Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8243

Search results for: seismic properties

8243 Seismic Fragility Curves for Shallow Circular Tunnels under Different Soil Conditions

Authors: Siti Khadijah Che Osmi, Syed Mohd Ahmad


This paper presents a methodology to develop fragility curves for shallow tunnels so as to describe a relationship between seismic hazard and tunnel vulnerability. Emphasis is given to the influence of surrounding soil material properties because the dynamic behaviour of the tunnel mostly depends on it. Four ground properties of soils ranging from stiff to soft soils are selected. A 3D nonlinear time history analysis is used to evaluate the seismic response of the tunnel when subjected to five real earthquake ground intensities. The derived curves show the future probabilistic performance of the tunnels based on the predicted level of damage states corresponding to the peak ground acceleration. A comparison of the obtained results with the previous literature is provided to validate the reliability of the proposed fragility curves. Results show the significant role of soil properties and input motions in evaluating the seismic performance and response of shallow tunnels.

Keywords: fragility analysis, seismic performance, tunnel lining, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
8242 Ground Response Analyses in Budapest Based on Site Investigations and Laboratory Measurements

Authors: Zsolt Szilvágyi, Jakub Panuska, Orsolya Kegyes-Brassai, Ákos Wolf, Péter Tildy, Richard P. Ray


Near-surface loose sediments and local ground conditions in general have a major influence on seismic response of structures. It is a difficult task to model ground behavior in seismic soil-structure-foundation interaction problems, fully account for them in seismic design of structures, or even properly consider them in seismic hazard assessment. In this study, we focused on applying seismic soil investigation methods, used for determining soil stiffness and damping properties, to response analysis used in seismic design. A site in Budapest, Hungary was investigated using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, Seismic Cone Penetration Tests, Bender Elements, Resonant Column and Torsional Shear tests. Our aim was to compare the results of the different test methods and use the resulting soil properties for 1D ground response analysis. Often in practice, there are little-to no data available on dynamic soil properties and estimated parameters are used for design. Therefore, a comparison is made between results based on estimated parameters and those based on detailed investigations. Ground response results are also compared to Eurocode 8 design spectra.

Keywords: MASW, resonant column test, SCPT, site response analysis, torsional shear test

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
8241 Application of Seismic Refraction Method in Geotechnical Study

Authors: Abdalla Mohamed M. Musbahi


The study area lies in Al-Falah area on Airport-Tripoli in Zone (16) Where planned establishment of complex multi-floors for residential and commercial, this part was divided into seven subzone. In each sup zone, were collected Orthogonal profiles by using Seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this project is to investigate the applicability of Seismic refraction method is a commonly used traditional geophysical technique to determine depth-to-bedrock, competence of bedrock, depth to the water table, or depth to other seismic velocity boundaries The purpose of the work is to make engineers and decision makers recognize the importance of planning and execution of a pre-investigation program including geophysics and in particular seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this thesis is achieved by evaluation of seismic refraction method in different scales, determine the depth and velocity of the base layer (bed-rock). Calculate the elastic property in each layer in the region by using the Seismic refraction method. The orthogonal profiles was carried out in every subzones of (zone 16). The layout of the seismic refraction set up is schematically, the geophones are placed on the linear imaginary line whit a 5 m spacing, the three shot points (in beginning of layout–mid and end of layout) was used, in order to generate the P and S waves. The 1st and last shot point is placed about 5 meters from the geophones and the middle shot point is put in between 12th to 13th geophone, from time-distance curve the P and S waves was calculated and the thickness was estimated up to three-layers. As we know any change in values of physical properties of medium (shear modulus, bulk modulus, density) leads to change waves velocity which passing through medium where any change in properties of rocks cause change in velocity of waves. because the change in properties of rocks cause change in parameters of medium density (ρ), bulk modulus (κ), shear modulus (μ). Therefore, the velocity of waves which travel in rocks have close relationship with these parameters. Therefore we can estimate theses parameters by knowing primary and secondary velocity (p-wave, s-wave).

Keywords: application of seismic, geotechnical study, physical properties, seismic refraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
8240 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari


Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
8239 Subsurface Elastic Properties Determination for Site Characterization Using Seismic Refraction Tomography at the Pwalugu Dam Area

Authors: Van-Dycke Sarpong Asare, Vincent Adongo


Field measurement of subsurface seismic p-wave velocities was undertaken through seismic refraction tomography. The aim of this work is to obtain a model of the shallow subsurface material elastic properties relevant for geotechnical site characterization. The survey area is at Pwalugu in Northern Ghana, where a multipurpose dam, for electricity generation, irrigation, and potable water delivery, is being planned. A 24-channel seismograph and 24, 10 Hz electromagnetic geophones, deployed 5 m apart constituted the acquisition hardware. Eleven (2-D) seismic refraction profiles, nine of which ran almost perpendicular and two parallel to the White Volta at Pwalugu, were acquired. The refraction tomograms of the thirteen profiles revealed a subsurface model consisting of one minor and one major acoustic impedance boundaries – the top dry/loose sand and the variably weathered sandstone contact, and the overburden-sandstones bedrock contact respectively. The p-wave velocities and by inference, with a priori values of poison ratios, the s-wave velocities, assisted in characterizing the geotechnical conditions of the proposed site and also in evaluating the dynamic properties such as the maximum shear modulus, the bulk modulus, and the Young modulus.

Keywords: tomography, characterization, consolidated, Pwalugu and seismograph

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
8238 Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Myanmar, Based on Microtremor Measurement

Authors: Khaing Su Su Than, Hibino Yo


Seismic evaluation is needed upon the buildings in Myanmar. Microtremor measurement was conducted in the main cities, Mandalay and Yangon. In order to evaluate the seismic properties of buildings currently under construction, seismic information was gathered for six buildings in Yangon city and four buildings in Mandalay city. The investigated buildings vary from 12m-80 m in height, and mostly public residence structures. The predominant period obtained from frequency results of the investigated buildings were given by horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) for each building. The fundamental period results have been calculated in the form of Fourier amplitude spectra of translation along with the main structure. Based on that, the height (H)-period(T) relationship was observed as T=0.012H-0.017H in the buildings of Yangon and, observed the relationship as T=0.014H-0.019H in the buildings of Mandalay. The results showed that the relationship between height and natural period was slightly under the relationship T=0.02H that is used for Japanese reinforced concrete buildings, which indicated that the results depend on the properties and characteristics of materials used.

Keywords: HVSR, height-period relationship, microtremor, Myanmar earthquake, reinforced concrete structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
8237 Seizure Effects of FP Bearings on the Seismic Reliability of Base-Isolated Systems

Authors: Paolo Castaldo, Bruno Palazzo, Laura Lodato


This study deals with the seizure effects of friction pendulum (FP) bearings on the seismic reliability of a 3D base-isolated nonlinear structural system, designed according to Italian seismic code (NTC08). The isolated system consists in a 3D reinforced concrete superstructure, a r.c. substructure and the FP devices, described by employing a velocity dependent model. The seismic input uncertainty is considered as a random variable relevant to the problem, by employing a set of natural seismic records selected in compliance with L’Aquila (Italy) seismic hazard as provided from NTC08. Several non-linear dynamic analyses considering the three components of each ground motion have been performed with the aim to evaluate the seismic reliability of the superstructure, substructure, and isolation level, also taking into account the seizure event of the isolation devices. Finally, a design solution aimed at increasing the seismic robustness of the base-isolated systems with FPS is analyzed.

Keywords: FP devices, seismic reliability, seismic robustness, seizure

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
8236 Analytical Investigation on Seismic Behavior of Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames Strengthened with Precast Diagonal Concrete Panels

Authors: Ceyhun Aksoylu, Rifat Sezer


In this study, a strengthening method applicable without any evacuation process was investigated. In this analytical study, the pushover analysis results carry out by using the software of SAP2000. For this purpose, 1/3 scaled, 1-bay and 2-story R/C seven frames having usual deficiencies faults produced, one of which were not strengthened, but having brick-infill wall and the other 3 frames with infill walls strengthened with various shaped of high strength-precast diagonal concrete panels. The prepared analytical models investigated under reversed-cyclic loading that resembles the seismic effect. As a result of the analytical study, the properties of the reinforced concrete frames, such as strength, rigidity, energy dissipation capacity, etc. were determined and the strengthened models were compared with the unstrengthened one having the same properties. As a result of this study, the contributions of precast diagonal concrete applied on the infill walls of the existing frame systems against seismic effects were introduced with its advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: RC frame, seismic effect, infill wall, strengthening, precast diagonal concrete panel, pushover analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
8235 Introduction of the Harmfulness of the Seismic Signal in the Assessment of the Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures

Authors: Kahil Amar, Boukais Said, Kezmane Ali, Hannachi Naceur Eddine, Hamizi Mohand


The principle of the seismic performance evaluation methods is to provide a measure of capability for a building or set of buildings to be damaged by an earthquake. The common objective of many of these methods is to supply classification criteria. The purpose of this study is to present a method for assessing the seismic performance of structures, based on Pushover method, we are particularly interested in reinforced concrete frame structures, which represent a significant percentage of damaged structures after a seismic event. The work is based on the characterization of seismic movement of the various earthquake zones in terms of PGA and PGD that is obtained by means of SIMQK_GR and PRISM software and the correlation between the points of performance and the scalar characterizing the earthquakes will be developed.

Keywords: seismic performance, pushover method, characterization of seismic motion, harmfulness of the seismic

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
8234 Seismic Design Approach for Areas with Low Seismicity

Authors: Mogens Saberi


The following article focuses on a new seismic design approach for Denmark. Denmark is located in a low seismic zone and up till now a general and very simplified approach has been used to accommodate the effect of seismic loading. The current used method is presented and it is found that the approach is on the unsafe side for many building types in Denmark. The damages during time due to earth quake is presented and a seismic map for Denmark is developed and presented. Furthermore, a new design approach is suggested and compared to the existing one. The new approach is relatively simple but captures the effect of seismic loading more realistic than the existing one. The new approach is believed to the incorporated in the Danish Deign Code for building structures.

Keywords: low seismicity, new design approach, earthquakes, Denmark

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
8233 Study on Seismic Response Feature of Multi-Span Bridges Crossing Fault

Authors: Yingxin Hui


Understanding seismic response feature of the bridges crossing fault is the basis of the seismic fortification. Taking a multi-span bridge crossing active fault under construction as an example, the seismic ground motions at bridge site were generated following hybrid simulation methodology. Multi-support excitations displacement input models and nonlinear time history analysis was used to calculate seismic response of structures, and the results were compared with bridge in the near-fault region. The results showed that the seismic response features of bridges crossing fault were different from the bridges in the near-fault region. The design according to the bridge in near-fault region would cause the calculation results with insecurity and non-reasonable if the effect of cross the fault was ignored. The design of seismic fortification should be based on seismic response feature, which could reduce the adverse effect caused by the structure damage.

Keywords: bridge engineering, seismic response feature, across faults, rupture directivity effect, fling step

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
8232 Combined Seismic Methods for Near-Surface Characterization

Authors: Irena Gjorgjeska, Vlatko Sheshov, Kemal Edip, Julijana Bojadjieva


Surface seismic methods are among the most popular, widely accepted geophysical methods for near-surface characterization. The most practical and effective ways to perform in-situ measurements and processing using different seismic methods such as seismic refraction, seismic reflection and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method are presented in this paper. Each of the methods has some advantages and limitations, but their application in an integrated approach provides higher accuracy in subsurface modeling. The results of the surveys performed at two characteristic locations in R. North Macedonia are presented to show the efficiency of the combined methods approach.

Keywords: geophysical survey, integrated approach, seismic methods, site characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
8231 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Existing Building Using Structural Information Modeling

Authors: Byungmin Cho, Dongchul Lee, Taejin Kim, Minhee Lee


The procedure for the seismic retrofit of existing buildings includes the seismic evaluation. In the evaluation step, it is assessed whether the buildings have satisfactory performance against seismic load. Based on the results of that, the buildings are upgraded. To evaluate seismic performance of the buildings, it usually goes through the model transformation from elastic analysis to inelastic analysis. However, when the data is not delivered through the interwork, engineers should manually input the data. In this process, since it leads to inaccuracy and loss of information, the results of the analysis become less accurate. Therefore, in this study, the process for the seismic evaluation of existing buildings using structural information modeling is suggested. This structural information modeling makes the work economic and accurate. To this end, it is determined which part of the process could be computerized through the investigation of the process for the seismic evaluation based on ASCE 41. The structural information modeling process is developed to apply to the seismic evaluation using Perform 3D program usually used for the nonlinear response history analysis. To validate this process, the seismic performance of an existing building is investigated.

Keywords: existing building, nonlinear analysis, seismic performance, structural information modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
8230 Using Inverted 4-D Seismic and Well Data to Characterise Reservoirs from Central Swamp Oil Field, Niger Delta

Authors: Emmanuel O. Ezim, Idowu A. Olayinka, Michael Oladunjoye, Izuchukwu I. Obiadi


Monitoring of reservoir properties prior to well placements and production is a requirement for optimisation and efficient oil and gas production. This is usually done using well log analyses and 3-D seismic, which are often prone to errors. However, 4-D (Time-lapse) seismic, incorporating numerous 3-D seismic surveys of the same field with the same acquisition parameters, which portrays the transient changes in the reservoir due to production effects over time, could be utilised because it generates better resolution. There is, however dearth of information on the applicability of this approach in the Niger Delta. This study was therefore designed to apply 4-D seismic, well-log and geologic data in monitoring of reservoirs in the EK field of the Niger Delta. It aimed at locating bypassed accumulations and ensuring effective reservoir management. The Field (EK) covers an area of about 1200km2 belonging to the early (18ma) Miocene. Data covering two 4-D vintages acquired over a fifteen-year interval were obtained from oil companies operating in the field. The data were analysed to determine the seismic structures, horizons, Well-to-Seismic Tie (WST), and wavelets. Well, logs and production history data from fifteen selected wells were also collected from the Oil companies. Formation evaluation, petrophysical analysis and inversion alongside geological data were undertaken using Petrel, Shell-nDi, Techlog and Jason Software. Well-to-seismic tie, formation evaluation and saturation monitoring using petrophysical and geological data and software were used to find bypassed hydrocarbon prospects. The seismic vintages were interpreted, and the amounts of change in the reservoir were defined by the differences in Acoustic Impedance (AI) inversions of the base and the monitor seismic. AI rock properties were estimated from all the seismic amplitudes using controlled sparse-spike inversion. The estimated rock properties were used to produce AI maps. The structural analysis showed the dominance of NW-SE trending rollover collapsed-crest anticlines in EK with hydrocarbons trapped northwards. There were good ties in wells EK 27, 39. Analysed wavelets revealed consistent amplitude and phase for the WST; hence, a good match between the inverted impedance and the good data. Evidence of large pay thickness, ranging from 2875ms (11420 TVDSS-ft) to about 2965ms, were found around EK 39 well with good yield properties. The comparison between the base of the AI and the current monitor and the generated AI maps revealed zones of untapped hydrocarbons as well as assisted in determining fluids movement. The inverted sections through EK 27, 39 (within 3101 m - 3695 m), indicated depletion in the reservoirs. The extent of the present non-uniform gas-oil contact and oil-water contact movements were from 3554 to 3575 m. The 4-D seismic approach led to better reservoir characterization, well development and the location of deeper and bypassed hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: reservoir monitoring, 4-D seismic, well placements, petrophysical analysis, Niger delta basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
8229 Seismic Behavior of Concrete Filled Steel Tube Reinforced Concrete Column

Authors: Raghabendra Yadav, Baochun Chen, Huihui Yuan, Zhibin Lian


Pseudo-dynamic test (PDT) method is an advanced seismic test method that combines loading technology with computer technology. Large-scale models or full scale seismic tests can be carried out by using this method. CFST-RC columns are used in civil engineering structures because of their better seismic performance. A CFST-RC column is composed of four CFST limbs which are connected with RC web in longitudinal direction and with steel tube in transverse direction. For this study, a CFST-RC pier is tested under Four different earthquake time histories having scaled PGA of 0.05g. From the experiment acceleration, velocity, displacement and load time histories are observed. The dynamic magnification factors for acceleration due to Elcentro, Chi-Chi, Imperial Valley and Kobe ground motions are observed as 15, 12, 17 and 14 respectively. The natural frequency of the pier is found to be 1.40 Hz. The result shows that this type of pier has excellent static and earthquake resistant properties.

Keywords: bridge pier, CFST-RC pier, pseudo dynamic test, seismic performance, time history

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
8228 Floor Response Spectra of RC Frames: Influence of the Infills on the Seismic Demand on Non-Structural Components

Authors: Gianni Blasi, Daniele Perrone, Maria Antonietta Aiello


The seismic vulnerability of non-structural components is nowadays recognized to be a key issue in performance-based earthquake engineering. Recent loss estimation studies, as well as the damage observed during past earthquakes, evidenced how non-structural damage represents the highest rate of economic loss in a building and can be in many cases crucial in a life-safety view during the post-earthquake emergency. The procedures developed to evaluate the seismic demand on non-structural components have been constantly improved and recent studies demonstrated how the existing formulations provided by main Standards generally ignore features which have a sensible influence on the definition of the seismic acceleration/displacements subjecting non-structural components. Since the influence of the infills on the dynamic behaviour of RC structures has already been evidenced by many authors, it is worth to be noted that the evaluation of the seismic demand on non-structural components should consider the presence of the infills as well as their mechanical properties. This study focuses on the evaluation of time-history floor acceleration in RC buildings; which is a useful mean to perform seismic vulnerability analyses of non-structural components through the well-known cascade method. Dynamic analyses are performed on an 8-storey RC frame, taking into account the presence of the infills; the influence of the elastic modulus of the panel on the results is investigated as well as the presence of openings. Floor accelerations obtained from the analyses are used to evaluate the floor response spectra, in order to define the demand on non-structural components depending on the properties of the infills. Finally, the results are compared with formulations provided by main International Standards, in order to assess the accuracy and eventually define the improvements required according to the results of the present research work.

Keywords: floor spectra, infilled RC frames, non-structural components, seismic demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
8227 Seismic Behaviour of CFST-RC Columns

Authors: Raghabendra Yadav, Baochun Chen, Huihui Yuan, Zhibin Lian


Concrete Filled Steel Tube (CFST) columns are widely used in Civil Engineering Structures due to their abundant properties. CFST-RC column is a built up column in which CFST members are connected with RC web. The CFST-RC column has excellent static and earthquake resistant properties, such as high strength, high ductility and large energy absorption capacity. CFST-RC columns have been adopted as piers in Ganhaizi Bridge in high seismic risk zone with a highest pier of 107m. The experimental investigation on scaled models of similar type of the CFST-RC pier are carried out. The experimental investigation on scaled models of similar type of the CFST-RC pier are carried out. Under cyclic loading, the hysteretic performance of CFST-RC columns, such as failure modes, ductility, load displacement hysteretic curves, energy absorption capacity, strength and stiffness degradation are studied in this paper.

Keywords: CFST, cyclic load, Ganhaizi bridge, seismic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
8226 Application of Seismic Isolators in Kutahya City Hospital Project Utilizing Double Friction Pendulum Type Devices

Authors: Kaan Yamanturk, Cihan Dogruoz


Seismic isolators have been utilized around the world to protect the structures, nonstructural components and contents from the damaging effects of earthquakes. In Structural Engineering, seismic isolation is used for protecting buildings and its vibration-sensitive contents from earthquakes. Seismic isolation is a passive control system that lowers effective earthquake forces by utilizing flexible bearings. One of the most significant isolation systems is seismic isolators. In this paper, double pendulum type Teflon coated seismic isolators utilized in a city hospital project by Guris Construction and Engineering Co. Inc, located in Kutahya, Turkey, have been investigated. Totally, 498 seismic isolators were applied in the project. These isolators are double friction pendulum type seismic isolation devices. The review of current practices is also examined in this study. The focus of this study is related to the application of passive seismic isolation systems for buildings as practiced in Kutahya City Hospital Project. Based on the study, the acceleration at the top floor will be 0.18 g and it will decrease 0.01 g in every floor. Therefore, seismic isolators are very important for buildings located in earthquake zones.

Keywords: maximum considered earthquake, moment resisting frame, seismic isolator, seismic design

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
8225 Seismic Behaviour of Bi-Symmetric Buildings

Authors: Yogendra Singh, Mayur Pisode


Many times it is observed that in multi-storeyed buildings the dynamic properties in the two directions are similar due to which there may be a coupling between the two orthogonal modes of the building. This is particularly observed in bi-symmetric buildings (buildings with structural properties and periods approximately equal in the two directions). There is a swapping of vibrational energy between the modes in the two orthogonal directions. To avoid this coupling the draft revision of IS:1893 proposes a minimum separation of more than 15% between the frequencies of the fundamental modes in the two directions. This study explores the seismic behaviour of bi-symmetrical buildings under uniaxial and bi-axial ground motions. For this purpose, three different types of 8 storey buildings symmetric in plan are modelled. The first building has square columns, resulting in identical periods in the two directions. The second building, with rectangular columns, has a difference of 20% in periods in orthogonal directions, and the third building has half of the rectangular columns aligned in one direction and other half aligned in the other direction. The numerical analysis of the seismic response of these three buildings is performed by using a set of 22 ground motions from PEER NGA database and scaled as per FEMA P695 guidelines to represent the same level of intensity corresponding to the Design Basis Earthquake. The results are analyzed in terms of the displacement-time response of the buildings at roof level and corresponding maximum inter-storey drift ratios.

Keywords: bi-symmetric buildings, design code, dynamic coupling, multi-storey buildings, seismic response

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
8224 The Relations between Seismic Results and Groundwater near the Gokpinar Damp Area, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: Mahmud Gungor, Ali Aydin, Erdal Akyol, Suat Tasdelen


The understanding of geotechnical characteristics of near-surface material and the effects of the groundwater is very important problem in such as site studies. For showing the relations between seismic data and groundwater we selected about 25 km2 as the study area. It has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic data and groundwater depths of Gokpinar Damp area. Seismic waves velocity (Vp and Vs) are very important parameters showing the soil properties. The seismic records were used the method of the multichannel analysis of surface waves near area of Gokpinar Damp area. Sixty sites in this area have been investigated with survey lines about 60 m in length. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) method has been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 45 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Gokpinar Damp area, Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: seismic data, Gokpinar Damp, urban planning, Denizli

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
8223 Seismic Response of Viscoelastic Dampers for Steel Structures

Authors: Ali Khoshraftar, S. A. Hashemi


This paper is focused on the advantages of Viscoelastic Dampers (VED) to be used as energy-absorbing devices in buildings. The properties of VED are briefly described. The analytical studies of the model structures exhibiting the structural response reduction due to these viscoelastic devices are presented. Computer simulation of the damped response of a multi-storey steel frame structure shows significant reduction in floor displacement levels.

Keywords: dampers, seismic evaluation, steel frames, viscoelastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
8222 Study on Seismic Assessment of Earthquake-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Fu-Pei Hsiao, Fung-Chung Tu, Chien-Kuo Chiu


In this work, to develop a method for detailed assesses of post-earthquake seismic performance for RC buildings in Taiwan, experimental data for several column specimens with various failure modes (flexural failure, flexural-shear failure, and shear failure) are used to derive reduction factors of seismic capacity for specified damage states. According to the damage states of RC columns and their corresponding seismic reduction factors suggested by experimental data, this work applies the detailed seismic performance assessment method to identify the seismic capacity of earthquake-damaged RC buildings. Additionally, a post-earthquake emergent assessment procedure is proposed that can provide the data needed for decision about earthquake-damaged buildings in a region with high seismic hazard. Finally, three actual earthquake-damaged school buildings in Taiwan are used as a case study to demonstrate application of the proposed assessment method.

Keywords: seismic assessment, seismic reduction factor, residual seismic ratio, post-earthquake, reinforced concrete, building

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
8221 Sensitivity and Reliability Analysis of Masonry Infilled Frames

Authors: Avadhoot Bhosale, Robin Davis P., Pradip Sarkar


The seismic performance of buildings with irregular distribution of mass, stiffness and strength along the height may be significantly different from that of regular buildings with masonry infill. Masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames are very common structural forms used for multi-storey building construction. These structures are found to perform better in past earthquakes owing to additional strength, stiffness and energy dissipation in the infill walls. The seismic performance of a building depends on the variation of material, structural and geometrical properties. The sensitivity of these properties affects the seismic response of the building. The main objective of the sensitivity analysis is to found out the most sensitive parameter that affects the response of the building. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis by considering 5% and 95% probability value of random variable in the infills characteristics, trying to obtain a reasonable range of results representing a wide number of possible situations that can be met in practice by using pushover analysis. The results show that the strength-related variation values of concrete and masonry, with the exception of tensile strength of the concrete, have shown a significant effect on the structural performance and that this effect increases with the progress of damage condition for the concrete. The seismic risk assessments of the selected frames are expressed in terms of reliability index.

Keywords: fragility curve, sensitivity analysis, reliability index, RC frames

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
8220 Comparison and Improvement of the Existing Cone Penetration Test Results: Shear Wave Velocity Correlations for Hungarian Soils

Authors: Ákos Wolf, Richard P. Ray


Due to the introduction of Eurocode 8, the structural design for seismic and dynamic effects has become more significant in Hungary. This has emphasized the need for more effort to describe the behavior of structures under these conditions. Soil conditions have a significant effect on the response of structures by modifying the stiffness and damping of the soil-structural system and by modifying the seismic action as it reaches the ground surface. Shear modulus (G) and shear wave velocity (vs), which are often measured in the field, are the fundamental dynamic soil properties for foundation vibration problems, liquefaction potential and earthquake site response analysis. There are several laboratory and in-situ measurement techniques to evaluate dynamic soil properties, but unfortunately, they are often too expensive for general design practice. However, a significant number of correlations have been proposed to determine shear wave velocity or shear modulus from Cone Penetration Tests (CPT), which are used more and more in geotechnical design practice in Hungary. This allows the designer to analyze and compare CPT and seismic test result in order to select the best correlation equations for Hungarian soils and to improve the recommendations for the Hungarian geologic conditions. Based on a literature review, as well as research experience in Hungary, the influence of various parameters on the accuracy of results will be shown. This study can serve as a basis for selecting and modifying correlation equations for Hungarian soils. Test data are taken from seven locations in Hungary with similar geologic conditions. The shear wave velocity values were measured by seismic CPT. Several factors are analyzed including soil type, behavior index, measurement depth, geologic age etc. for their effect on the accuracy of predictions. The final results show an improved prediction method for Hungarian soils

Keywords: CPT correlation, dynamic soil properties, seismic CPT, shear wave velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
8219 Accurate Algorithm for Selecting Ground Motions Satisfying Code Criteria

Authors: S. J. Ha, S. J. Baik, T. O. Kim, S. W. Han


For computing the seismic responses of structures, current seismic design provisions permit response history analyses (RHA) that can be used without limitations in height, seismic design category, and building irregularity. In order to obtain accurate seismic responses using RHA, it is important to use adequate input ground motions. Current seismic design provisions provide criteria for selecting ground motions. In this study, the accurate and computationally efficient algorithm is proposed for accurately selecting ground motions that satisfy the requirements specified in current seismic design provisions. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is verified using single-degree-of-freedom systems with various natural periods and yield strengths. This study shows that the mean seismic responses obtained from RHA with seven and ten ground motions selected using the proposed algorithm produce errors within 20% and 13%, respectively.

Keywords: algorithm, ground motion, response history analysis, selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
8218 The Necessity of Retrofitting for Masonry Buildings in Turkey

Authors: Soner Güler, Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel


Masonry buildings constitute major part of building stock in Turkey. Masonry buildings were built up especially in rural areas and underdeveloped regions due to economic reasons. Almost all of these masonry buildings are not designed and detailed according to any design guidelines by designers. As a result of this, masonry buildings were totally collapsed or heavily damaged when subjected to destructive earthquake effects. Thus, these masonry buildings that were built up in our country must be retrofitted to improve their seismic performance. In this study, new seismic retrofitting techniques that is easy to apply and low-cost are summarized and the importance of seismic retrofitting is also emphasized for existing masonry buildings in Turkey.

Keywords: masonry buildings, earthquake effects, seismic retrofitting techniques, seismic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
8217 Designing Offshore Pipelines Facing the Geohazard of Active Seismic Faults

Authors: Maria Trimintziou, Michael Sakellariou, Prodromos Psarropoulos


Nowadays, the exploitation of hydrocarbons reserves in deep seas and oceans, in combination with the need to transport hydrocarbons among countries, has made the design, construction and operation of offshore pipelines very significant. Under this perspective, it is evident that many more offshore pipelines are expected to be constructed in the near future. Since offshore pipelines are usually crossing extended areas, they may face a variety of geohazards that impose substantial permanent ground deformations (PGDs) to the pipeline and potentially threaten its integrity. In case of a geohazard area, there exist three options to proceed. The first option is to avoid the problematic area through rerouting, which is usually regarded as an unfavorable solution due to its high cost. The second is to apply (if possible) mitigation/protection measures in order to eliminate the geohazard itself. Finally, the last appealing option is to allow the pipeline crossing through the geohazard area, provided that the pipeline will have been verified against the expected PGDs. In areas with moderate or high seismicity the design of an offshore pipeline is more demanding due to the earthquake-related geohazards, such as landslides, soil liquefaction phenomena, and active faults. It is worthy to mention that although worldwide there is a great experience in offshore geotechnics and pipeline design, the experience in seismic design of offshore pipelines is rather limited due to the fact that most of the pipelines have been constructed in non-seismic regions (e.g. North Sea, West Australia, Gulf of Mexico, etc.). The current study focuses on the seismic design of offshore pipelines against active faults. After an extensive literature review of the provisions of the seismic norms worldwide and of the available analytical methods, the study simulates numerically (through finite-element modeling and strain-based criteria) the distress of offshore pipelines subjected to PGDs induced by active seismic faults at the seabed. Factors, such as the geometrical properties of the fault, the mechanical properties of the ruptured soil formations, and the pipeline characteristics, are examined. After some interesting conclusions regarding the seismic vulnerability of offshore pipelines, potential cost-effective mitigation measures are proposed taking into account constructability issues.

Keywords: offhore pipelines, seismic design, active faults, permanent ground deformations (PGDs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
8216 Seismic Data Scaling: Uncertainties, Potential and Applications in Workstation Interpretation

Authors: Ankur Mundhra, Shubhadeep Chakraborty, Y. R. Singh, Vishal Das


Seismic data scaling affects the dynamic range of a data and with present day lower costs of storage and higher reliability of Hard Disk data, scaling is not suggested. However, in dealing with data of different vintages, which perhaps were processed in 16 bits or even 8 bits and are need to be processed with 32 bit available data, scaling is performed. Also, scaling amplifies low amplitude events in deeper region which disappear due to high amplitude shallow events that saturate amplitude scale. We have focused on significance of scaling data to aid interpretation. This study elucidates a proper seismic loading procedure in workstations without using default preset parameters as available in most software suites. Differences and distribution of amplitude values at different depth for seismic data are probed in this exercise. Proper loading parameters are identified and associated steps are explained that needs to be taken care of while loading data. Finally, the exercise interprets the un-certainties which might arise when correlating scaled and unscaled versions of seismic data with synthetics. As, seismic well tie correlates the seismic reflection events with well markers, for our study it is used to identify regions which are enhanced and/or affected by scaling parameter(s).

Keywords: clipping, compression, resolution, seismic scaling

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
8215 Preliminary Seismic Hazard Mapping of Papua New Guinea

Authors: Hadi Ghasemi, Mark Leonard, Spiliopoulos Spiro, Phil Cummins, Mathew Moihoi, Felix Taranu, Eric Buri, Chris Mckee


In this study the level of seismic hazard in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) was calculated for return period of 475 years, using modeled seismic sources and assigned ground-motion equations. The calculations were performed for bedrock site conditions (Vs30=760 m/s). From the results it is evident that the seismic hazard reaches its maximum level (i.e. PGA≈1g for 475 yr return period) at the Huon Peninsula and southern New Britain regions. Disaggregation analysis revealed that moderate to large earthquakes occurring along the New Britain Trench mainly control the level of hazard at these locations. The open-source computer program OpenQuake developed by Global Earthquake Model foundation was used for the seismic hazard computations. It should be emphasized that the presented results are still preliminary and should not be interpreted as our final assessment of seismic hazard in PNG.

Keywords: probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, Papua New Guinea, building code, OpenQuake

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
8214 SMRF Seismic Response: Unequal Beam Depths

Authors: Babak H. Mamaqani, Alimohammad Entezarmahdi


There are many researches on parameters affecting seismic behavior of steel moment frames. Great deal of these researches considers cover plate connections with or without haunch and direct beam to column connection for exterior columns. Also there are experimental results for interior connections with equal beam depth on both sides but not much research has been performed on the seismic behavior of joints with unequal beam depth. Based on previous experimental results, a series of companion analyses have been set up considering different beam height and connection detailing configuration to investigate the seismic behavior of the connections. Results of this study indicate that when the differences between beams height on both side increases, use of haunch connection system leads to significant improvement in the seismic response whereas other configurations did not provide satisfying results.

Keywords: analytical modeling, Haunch connection, seismic design, unequal beam depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 347