainly impacts the density and the mechanical properties of the foams, while foam stability is crucial to achieving foams with low shrinkage and desirable pore morphology. This work aimed to investigate the influence of SDS on the foaming behaviour of concentrated gelatine foams by using a dynamic foam analyser. The study of maximum foam height created, foam formation behaviour, drainage behaviour, and foam structure with regard to bubble size and distribution were carried out in 10 wt% gelatine solutions prepared at different SDS/gelatine concentration ratios. Comparative rheological and viscometry measurements provided a good correlation with the data from the dynamic foam analyser measurements. SDS incorporation at optimum dosages and gelatine gelation led to highly stable foams at high expansion ratios. The viscosity increase of the hydrogel solution at SDS content increased was a key parameter for foam stabilization. In addition, the impact of SDS content on gelling time and gel strength also considerably impacted the foams' stability and pore structure.

Keywords: dynamic foam analyser, gelatine foams stability and foamability, gelatine-surfactant foams, gelatine-SDS rheology, gelatine-SDS viscosity

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628 Research on Static and Dynamic Behavior of New Combination of Aluminum Honeycomb Panel and Rod Single-Layer Latticed Shell

Authors: Xu Chen, Zhao Caiqi


In addition to the advantages of light weight, resistant corrosion and ease of processing, aluminum is also applied to the long-span spatial structures. However, the elastic modulus of aluminum is lower than that of the steel. This paper combines the high performance aluminum honeycomb panel with the aluminum latticed shell, forming a new panel-and-rod composite shell structure. Through comparative analysis between the static and dynamic performance, the conclusion that the structure of composite shell is noticeably superior to the structure combined before.

Keywords: combination of aluminum honeycomb panel, rod latticed shell, dynamic performence, response spectrum analysis, seismic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
627 Aluminum Factories, Values and Regeneration Option

Authors: Tereza Bartosikova


This paper describes the values of a specific type of industrial heritage-aluminum factories. It is an especially endangered kind of industrial heritage with only a little attention paid. The paper aims to highlight the uniqueness of these grounds and to specify several options for revitalizations. The research is based on complex aluminum factories mapping in Europe from archives and bibliographic sources and on site. There is analyzed gained information that could offer a new view on the aluminum grounds. Primarily, the data are described according to the works in Žiar nad Hronom, Slovakia. More than a half aluminum grounds have ended up the production, although they can go on further. They are closely connected with some areas identity and their presence has left striking footsteps in the environment. By saving them, the historical continuity, cultural identity of population and also the economic stability of region would be supported.

Keywords: aluminum, industrial heritage, regeneration, values

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626 Research of the Activation Energy of Conductivity in P-I-N SiC Structures Fabricated by Doping with Aluminum Using the Low-Temperature Diffusion Method

Authors: Ilkham Gafurovich Atabaev, Khimmatali Nomozovich Juraev


The activation energy of conductivity in p-i-n SiC structures fabricated by doping with Aluminum using the new low-temperature diffusion method is investigated. In this method, diffusion is stimulated by the flux of carbon and silicon vacancies created by surface oxidation. The activation energy of conductivity in the p - layer is 0.25 eV and it is close to the ionization energy of Aluminum in 4H-SiC from 0.21 to 0.27 eV for the hexagonal and cubic positions of aluminum in the silicon sublattice for weakly doped crystals. The conductivity of the i-layer (measured in the reverse biased diode) shows 2 activation energies: 0.02 eV and 0.62 eV. Apparently, the 0.62 eV level is a deep trap level and it is a complex of Aluminum with a vacancy. According to the published data, an analogous level system (with activation energies of 0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.67 eV) was observed in the ion Aluminum doped 4H-SiC samples.

Keywords: activation energy, aluminum, low temperature diffusion, SiC

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625 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra


Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion-welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in the solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review, the process parameters, microstructural evolution and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding (FSW), microstructure, Properties.

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
624 Experimental Study and Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector with Various Reflectors

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, Balram Manoj Kumar


A solar powered air heating system using parabolic trough collector was experimentally investigated. In this experimental setup, the reflected solar radiations were focused on absorber tube which was placed at focal length of the parabolic trough. In this setup, air was used as working fluid which collects the heat from absorber tube. To enhance the performance of parabolic trough, collector with different type of reflectors were used. It was observed for aluminum sheet maximum temperature is 52.3ºC, which 24.22% more than steel sheet as reflector and 8.5% more than aluminum foil as reflector, also efficiency by using Aluminum sheet as reflector compared to steel sheet as reflector is 61.18% more. Efficiency by using aluminum sheet as reflector compared to aluminum foil as reflector is 18.98% more.

Keywords: parabolic trough collector, reflectors, air flow rates, solar power, aluminum sheet

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623 The Impact of Liquid Glass-Infused Lignin Waste Particles on Performance of Polyurethane Foam for Building Industry

Authors: Agnė Kairyte, Saulius Vaitkus


The gradual depletion of fossil feedstock and growing environmental concerns attracted extensive attention to natural resources due to their low cost, high abundance, renewability, sustainability, and biodegradability. Lignin is a significant by-product of the pulp and paper industry, having unique functional groups. Recently it became interesting for the manufacturing of high value-added products such as polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. This study focuses on the development of high-performance polyurethane foams with various amounts of lignin as a filler. It is determined that the incorporation of lignin as a filler material results in brittle and hard products due to the low molecular mobility of isocyanates and the inherent stiffness of lignin. Therefore, the current study analyses new techniques and possibilities of liquid glass infusion onto the surface of lignin particles to reduce the negative aspects and improve the performance characteristics of the modified foams. The foams modified with sole lignin and liquid glass-infused lignin had an apparent density ranging from 35 kg/m3 to 45 kg/m3 and closed-cell content (80–90%). The incorporation of sole lignin reduced the compressive and tensile strengths and increased dimensional stability and water absorption, while the contrary results were observed for polyurethane foams with liquid glass-infused lignin particles. The effect on rheological parameters of lignin and liquid glass infused lignin modified polyurethane premixes and morphology of polyurethane foam products were monitored to optimize the conditions and reveal the significant influence of the interaction between particles and polymer matrix.

Keywords: filler, lignin waste, liquid glass, polymer matrix, polyurethane foam, sustainability

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622 A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites

Authors: V. Singh, S. Singh, S. S. Garewal


Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.

Keywords: aluminum metal matrix composites, applications of aluminum metal matrix composites, lighting material processing of aluminum metal matrix composites

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621 The Mechanical Properties of In-Situ Consolidated Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Khaled M. Youssef, Sara I. Ahmed


In this study, artifacts-free bulk nanocrystalline pure aluminum alloy samples were prepared through mechanical milling under ultra-high purity argon and at both liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. The nanostructure evolution during milling was examined using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope techniques. The in-situ consolidated samples after milling exhibited an average grain size of 18 nm. The tensile properties of this novel material are reported in comparison with coarse-grained aluminum alloys. The 0.2% offset yield strength of the nanocrystalline aluminum was found to be 340 MPa. This value is at least one order of magnitude higher than that of the coarse-grained aluminum alloy. In addition to this extraordinarily high strength, the nanocrystalline aluminum showed a significant tensile ductility, with 6% uniform elongation and 11% elongation-to-failure. The transmission electron microscope observations in this study provide evidence of deformation twinning in the plastically deformed nanocrystalline aluminum. These results highlight a change of the deformation mechanism from a typical dislocation slip to twinning deformation induced by partial dislocation activities.

Keywords: nanocrystalline, aluminum, strength, ductility

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620 A Review on Enhancing Heat Transfer Processes by Open-Cell Metal Foams and Industrial Applications

Authors: S. Cheragh Dar, M. Saljooghi, A. Babrgir


In the last couple of decades researchers' attitudes were focused on developing and enhancing heat transfer processes by using new components or cellular solids that divide into stochastic structures and periodic structures. Open-cell metal foams are part of stochastic structures families that they can be considered as an avant-garde technology and they have unique properties, this porous media can have tremendous achievements in thermal processes. This paper argues and surveys postulating possible in industrial thermal issues which include: compact electronic cooling, heat exchanger, aerospace, fines, turbo machinery, automobiles, crygen tanks, biomechanics, high temperature filters and etc. Recently, by surveying exponential rate of publications in thermal open-cell metal foams, all can be demonstrated in a holistic view which can lead researchers to a new level of understanding in different industrial thermal sections.

Keywords: heat transfer, industrial thermal, cellular solids, open cell metal foam

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619 Preparation and Characterization of α–Alumina with Low Sodium Oxide

Authors: Gyung Soo Jeon, Hong Bae Kim, Chi Jung Oh


In order to prepare the α-alumina with low content of sodium oxide from aluminum trihydroxide as a reactant, three kinds of methods were employed as follows; the mixture of Chamotte (aggregate composed of silica and alumina), ammonium chloride and aluminum fluoride with aluminum trihydroxide under 1600°C, respectively. The sodium oxide in α-alumina produced above methods was analyzed by XRF and the particle size distribution was determined by particle size analyzer, and the specific surface area of α-alumina was measured by BET method, and phase of α-alumina produced was confirmed by XRD. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Development Program of Technical Innovation funded by Korea Technology and Information Promotion Agency for SMEs (KTIP-2016-S2401821).

Keywords: α-alumina, sodium oxide, aluminum trihydroxide, Chamotte, ammonium chloride, aluminum fluoride

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618 Dimensionality and Superconducting Parameters of YBa2Cu3O7 Foams

Authors: Michael Koblischka, Anjela Koblischka-Veneva, XianLin Zeng, Essia Hannachi, Yassine Slimani


Superconducting foams of YBa2Cu3O7 (abbreviated Y-123) were produced using the infiltration growth (IG) technique from Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) foams. The samples were investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and electrical resistivity measurements. SEM observations indicated the specific microstructure of the foam struts with numerous tiny Y-211 particles (50-100 nm diameter) embedded in channel-like structures between the Y-123 grains. The investigation of the excess conductivity of different prepared composites was analyzed using Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) model. The investigated samples comprised of five distinct fluctuation regimes, namely short-wave (SWF), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D), and critical (CR) fluctuations regimes. The coherence length along the c-axis at zero-temperature (ξc(0)), lower and upper critical magnetic fields (Bc1 and Bc2), critical current density (Jc) and numerous other superconducting parameters were estimated from the data. The analysis reveals that the presence of the tiny Y-211 particles alters the excess conductivity and the fluctuation behavior observed in standard YBCO samples.

Keywords: Excess conductivity, Foam, Microstructure, Superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy

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617 A New Developed Formula to Determine the Shear Buckling Stress in Welded Aluminum Plate Girders

Authors: Badr Alsulami, Ahmed S. Elamary


This paper summarizes and presents main results of an in-depth numerical analysis dealing with the shear buckling resistance of aluminum plate girders. The studies conducted have permitted the development of a simple design expression to determine the critical shear buckling stress in aluminum web panels. This expression takes into account the effects of reduction of strength in aluminum alloys due to the welding process. Ultimate shear resistance (USR) of plate girders can be obtained theoretically using Cardiff theory or Hӧglund’s theory. USR of aluminum alloy plate girders predicted theoretically using BS8118 appear inconsistent when compared with test data. Theoretical predictions based on Hӧglund’s theory, are more realistic. Cardiff theory proposed to predict the USR of steel plate girders only. Welded aluminum alloy plate girders studied experimentally by others; the USR resulted from tests are reviewed. Comparison between the test results with the values obtained from Hӧglund’s theory, BS8118 design method, and Cardiff theory performed theoretically. Finally, a new equation based on Cardiff tension-field theory proposed to predict theoretically the USR of aluminum plate girders.

Keywords: shear resistance, aluminum, Cardiff theory, Hӧglund's theory, plate girder

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616 Optimization of the Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz


Problem statement: In the water treatment processes, the coagulation and flocculation processes produce sludge according to the level of the water turbidity. The aluminum sulfate is the most common coagulant used in water treatment plants of Morocco as well as many countries. It is difficult to manage the sludge produced by the treatment plant. However, it can be used in the process to improve the quality of the treated water and reduce the aluminum sulfate dose. Approach: In this study, the effectiveness of sludge was evaluated at different turbidity levels (low, medium, and high turbidity) and coagulant dosage to find optimal operational conditions. The influence of settling time was also studied. A set of jar test experiments was conducted to find the sludge and aluminum sulfate dosages in order to improve the produced water quality for different turbidity levels. Results: Results demonstrated that using sludge produced by the treatment plant can improve the quality of the produced water and reduce the aluminum sulfate using. The aluminum sulfate dosage can be reduced from 40 to 50% according to the turbidity level (10, 20 and 40 NTU). Conclusions/Recommendations: Results show that sludge can be used in order to reduce the aluminum sulfate dosage and improve the quality of treated water. The highest turbidity removal efficiency is observed within 6 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 35 mg/l of sludge in low turbidity, 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 50 mg/l of sludge in medium turbidity and 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 60 mg/l of sludge in high turbidity. The turbidity removal efficiency is 97.56%, 98.96% and 99.47% respectively for low, medium and high turbidity levels.

Keywords: coagulation process, coagulant dose, sludge, turbidity removal

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615 The Effect of Compensating Filter on Image Quality in Lateral Projection of Thoracolumbar Radiography

Authors: Noor Arda Adrina Daud, Mohd Hanafi Ali


The compensating filter is placed between the patient and X-ray tube to compensate various density and thickness of human body. The main purpose of this project is to study the effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoracolumbar radiography. The study was performed by an X-ray unit where different thicknesses of aluminum were used as compensating filter. Specifically the relationship between thickness of aluminum, density and noise were evaluated. Results show different thickness of aluminum compensating filter improved the image quality of lateral projection thoracolumbar radiography. The compensating filter of 8.2 mm was considered as the optimal filter to compensate the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L1), 1 mm to compensate lumbar region and 5.9 mm to compensate thorax region. The aluminum wedge compensating filter was designed resulting in an acceptable image quality.

Keywords: compensating filter, aluminum, image quality, lateral, thoracolumbar

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614 Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Based Composites Reinforced by Nanocrystalline Carbon-Coated Intermetallic Particles

Authors: B. Z. Manuel, H. D. Esmeralda, H. S. Felipe, D. R. Héctor, D. de la Torre Sebastián, R. L. Diego


Aluminum Matrix Composites reinforced with nanocrystalline Ni3Al carbon-coated intermetallic particles, were synthesized by powder metallurgy. Powder mixture of aluminum with 0.5-volume fraction of reinforcement particles was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique and the compared with conventional sintering process. The better results for SPS technique were obtained in 520ºC-5kN-3min.The hardness (70.5±8 HV) and the elastic modulus (95 GPa) were evaluated in function of sintering conditions for SPS technique; it was found that the incorporation of these kind of reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix improve its mechanical properties. The densities were about 94% and 97% of the theoretical density. The carbon coating avoided the interfacial reaction between matrix-particle at high temperature (520°C) without show composition change either intermetallic dissolution.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composites, intermetallics, spark plasma sintering, nanocrystalline

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
613 Optimization of the Drinking Water Treatment Process Improvement of the Treated Water Quality by Using the Sludge Produced by the Water Treatment Plant

Authors: M. Derraz, M. Farhaoui


Problem statement: In the water treatment processes, the coagulation and flocculation processes produce sludge according to the level of the water turbidity. The aluminum sulfate is the most common coagulant used in water treatment plants of Morocco as well as many countries. It is difficult to manage Sludge produced by the treatment plant. However, it can be used in the process to improve the quality of the treated water and reduce the aluminum sulfate dose. Approach: In this study, the effectiveness of sludge was evaluated at different turbidity levels (low, medium, and high turbidity) and coagulant dosage to find optimal operational conditions. The influence of settling time was also studied. A set of jar test experiments was conducted to find the sludge and aluminum sulfate dosages in order to improve the produced water quality for different turbidity levels. Results: Results demonstrated that using sludge produced by the treatment plant can improve the quality of the produced water and reduce the aluminum sulfate using. The aluminum sulfate dosage can be reduced from 40 to 50% according to the turbidity level (10, 20, and 40 NTU). Conclusions/Recommendations: Results show that sludge can be used in order to reduce the aluminum sulfate dosage and improve the quality of treated water. The highest turbidity removal efficiency is observed within 6 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 35 mg/l of sludge in low turbidity, 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 50 mg/l of sludge in medium turbidity and 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 60 mg/l of sludge in high turbidity. The turbidity removal efficiency is 97.56%, 98.96%, and 99.47% respectively for low, medium and high turbidity levels.

Keywords: coagulation process, coagulant dose, sludge reuse, turbidity removal

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612 Factors Affecting Aluminum Dissolve from Acidified Water Purification Sludge

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chi Hua Fu, Ping Hung Chen, Ruey Fang Yu


Recovering resources from water purification sludge (WPS) have been gradually stipulated in environmental protection laws and regulations in many nations. Hence, reusing the WPS is becoming an important topic, and recovering alum from WPS is one of the many practical alternatives. Most previous research efforts have been conducted on studying the amphoteric characteristic of aluminum hydroxide for investigating the optimum pH range to dissolve the Al(III) species from WPS, but it has been lack of reaction kinetics or mechanisms related discussion. Therefore, in this investigation, water purification sludge (WPS) solution was broken by ultrasound to make particle size of reactants smaller, specific surface area larger. According to the reaction kinetics, these phenomena let the dissolved aluminum salt quantity increased and the reaction rate go faster.

Keywords: aluminum, acidification, sludge, recovery

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611 Nanocharacterization of PIII Treated 7075 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Bruno Bacci Fernandes, Stephan Mändl, Ataíde Ribeiro da Silva Junior, José Osvaldo Rossi, Mário Ueda


Nitrogen implantation in aluminum and its alloys is acquainted for the difficulties in obtaining modified layers deeper than 200 nm. The present work addresses a new method to overcome such a problem; although, the coating with nitrogen and oxygen obtained by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into a 7075 aluminum alloy surface was too shallow. This alloy is commonly used for structural parts in aerospace applications. Such a layer was characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and nanoindentation experiments reciprocating wear tests. From the results, one can assume that the wear of this aluminum alloy starts presenting severe abrasive wear followed by an additional adhesive mechanism. PIII produced a slight difference, as shown in all characterizations carried out in this work. The results shown here can be used as the scientific basis for further nitrogen PIII experiments in aluminum alloys which have the goal to produce thicker modified layers or to improve their surface properties.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, plasma immersion ion implantation, tribological properties, hardness, nanofatigue

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610 Corrosion Properties of Friction Welded Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys; Duralumin and AA6063

Authors: Sori Won, Bosung Seo, Kwangsuk Park, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


With the increased needs for lightweight materials in automobile industry, the usage of aluminum alloys becomes prevailed as components and car bodies due to their comparative specific strength. These parts composed of different aluminum alloys should be connected each other, where welding technologies are commonly applied. Among various welding methods, friction welding method as a solid state welding gets to be popular in joining aluminum alloys as it does not produce a defect such as blowhole that is often formed during typical welding processes. Once two metals are joined, corrosion would become an issue due to different electrochemical potentials. In this study, we investigated variations of corrosion properties when Duralumin and AA6063 were joined by friction welding. From the polarization test, it was found that the potential of the welded was placed between those of two original metals, which could be explained by a concept of mixed potential. Pitting is a common form as a result of the corrosion of aluminum alloys when they are exposed to 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. However, when two different aluminum alloys (Duralumin and AA6063) were joined, pitting corrosion occurred severely and uniformly in Duralumin while there were a few pits around precipitates in AA6063, indicating that AA6063 was cathodically protected.

Keywords: corrosion properties, friction welding, dissimilar Al alloys, polarization test

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
609 Experimental Study of Al₂O₃ and SiC Nano Particles on Tensile Strength of Al 1100 Sheet Produced by Accumulative Press Bonding Process

Authors: M. Zadshakoyan, H. Marassem Bonab, P. M. Keshtiban


The SPD process widely used to optimize microstructure, strength and mechanical properties of the metals. Processes such as ARB and APB could have a considerable impact on improving the properties of metals. The aluminum material after steel, known as the most used metal, Because of its low strength, there are restrictions on the use of this metal, it is required to spread further studies to increase strength and improve the mechanical properties of this light weight metal. In this study, Annealed aluminum material, with yield strength of 85 MPa and tensile strength of 124 MPa, sliced into 2 sheets with dimensions of 30 and 25 mm and the thickness of 1.5 mm. then the sheets press bonded under 6 cycles, which increased the ultimate strength to 281 MPa. In addition, by adding 0.1%Wt of SiC particles to interface of the sheets, the sheets press bonded by 6 cycles to achieve a homogeneous composite. The same operation using Al2O3 particles and a mixture of SiC+Al2O3 particles was repeated and the amount of strength and elongation of produced composites compared with each other and with pure 6 cycle press bonded Aluminum. The results indicated that the ultimate strength of Al/SiC composite was 2.6 times greater than Annealed aluminum. And Al/Al2O3 and Al/Al2O3+SiC samples were low strength than Al/SiC sample. The pure 6 time press bonded Aluminum had lowest strength by 2.2 times greater than annealed aluminum. Strength of aluminum was increased by making the metal matrix composite. Also, it was found that the hardness of pure Aluminum increased 1.7 times after 6 cycles of APB process, hardness of the composite samples improved further, so that, the hardness of Al/SiC increased up to 2.51 times greater than annealed aluminum.

Keywords: APB, nano composite, nano particles, severe plastic deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
608 Component Comparison of Polyaluminum Chloride Produced from Various Methods

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chia Yun Chung, Ruey Fang Yu, Chao Feng Chen


The main objective of this research was to study the differences of aluminum hydrolytic products between two PACl preparation methods. These two methods were the acidification process of freshly formed amorphous Al(OH)3 and the conventional alkalization process of aluminum chloride solution. According to Ferron test and 27Al NMR analysis of those two PACl preparation procedures, the reaction rate constant (k) values and Al13 percentage of acid addition process at high basicity value were both lower than those values of the alkaline addition process. The results showed that the molecular structure and size distribution of the aluminum species in both preparing methods were suspected to be significantly different at high basicity value.

Keywords: polyaluminum chloride, Al13, amorphous aluminum hydroxide, Ferron test

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
607 Microwave Freeze Drying of Fruit Foams for the Production of Healthy Snacks

Authors: Sabine Ambros, Mine Oezcelik, Evelyn Dachmann, Ulrich Kulozik


Nutritional quality and taste of dried fruit products is still often unsatisfactory and does not meet anymore the current consumer trends. Dried foams from fruit puree could be an attractive alternative. Due to their open-porous structure, a new sensory perception with a sudden and very intense aroma release could be generated. To make such high quality fruit snacks affordable for the consumer, a gentle but at the same time fast drying process has to be applied. Therefore, microwave-assisted freeze drying of raspberry foams was investigated in this work and compared with the conventional freeze drying technique in terms of nutritional parameters such as antioxidative capacity, anthocyanin content and vitamin C and the physical parameters colour and wettability. The following process settings were applied: 0.01 kPa chamber pressure and a maximum temperature of 30 °C for both freeze and microwave freeze drying. The influence of microwave power levels on the dried foams was investigated between 1 and 5 W/g. Intermediate microwave power settings led to the highest nutritional values, a colour appearance comparable to the undried foam and a proper wettability. A proper process stability could also be guaranteed for these power levels. By the volumetric energy input of the microwaves drying time could be reduced from 24 h in conventional freeze drying to about 6 h. The short drying times further resulted in an equally high maintenance of the above mentioned parameters in both drying techniques. Hence, microwave assisted freeze drying could lead to a process acceleration in comparison to freeze drying and be therefore an interesting alternative drying technique which on industrial scale enables higher efficiency and higher product throughput.

Keywords: foam drying, freeze drying, fruit puree, microwave freeze drying, raspberry

Procedia PDF Downloads 228