Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: I. Deiab

4 Energy Absorption Capacity of Aluminium Foam Manufactured by Kelvin Model Loaded Under Different Biaxial Combined Compression-Torsion Conditions

Authors: H. Solomon, A. Abdul-Latif, R. Baleh, I. Deiab, K. Khanafer

Abstract:

Aluminum foams were developed and tested due to their high energy absorption abilities for multifunctional applications. The aim of this research work was to investigate experimentally the effect of quasi-static biaxial loading complexity (combined compression-torsion) on the energy absorption capacity of highly uniform architecture open-cell aluminum foam manufactured by kelvin cell model. The two generated aluminum foams have 80% and 85% porosities, spherical-shaped pores having 11mm in diameter. These foams were tested by means of several square-section specimens. A patented rig called ACTP (Absorption par Compression-Torsion Plastique), was used to investigate the foam response under quasi-static complex loading paths having different torsional components (i.e., 0°, 37° and 53°). The main mechanical responses of the aluminum foams were studied under simple, intermediate and severe loading conditions. In fact, the key responses to be examined were stress plateau and energy absorption capacity of the two foams with respect to loading complexity. It was concluded that the higher the loading complexity and the higher the relative density, the greater the energy absorption capacity of the foam. The highest energy absorption was thus recorded under the most complicated loading path (i.e., biaxial-53°) for the denser foam (i.e., 80% porosity).

Keywords: open-cell aluminum foams, biaxial loading complexity, foams porosity, energy absorption capacity, characterization

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3 Evaluating the Dosimetric Performance for 3D Treatment Planning System for Wedged and Off-Axis Fields

Authors: Nashaat A. Deiab, Aida Radwan, Mohamed S. Yahiya, Mohamed Elnagdy, Rasha Moustafa

Abstract:

This study is to evaluate the dosimetric performance of our institution's 3D treatment planning system for wedged and off-axis 6MV photon beams, guided by the recommended QA tests documented in the AAPM TG53; NCS report 15 test packages, IAEA TRS 430 and ESTRO booklet no.7. The study was performed for Elekta Precise linear accelerator designed for clinical range of 4, 6 and 15 MV photon beams with asymmetric jaws and fully integrated multileaf collimator that enables high conformance to target with sharp field edges. Ten tests were applied on solid water equivalent phantom along with 2D array dose detection system. The calculated doses using 3D treatment planning system PrecisePLAN were compared with measured doses to make sure that the dose calculations are accurate for simple situations such as square and elongated fields, different SSD, beam modifiers e.g. wedges, blocks, MLC-shaped fields and asymmetric collimator settings. The QA results showed dosimetric accuracy of the TPS within the specified tolerance limits. Except for large elongated wedged field, the central axis and outside central axis have errors of 0.2% and 0.5%, respectively, and off- planned and off-axis elongated fields the region outside the central axis of the beam errors are 0.2% and 1.1%, respectively. The dosimetric investigated results yielded differences within the accepted tolerance level as recommended. Differences between dose values predicted by the TPS and measured values at the same point are the result from limitations of the dose calculation, uncertainties in the measurement procedure, or fluctuations in the output of the accelerator.

Keywords: quality assurance, dose calculation, wedged fields, off-axis fields, 3D treatment planning system, photon beam

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2 Finite Element Analysis of Shape Memory Alloy Stents in Coronary Arteries

Authors: Amatulraheem Al-Abassi, K. Khanafer, Ibrahim Deiab

Abstract:

The coronary artery stent is a promising technology that can treat various coronary diseases. Materials used for manufacturing medical stents should have high biocompatible properties. Stent alloys, in particular, are remarkably promising good clinical outcomes, however, there is threaten of restenosis (reoccurring of artery narrowing due to fatty plaque), stent recoiling, or in long-term the occurrence of stent fracture. However, stents that are made of Nickel-titanium (Nitinol) can bare extensive plastic deformation and resist restenosis. This shape memory alloy has outstanding mechanical properties. Nitinol is a unique shape memory alloy as it has unique mechanical properties such as; biocompatibility, super-elasticity, and recovery to original shape under certain loads. Stent failure may cause complications in vascular diseases and possibly blockage of blood flow. Thus, studying the behaviors of the stent under different medical conditions will help the doctors and cardiologists to predict when it is necessary to change the stent in order to prevent any severe morbidity outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited published papers that analyze the stent behavior with regards to the contact surfaces of plaque layer and blood vessel. Thus, stent material properties will be discussed in this investigation to highlight the mechanical and clinical differences between various stents. This research analyzes the performance of Nitinol stent in well-known stent design to determine its bearing with stress and its dislocation in blood vessels, in comparison to stents made of different biocompatible materials. In addition, a study of its performance will be represented in the system. Finite Element Analysis is the core of this study. Thus, a physical representative model will be discussed to show the distribution of stress and strain along the interaction surface between the stent and the artery. The reaction of vascular tissue to the stent will be evaluated to predict the possibility of restenosis within the treated area.

Keywords: shape memory alloy, stent, coronary artery, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
1 Open Fields' Dosimetric Verification for a Commercially-Used 3D Treatment Planning System

Authors: Nashaat A. Deiab, Aida Radwan, Mohamed Elnagdy, Mohamed S. Yahiya, Rasha Moustafa

Abstract:

This study is to evaluate and investigate the dosimetric performance of our institution's 3D treatment planning system, Elekta PrecisePLAN, for open 6MV fields including square, rectangular, variation in SSD, centrally blocked, missing tissue, square MLC and MLC shaped fields guided by the recommended QA tests prescribed in AAPM TG53, NCS report 15 test packages, IAEA TRS 430 and ESTRO booklet no.7. The study was performed for Elekta Precise linear accelerator designed for clinical range of 4, 6 and 15 MV photon beams with asymmetric jaws and fully integrated multileaf collimator that enables high conformance to target with sharp field edges. Seven different tests were done applied on solid water equivalent phantom along with 2D array dose detection system, the calculated doses using 3D treatment planning system PrecisePLAN, compared with measured doses to make sure that the dose calculations are accurate for open fields including square, rectangular, variation in SSD, centrally blocked, missing tissue, square MLC and MLC shaped fields. The QA results showed dosimetric accuracy of the TPS for open fields within the specified tolerance limits. However large square (25cm x 25cm) and rectangular fields (20cm x 5cm) some points were out of tolerance in penumbra region (11.38 % and 10.9 %, respectively). For the test of SSD variation, the large field resulted from SSD 125 cm for 10cm x 10cm filed the results recorded an error of 0.2% at the central axis and 1.01% in penumbra. The results yielded differences within the accepted tolerance level as recommended. Large fields showed variations in penumbra. These differences between dose values predicted by the TPS and the measured values at the same point may result from limitations of the dose calculation, uncertainties in the measurement procedure, or fluctuations in the output of the accelerator.

Keywords: quality assurance, dose calculation, 3D treatment planning system, photon beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 424