Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 519

Search results for: foams porosity

519 Energy Absorption Capacity of Aluminium Foam Manufactured by Kelvin Model Loaded Under Different Biaxial Combined Compression-Torsion Conditions

Authors: H. Solomon, A. Abdul-Latif, R. Baleh, I. Deiab, K. Khanafer


Aluminum foams were developed and tested due to their high energy absorption abilities for multifunctional applications. The aim of this research work was to investigate experimentally the effect of quasi-static biaxial loading complexity (combined compression-torsion) on the energy absorption capacity of highly uniform architecture open-cell aluminum foam manufactured by kelvin cell model. The two generated aluminum foams have 80% and 85% porosities, spherical-shaped pores having 11mm in diameter. These foams were tested by means of several square-section specimens. A patented rig called ACTP (Absorption par Compression-Torsion Plastique), was used to investigate the foam response under quasi-static complex loading paths having different torsional components (i.e., 0°, 37° and 53°). The main mechanical responses of the aluminum foams were studied under simple, intermediate and severe loading conditions. In fact, the key responses to be examined were stress plateau and energy absorption capacity of the two foams with respect to loading complexity. It was concluded that the higher the loading complexity and the higher the relative density, the greater the energy absorption capacity of the foam. The highest energy absorption was thus recorded under the most complicated loading path (i.e., biaxial-53°) for the denser foam (i.e., 80% porosity).

Keywords: open-cell aluminum foams, biaxial loading complexity, foams porosity, energy absorption capacity, characterization

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518 Synthesis of Low-Cost Porous Silicon Carbide Foams from Renewable Sources

Authors: M. A. Bayona, E. M. Cordoba, V. R. Guiza


Highly porous carbon-based foams are used in a wide range of industrial applications, which include absorption, catalyst supports, thermal insulation, and biomaterials, among others. Particularly, silicon carbide (SiC) based foams have shown exceptional potential for catalyst support applications, due to their chemical inertness, large frontal area, low resistance to flow, low-pressure drop, as well as high resistance to temperature and corrosion. These properties allow the use of SiC foams in harsh environments with high durability. Commonly, SiC foams are fabricated from polysiloxane, SiC powders and phenolic resins, which can be costly or highly toxic to the environment. In this work, we propose a low-cost method for the fabrication of highly porous, three-dimensional SiC foams via template replica, using recycled polymeric sponges as sacrificial templates. A sucrose-based resin combined with a Si-containing pre-ceramic polymer was used as the precursor. Polymeric templates were impregnated with the precursor solution, followed by thermal treatment at 1500 °C under an inert atmosphere. Several synthesis parameters, such as viscosity and composition of the precursor solution (Si: Sucrose molar ratio), and the porosity of the template, were evaluated in terms of their effect on the morphology, composition and mechanical resistance of the resulting SiC foams. The synthesized composite foams exhibited a highly porous (50-90%) and interconnected structure, containing 30-90% SiC with a mechanical compressive strength between 0.01-0.1 MPa. The methodology employed here allowed the fabrication of foams with a varied concentration of SiC and with morphological and mechanical properties that contribute to the development of materials of high relevance in the industry, while using low-cost, renewable sources such as table sugar, and providing a recycling alternative for polymeric sponges.

Keywords: catalyst support, polymer replica technique, reticulated porous ceramics, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
517 Production of Polyurethane Foams from Bark Wastes

Authors: Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, Liliana Rodrigues, Idalina Domingos, José Ferreira, Luís Teixeira de Lemos, Bruno Esteves


Currently, the polyurethanes industry is dependent on fossil resources to obtain their basic raw materials (polyols and isocyanate), as these are obtained from petroleum products. The aim of this work was to use biopolyols from liquefied Pseudotsuga (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) barks for the production of polyurethane foams and optimize the process. Liquefaction was done with glycerol catalyzed by KOH. Foams were produced following different formulations and using biopolyols from both barks. Subsequently, the foams were characterized according to their mechanical properties and the reaction of the foam formation was monitored by FTIR-ATR. The results show that it is possible to produce polyurethane foams using bio-based polyols and the liquefaction conditions are very important because they influence the characteristics of biopolyols and, consequently the characteristics of the foams. However, the process has to be further optimized so that it can obtain better quality foams.

Keywords: Bio-based polyol, mechanical tests, polyurethane foam, Pseudotsuga bark, renewable resources, Turkey oak bark

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516 In-Situ Quasistatic Compression and Microstructural Characterization of Aluminium Foams of Different Cell Topology

Authors: M. A. Islam, P. J. Hazell, J. P. Escobedo, M. Saadatfar


Quasistatic compression and micro structural characterization of closed cell aluminium foams of different pore size and cell distributions has been carried out. Metallic foams have good potential for lightweight structures for impact and blast mitigation and therefore it is important to find out the optimized foam structure (i.e. cell size, shape, relative density, and distribution) to maximize energy absorption. In this paper, we present results for two different aluminium metal foams of density 0.5 g/cc and 0.7 g/cc respectively that have been tested in quasi-static compression. The influence of cell geometry and cell topology on quasistatic compression behavior has been investigated using computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. The compression behavior and micro structural characterization will be presented.

Keywords: metal foams, micro-CT, cell topology, quasistatic compression

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515 Preparation and Properties of Gelatin-Bamboo Fibres Foams for Packaging Applications

Authors: Luo Guidong, Song Hang, Jim Song, Virginia Martin Torrejon


Due to their excellent properties, polymer packaging foams have become increasingly essential in our current lifestyles. They are cost-effective and lightweight, with excellent mechanical and thermal insulation properties. However, they constitute a major environmental and health concern due to litter generation, ocean pollution, and microplastic contamination of the food chain. In recent years, considerable efforts have been made to develop more sustainable alternatives to conventional polymer packaging foams. As a result, biobased and compostable foams are increasingly becoming commercially available, such as starch-based loose-fill or PLA trays. However, there is still a need for bulk manufacturing of bio-foams planks for packaging applications as a viable alternative to their fossil fuel counterparts (i.e., polystyrene, polyethylene, and polyurethane). Gelatin is a promising biopolymer for packaging applications due to its biodegradability, availability, and biocompatibility, but its mechanical properties are poor compared to conventional plastics. However, as widely reported for other biopolymers, such as starch, the mechanical properties of gelatin-based bioplastics can be enhanced by formulation optimization, such as the incorporation of fibres from different crops, such as bamboo. This research aimed to produce gelatin-bamboo fibre foams by mechanical foaming and to study the effect of fibre content on the foams' properties and structure. As a result, foams with virtually no shrinkage, low density (<40 kg/m³), low thermal conductivity (<0.044 W/m•K), and mechanical properties comparable to conventional plastics were produced. Further work should focus on developing formulations suitable for the packaging of water-sensitive products and processing optimization, especially the reduction of the drying time.

Keywords: biobased and compostable foam, sustainable packaging, natural polymer hydrogel, cold chain packaging

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514 Porosity Characterization and Its Destruction by Authigenic Minerals: Reservoir Sandstones, Mamuniyat Formation, Murzuq Basin, SW Libya

Authors: Mohamrd Ali Alrabib


Sandstones samples were selected from cores of seven wells ranging in depth from 5040 to 7181.4 ft. The dominant authigenic cement phase is quartz overgrowth cement (up to 13% by volume) and this is the major mechanism for porosity reduction. Late stage carbonate cements (siderite and dolomite/ferroan dolomite) are present and these minerals infill intergranular porosity and, therefore, further reduce porosity and probably permeability. Authigenic clay minerals are represented by kaolinite, illite, and grain coating clay minerals. Kaolinite occurs as booklet and vermicular forms. Minor amounts of illite were noted in the studied samples, which commonly block pore throats, thereby reducing permeability. Primary porosity of up to 26.5% is present. Secondary porosity (up to 17%) is also present as a result of feldspar dissolution. The high intergranular volume (IGV) of the sandstones indicates that mechanical and chemical compaction played a more important role than cementation of porosity loss.

Keywords: authigenic minerals, porosity types, porosity reduction, mamuniyat sandstone reservoir

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513 Effects of Porosity Logs on Pore Connectivity and Volumetric Estimation

Authors: Segun S. Bodunde


In Bona Field, Niger Delta, two reservoirs across three wells were analyzed. The research aimed at determining the statistical dependence of permeability and oil volume in place on porosity logs. Of the three popular porosity logs, two were used; the sonic and density logs. The objectives of the research were to identify the porosity logs that vary more with location and direction, to visualize the depth trend of both logs and to determine the influence of these logs on pore connectivity determination and volumetric analysis. The focus was on density and sonic logs. It was observed that the sonic derived porosities were higher than the density derived porosities (in well two, across the two reservoir sands, sonic porosity averaged 30.8% while density derived porosity averaged 23.65%, and the same trend was observed in other wells.). The sonic logs were further observed to have lower co-efficient of variation when compared to the density logs (in sand A, well 2, sonic derived porosity had a co-efficient of variation of 12.15% compared to 22.52% from the density logs) indicating a lower tendency to vary with location and direction. The bulk density was observed to increase with depth while the transit time reduced with depth. It was also observed that for an 8.87% decrease in porosity, the pore connectivity was observed to decrease by about 38%.

Keywords: pore connectivity, co-efficient of variation, density derived porosity, sonic derived porosity

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512 Comparison of the Material Response Based on Production Technologies of Metal Foams

Authors: Tamas Mankovits


Lightweight cellular-type structures like metal foams have excellent mechanical properties, therefore the interest in these materials is widely spreading as load-bearing structural elements, e.g. as implants. Numerous technologies are available to produce metal foams. In this paper the material response of closed cell foam structures produced by direct foaming and additive technology is compared. The production technology circumstances are also investigated. Geometrical variations are developed for foam structures produced by additive manufacturing and simulated by finite element method to be able to predict the mechanical behavior.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, direct foaming, finite element method, metal foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
511 Foamability and Foam Stability of Gelatine-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solutions

Authors: Virginia Martin Torrejon, Song Hang


Gelatine foams are widely explored materials due to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and availability. They exhibit outstanding properties and are currently subject to increasing scientific research due to their potential use in different applications, such as biocompatible cellular materials for biomedical products or biofoams as an alternative to fossil-fuel-derived packaging. Gelatine is a highly surface-active polymer, and its concentrated solutions usually do not require surfactants to achieve low surface tension. Still, anionic surfactants like sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) strongly interact with gelatine, impacting its viscosity and rheological properties and, in turn, their foaming behaviour. Foaming behaviour is a key parameter for cellular solids produced by mechanical foaming as it has a significant effect on the processing and properties of cellular materials. Foamability mainly impacts the density and the mechanical properties of the foams, while foam stability is crucial to achieving foams with low shrinkage and desirable pore morphology. This work aimed to investigate the influence of SDS on the foaming behaviour of concentrated gelatine foams by using a dynamic foam analyser. The study of maximum foam height created, foam formation behaviour, drainage behaviour, and foam structure with regard to bubble size and distribution were carried out in 10 wt% gelatine solutions prepared at different SDS/gelatine concentration ratios. Comparative rheological and viscometry measurements provided a good correlation with the data from the dynamic foam analyser measurements. SDS incorporation at optimum dosages and gelatine gelation led to highly stable foams at high expansion ratios. The viscosity increase of the hydrogel solution at SDS content increased was a key parameter for foam stabilization. In addition, the impact of SDS content on gelling time and gel strength also considerably impacted the foams' stability and pore structure.

Keywords: dynamic foam analyser, gelatine foams stability and foamability, gelatine-surfactant foams, gelatine-SDS rheology, gelatine-SDS viscosity

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510 Investigations of Thermo Fluid Characteristics of Copper Alloy Porous Heat Sinks by Forced Air Cooling

Authors: Ashish Mahalle, Kishore Borakhade


High porosity metal foams are excellent for heat dissipation. There use has been widened to include heat removal from high density microelectronics circuits. Other important applications have been found in compact heat exchangers for airborne equipment, regenerative and dissipative air cooled condenser towers, and compact heat sinks for power electronic. The low relative density, open porosity and high thermal conductivity of the cell edges, large accessible surface area per unit volume, and the ability to mix the cooling fluid make metal foam heat exchangers efficient, compact and light weight. This paper reports the thermal performance of metal foam for high heat dissipation. In experimentation metal foam samples of different pore diameters i.e. 35 µ, 20 µ, 12 µ, are analyzed for varying velocities and heat inputs. The study investigate the effect of various dimensionless no. like Re,Nu, Pr and heat transfer characteristics of basic flow configuration.

Keywords: pores, foam, effective thermal conductivity, permeability

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509 The Effect of Different Surface Cleaning Methods on Porosity Formation and Mechanical Property of AA6xxx Aluminum Gas Metal Arc Welds

Authors: Fatemeh Mirakhorli


Porosity is the main issue during welding of aluminum alloys, and surface cleaning has a critical influence to reduce the porosity level by removing the oxidized surface layer before fusion welding. Developing an optimum and economical surface cleaning method has an enormous benefit for aluminum welding industries to reduce costs related to repairing and repeating welds as well as increasing the mechanical properties of the joints. In this study, several mechanical and chemical surface cleaning methods were examined for butt joint welding of 2 mm thick AA6xxx alloys using ER5556 filler metal. The effects of each method on porosity formation and tensile properties are evaluated. It has been found that, compared to the conventional mechanical cleaning method, the use of chemical cleaning leads to an important reduction in porosity level even after a significant delay between cleaning and welding. The effect of the higher porosity level in the fusion zone to reduce the tensile strength of the welds is shown.

Keywords: gas metal arc welding (GMAW), aluminum alloy, surface cleaning, porosity formation, mechanical property

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508 Porosity and Ultraviolet Protection Ability of Woven Fabrics

Authors: Polona Dobnik Dubrovski, Abhijit Majumdar


The increasing awareness of negative effects of ultraviolet radiation and regular, effective protection are actual themes in many countries. Woven fabrics as clothing items can provide convenient personal protection however not all fabrics offer sufficient UV protection. Porous structure of the material has a great effect on UPF. The paper is focused on an overview of porosity in woven fabrics, including the determination of porosity parameters on the basis of an ideal geometrical model of porous structure. Our experiment was focused on 100% cotton woven fabrics in a grey state with the same yarn fineness (14 tex) and different thread densities (to achieve relative fabric density between 59 % and 87 %) and different type of weaves (plain, 4-end twill, 5-end satin). The results of the research dealing with the modelling of UPF and the influence of volume and open porosity of tested samples on UPF are exposed. The results show that open porosity should be lower than 12 % to achieve good UV protection according to AS/NZ standard of tested samples. The results also indicate that there is no direct correlation between volume porosity and UPF, moreover, volume porosity namely depends on the type of weave and affects UPF as well. Plain fabrics did not offer any UV protection, while twill and satin fabrics offered good UV protection when volume porosity was less than 64 % and 66 %, respectively.

Keywords: fabric engineering, UV radiation, porous materials, woven fabric construction, modelling

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507 Degradation of Irradiated UO2 Fuel Thermal Conductivity Calculated by FRAPCON Model Due to Porosity Evolution at High Burn-Up

Authors: B. Roostaii, H. Kazeminejad, S. Khakshournia


The evolution of volume porosity previously obtained by using the existing low temperature high burn-up gaseous swelling model with progressive recrystallization for UO2 fuel is utilized to study the degradation of irradiated UO2 thermal conductivity calculated by the FRAPCON model of thermal conductivity. A porosity correction factor is developed based on the assumption that the fuel morphology is a three-phase type, consisting of the as-fabricated pores and pores due to intergranular bubbles whitin UO2 matrix and solid fission products. The predicted thermal conductivity demonstrates an additional degradation of 27% due to porosity formation at burn-up levels around 120 MWd/kgU which would cause an increase in the fuel temperature accordingly. Results of the calculations are compared with available data.

Keywords: irradiation-induced recrystallization, matrix swelling, porosity evolution, UO₂ thermal conductivity

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506 The Impact of Liquid Glass-Infused Lignin Waste Particles on Performance of Polyurethane Foam for Building Industry

Authors: Agnė Kairyte, Saulius Vaitkus


The gradual depletion of fossil feedstock and growing environmental concerns attracted extensive attention to natural resources due to their low cost, high abundance, renewability, sustainability, and biodegradability. Lignin is a significant by-product of the pulp and paper industry, having unique functional groups. Recently it became interesting for the manufacturing of high value-added products such as polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. This study focuses on the development of high-performance polyurethane foams with various amounts of lignin as a filler. It is determined that the incorporation of lignin as a filler material results in brittle and hard products due to the low molecular mobility of isocyanates and the inherent stiffness of lignin. Therefore, the current study analyses new techniques and possibilities of liquid glass infusion onto the surface of lignin particles to reduce the negative aspects and improve the performance characteristics of the modified foams. The foams modified with sole lignin and liquid glass-infused lignin had an apparent density ranging from 35 kg/m3 to 45 kg/m3 and closed-cell content (80–90%). The incorporation of sole lignin reduced the compressive and tensile strengths and increased dimensional stability and water absorption, while the contrary results were observed for polyurethane foams with liquid glass-infused lignin particles. The effect on rheological parameters of lignin and liquid glass infused lignin modified polyurethane premixes and morphology of polyurethane foam products were monitored to optimize the conditions and reveal the significant influence of the interaction between particles and polymer matrix.

Keywords: filler, lignin waste, liquid glass, polymer matrix, polyurethane foam, sustainability

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505 Heat Transfer Enhancement Due to the Optimal Porosity in Plate Heat Exchangers with Sinusoidal Plates

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand, Seyyed Mostafa Saadat


In this paper, the effect of thermal dispersion on the performance of plate heat exchangers (PHEs) with sinusoidal plates is investigated. In this regard, the PHE is considered as a porous medium. The important property of a porous medium is porosity that is defined as the total fluid volume divided by the total volume occupied by the solid and fluid. A 2D array of parallel sinusoidal plates with laminar periodically developed forced convection and single-phase constant property flows and conduction in a homogenous solid phase in two directions is considered. The array of flows is counter and the flows heat capacities are equal. Numerical study of conjugate heat transfer and axial conduction in the solid phase with different plate thicknesses showed that there is an optimal porosity in which the efficiency of heat transfer is up to 4% more than the time when the porosity is near one. It is shown that the optimal porosity at zero angle of inclination depends both on Reynolds number and the aspect ratio. The optimal porosity increased while either the Reynolds number or waviness of plates increased.

Keywords: plate heat exchanger, optimal porosity, efficiency, aspect ratio

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504 Controlling the Fluid Flow in Hydrogen Fuel Cells through Material Porosity Designs

Authors: Jamal Hussain Al-Smail


Hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) are environmentally friendly, energy converter devices that convert the chemical energy of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen) to electricity through electrochemical reactions. The level of the electricity production of HFCs mainly increases depending on the oxygen distribution in the HFC’s cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL). With a constant porosity of the GDL, the electrochemical reaction can have a great variation that reduces the cell’s productivity and stability. Our findings bring a methodology in finding porosity designs of the diffusion layer to improve the oxygen distribution such that it results in a stable oxygen-hydrogen reaction. We first introduce a mathematical model involving the mass and momentum transport equations, in which a porosity function of the GDL is incorporated as a control for the fluid flow. We then derive numerical methods for solving the mathematical model. In conclusion, we present our numerical results to show how to design the GDL porosity to result in a uniform oxygen distribution.

Keywords: fuel cells, material porosity design, mathematical modeling, porous media

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503 Analyzing the Factors Effecting Ceramic Porosity Using Integrated Taguchi-Fuzzy Method

Authors: Enes Furkan Erkan, Özer Uygun, Halil Ibrahim Demir, Zeynep Demir


Companies require increase in quality perception level of their products due to competitive conditions. As a result, the tendency to quality and researches to develop the quality are increasing day by day. Cost and time constraints are the biggest problems that companies face in their quality improvement efforts. In this study, factors that affect the porosity of ceramic products are determined and analyzed in a factory producing ceramic tiles. Then, Taguchi method is used in the design phase in order to decrease the number of tests to be performed by means of orthogonal sequences. The most important factors affecting the porosity of ceramic tiles are determined using Taguchi and ANOVA analysis. Based on the analyses, the most affecting factors are determined to be used in the fuzzy implementation stage. Then, the fuzzy rules were established with the factors affecting porosity by the experts’ opinion. Thus, porosity result could be obtained not only for the specified factor levels but also for intermediate values. In this way, it has been provided convenience to the factory in terms of cost and quality improvement.

Keywords: fuzzy, porosity, Taguchi Method, Taguchi-Fuzzy

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502 A Review on Enhancing Heat Transfer Processes by Open-Cell Metal Foams and Industrial Applications

Authors: S. Cheragh Dar, M. Saljooghi, A. Babrgir


In the last couple of decades researchers' attitudes were focused on developing and enhancing heat transfer processes by using new components or cellular solids that divide into stochastic structures and periodic structures. Open-cell metal foams are part of stochastic structures families that they can be considered as an avant-garde technology and they have unique properties, this porous media can have tremendous achievements in thermal processes. This paper argues and surveys postulating possible in industrial thermal issues which include: compact electronic cooling, heat exchanger, aerospace, fines, turbo machinery, automobiles, crygen tanks, biomechanics, high temperature filters and etc. Recently, by surveying exponential rate of publications in thermal open-cell metal foams, all can be demonstrated in a holistic view which can lead researchers to a new level of understanding in different industrial thermal sections.

Keywords: heat transfer, industrial thermal, cellular solids, open cell metal foam

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501 Dimensionality and Superconducting Parameters of YBa2Cu3O7 Foams

Authors: Michael Koblischka, Anjela Koblischka-Veneva, XianLin Zeng, Essia Hannachi, Yassine Slimani


Superconducting foams of YBa2Cu3O7 (abbreviated Y-123) were produced using the infiltration growth (IG) technique from Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) foams. The samples were investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and electrical resistivity measurements. SEM observations indicated the specific microstructure of the foam struts with numerous tiny Y-211 particles (50-100 nm diameter) embedded in channel-like structures between the Y-123 grains. The investigation of the excess conductivity of different prepared composites was analyzed using Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) model. The investigated samples comprised of five distinct fluctuation regimes, namely short-wave (SWF), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D), and critical (CR) fluctuations regimes. The coherence length along the c-axis at zero-temperature (ξc(0)), lower and upper critical magnetic fields (Bc1 and Bc2), critical current density (Jc) and numerous other superconducting parameters were estimated from the data. The analysis reveals that the presence of the tiny Y-211 particles alters the excess conductivity and the fluctuation behavior observed in standard YBCO samples.

Keywords: Excess conductivity, Foam, Microstructure, Superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy

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500 Rock Property Calculation for Determine Hydrocarbon Zone Based on Petrophysical Principal and Sequence Stratigraphic Correlation in Blok M

Authors: Muhammad Tarmidzi, Reza M. G. Gani, Andri Luthfi


The purpose of this study is to identify rock zone containing hydrocarbons with calculating rock property includes volume shale, total porosity, effective porosity and water saturation. Identification method rock property based on GR log, resistivity log, neutron log and density rock. Zoning is based on sequence stratigraphic markers that are sequence boundary (SB), transgressive surface (TS) and flooding surface (FS) which correlating ten well log in blok “M”. The results of sequence stratigraphic correlation consist of eight zone that are two LST zone, three TST zone and three HST zone. The result of rock property calculation in each zone is showing two LST zone containing hydrocarbons. LST-1 zone has average volume shale (Vsh) 25%, average total porosity (PHIT) 14%, average effective porosity (PHIE) 11% and average water saturation 0,83. LST-2 zone has average volume shale (Vsh) 19%, average total porosity (PHIT) 21%, average effective porosity (PHIE) 17% and average water saturation 0,82.

Keywords: hydrocarbons zone, petrophysic, rock property, sequence stratigraphic

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499 Biocompatible Porous Titanium Scaffolds Produced Using a Novel Space Holder Technique

Authors: Yunhui Chen, Damon Kent, Matthew Dargusch


Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 39 GPa, 16 GPa and 9 GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30 GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 315 MPa and 175 MPa are superior to that of human bone (130-180 MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: scaffolds, MG-63 cell culture, titanium, space holder

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498 High Temperature Volume Combustion Synthesis of Ti3Al with Low Porosities

Authors: Nese Ozturk Korpe, Muhammed H. Karas


Reaction synthesis, or combustion synthesis, is a processing technique in which the thermal activation energy of formation of a compound is sustained by its exothermic heat of reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high initial pressing pressures (420 MPa, 630 MPa, and 850 MPa) on porosity of Ti3Al which produced by volume combustion synthesis. Microstructure examinations were performed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Phase analyses were performed with X-ray diffraction device (XRD). A significant decrease in porosity was obtained due to an increase in the initial pressing pressure.

Keywords: Titanium Aluminide, Volume Combustion Synthesis, Intermetallic, Porosity

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497 Influence of Drying Method in Parts of Alumina Obtained for Rapid Prototyping and Uniaxial Dry Pressing

Authors: N. O. Muniz, F. A. Vechietti, L. Treccani, K. Rezwan, Luis Alberto dos Santos


Developing new technologies in the manufacture of biomaterials is a major challenge for researchers in the tissue engineering area. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the significance of the porous structure of the biomaterials on the promotion of bone ingrowth. The use of Rapid Prototyping in the manufacture of ceramics in the biomedical area has increased in recent years and few studies are conducted on obtaining alumina pieces. The aim of this work was the study of alumina pieces obtained by 3D printing and uniaxial dry pressing (DP) in order to evaluate porosity achieved by this two different techniques. Also, the influence of the powder drying process was determined. The row alumina powders were drying by freeze drying and oven. Apparent porosity, apparent density, retraction after thermal treatment were evaluated. The porosity values obtained by DP, regardless of method of drying powders, were much lower than those obtained by RP as expected. And for the prototyped samples, the method of powder drying significantly influenced porosities, reached 48% for drying oven versus 65% for freeze-drying. Therefore, the method of 3D printing, using different powder drying, allows a better control over the porosity.

Keywords: rapid prototyping, freeze-drying, porosity, alumina

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496 Microwave Freeze Drying of Fruit Foams for the Production of Healthy Snacks

Authors: Sabine Ambros, Mine Oezcelik, Evelyn Dachmann, Ulrich Kulozik


Nutritional quality and taste of dried fruit products is still often unsatisfactory and does not meet anymore the current consumer trends. Dried foams from fruit puree could be an attractive alternative. Due to their open-porous structure, a new sensory perception with a sudden and very intense aroma release could be generated. To make such high quality fruit snacks affordable for the consumer, a gentle but at the same time fast drying process has to be applied. Therefore, microwave-assisted freeze drying of raspberry foams was investigated in this work and compared with the conventional freeze drying technique in terms of nutritional parameters such as antioxidative capacity, anthocyanin content and vitamin C and the physical parameters colour and wettability. The following process settings were applied: 0.01 kPa chamber pressure and a maximum temperature of 30 °C for both freeze and microwave freeze drying. The influence of microwave power levels on the dried foams was investigated between 1 and 5 W/g. Intermediate microwave power settings led to the highest nutritional values, a colour appearance comparable to the undried foam and a proper wettability. A proper process stability could also be guaranteed for these power levels. By the volumetric energy input of the microwaves drying time could be reduced from 24 h in conventional freeze drying to about 6 h. The short drying times further resulted in an equally high maintenance of the above mentioned parameters in both drying techniques. Hence, microwave assisted freeze drying could lead to a process acceleration in comparison to freeze drying and be therefore an interesting alternative drying technique which on industrial scale enables higher efficiency and higher product throughput.

Keywords: foam drying, freeze drying, fruit puree, microwave freeze drying, raspberry

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
495 A Combined CFD Simulation of Plateau Borders including Films and Transitional Areas of Liquid Foams

Authors: Abdolhamid Anazadehsayed, Jamal Naser


An integrated computational fluid dynamics model is developed for a combined simulation of Plateau borders, films, and transitional areas between the film and the Plateau borders to reduce the simplifications and shortcomings of available models for foam drainage in micro-scale. Additionally, the counter-flow related to the Marangoni effect in the transitional area is investigated. The results of this combined model show the contribution of the films, the exterior Plateau borders, and Marangoni flow in the drainage process more accurately since the inter-influence of foam's elements is included in this study. The exterior Plateau borders flow rate can be four times larger than the interior ones. The exterior bubbles can be more prominent in the drainage process in cases where the number of the exterior Plateau borders increases due to the geometry of container. The ratio of the Marangoni counter-flow to the Plateau border flow increases drastically with an increase in the mobility of air-liquid interface. However, the exterior bubbles follow the same trend with much less intensity since typically, the flow is less dependent on the interface of air-liquid in the exterior bubbles. Moreover, the Marangoni counter-flow in a near-wall transition area is less important than an internal one. The influence of air-liquid interface mobility on the average velocity of interior foams is attained with more accuracy with more realistic boundary condition. Then it has been compared with other numerical and analytical results. The contribution of films in the drainage is significant for the mobile foams as the velocity of flow in the film has the same order of magnitude as the velocity in the Plateau border. Nevertheless, for foams with rigid interfaces, film's contribution in foam drainage is insignificant, particularly for the films near the wall of the container.

Keywords: foam, plateau border, film, Marangoni, CFD, bubble

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494 Influence of the Non-Uniform Distribution of Filler Porosity on the Thermal Performance of Sensible Heat Thermocline Storage Tanks

Authors: Yuchao Hua, Lingai Luo


Thermal energy storage is of critical importance for the highly-efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. Over the past decades, single-tank thermocline technology has attracted much attention owing to its high cost-effectiveness. In the present work, we investigate the influence of the filler porosity’s non-uniform distribution on the thermal performance of the packed-bed sensible heat thermocline storage tanks on the basis of the analytical model obtained by the Laplace transform. It is found that when the total amount of filler materials (i.e., the integration of porosity) is fixed, the different porosity distributions can result in the significantly-different behaviors of outlet temperature and thus the varied charging and discharging efficiencies. Our results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the fillers with the proper design can improve the heat storage performance without changing the total amount of the filling materials.

Keywords: energy storage, heat thermocline storage tank, packed bed, transient thermal analysis

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493 Characterization of Titanium -Niobium Alloys by Powder Metallurgy as İmplant

Authors: Eyyüp Murat Karakurt, Yan Huang, Mehmet Kaya, Hüseyin Demirtaş, Alper İncesu


In this study, Ti-(x) Nb (at. %) master alloys (x:10, 20, and 30) were fabricated following a standard powder metallurgy route and were sintered at 1200 ˚C for 6h, under 300 MPa by powder metallurgy method. The effect of the Nb concentration in Ti matrix and porosity level was examined experimentally. For metallographic examination, the alloys were analysed by optical microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis. In addition, X-ray diffraction was performed on the alloys to determine which compound formed in the microstructure. The compression test was applied to the alloys to understand the mechanical behaviors of the alloys. According to Nb concentration in Ti matrix, the β phase increased. Also, porosity level played a crucial role on the mechanical performance of the alloys.

Keywords: Nb concentration, porosity level, powder metallurgy, The β phase

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492 Food Foam Characterization: Rheology, Texture and Microstructure Studies

Authors: Rutuja Upadhyay, Anurag Mehra


Solid food foams/cellular foods are colloidal systems which impart structure, texture and mouthfeel to many food products such as bread, cakes, ice-cream, meringues, etc. Their heterogeneous morphology makes the quantification of structure/mechanical relationships complex. The porous structure of solid food foams is highly influenced by the processing conditions, ingredient composition, and their interactions. Sensory perceptions of food foams are dependent on bubble size, shape, orientation, quantity and distribution and determines the texture of foamed foods. The state and structure of the solid matrix control the deformation behavior of the food, such as elasticity/plasticity or fracture, which in turn has an effect on the force-deformation curves. The obvious step in obtaining the relationship between the mechanical properties and the porous structure is to quantify them simultaneously. Here, we attempt to research food foams such as bread dough, baked bread and steamed rice cakes to determine the link between ingredients and the corresponding effect of each of them on the rheology, microstructure, bubble size and texture of the final product. Dynamic rheometry (SAOS), confocal laser scanning microscopy, flatbed scanning, image analysis and texture profile analysis (TPA) has been used to characterize the foods studied. In all the above systems, there was a common observation that when the mean bubble diameter is smaller, the product becomes harder as evidenced by the increase in storage and loss modulus (G′, G″), whereas when the mean bubble diameter is large the product is softer with decrease in moduli values (G′, G″). Also, the bubble size distribution affects texture of foods. It was found that bread doughs with hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, alginate) aid a more uniform bubble size distribution. Bread baking experiments were done to study the rheological changes and mechanisms involved in the structural transition of dough to crumb. Steamed rice cakes with xanthan gum (XG) addition at 0.1% concentration resulted in lower hardness with a narrower pore size distribution and larger mean pore diameter. Thus, control of bubble size could be an important parameter defining final food texture.

Keywords: food foams, rheology, microstructure, texture

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491 An Overview of the Porosity Classification in Carbonate Reservoirs and Their Challenges: An Example of Macro-Microporosity Classification from Offshore Miocene Carbonate in Central Luconia, Malaysia

Authors: Hammad T. Janjuhah, Josep Sanjuan, Mohamed K. Salah


Biological and chemical activities in carbonates are responsible for the complexity of the pore system. Primary porosity is generally of natural origin while secondary porosity is subject to chemical reactivity through diagenetic processes. To understand the integrated part of hydrocarbon exploration, it is necessary to understand the carbonate pore system. However, the current porosity classification scheme is limited to adequately predict the petrophysical properties of different reservoirs having various origins and depositional environments. Rock classification provides a descriptive method for explaining the lithofacies but makes no significant contribution to the application of porosity and permeability (poro-perm) correlation. The Central Luconia carbonate system (Malaysia) represents a good example of pore complexity (in terms of nature and origin) mainly related to diagenetic processes which have altered the original reservoir. For quantitative analysis, 32 high-resolution images of each thin section were taken using transmitted light microscopy. The quantification of grains, matrix, cement, and macroporosity (pore types) was achieved using a petrographic analysis of thin sections and FESEM images. The point counting technique was used to estimate the amount of macroporosity from thin section, which was then subtracted from the total porosity to derive the microporosity. The quantitative observation of thin sections revealed that the mouldic porosity (macroporosity) is the dominant porosity type present, whereas the microporosity seems to correspond to a sum of 40 to 50% of the total porosity. It has been proven that these Miocene carbonates contain a significant amount of microporosity, which significantly complicates the estimation and production of hydrocarbons. Neglecting its impact can increase uncertainty about estimating hydrocarbon reserves. Due to the diversity of geological parameters, the application of existing porosity classifications does not allow a better understanding of the poro-perm relationship. However, the classification can be improved by including the pore types and pore structures where they can be divided into macro- and microporosity. Such studies of microporosity identification/classification represent now a major concern in limestone reservoirs around the world.

Keywords: overview of porosity classification, reservoir characterization, microporosity, carbonate reservoir

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490 Can We Meet the New Challenges of NonIsocyanates Polyurethanes (NIPU) towards NIPU Foams?

Authors: Adrien Cornille, Marine Blain, Bernard Boutevin, Sylvain Caillol


Generally, linear polyurethanes (PUs) are obtained by the reaction between an oligomeric diol, a short diol as chain extender and a diisocyanate. However the use of diisocyanate should be avoided since they are generally very harmful for human health. Therefore the synthesis of NIPUs (non isocyanate PUs) from step growth polymerization of dicyclocarbonates and diamines should be favoured. This method is particularly interesting since no hazardous isocyanates are used. Thus, this reaction, extensively studied by Endo et al. is currently gaining a lot of attention as a substitution route for the synthesis of NIPUs, both from industrial and academic community. However, the reactivity of reaction between amine and cyclic carbonate is a major scientific issue, since cyclic carbonates are poorly reactive. Thus, our team developed several synthetic ways for the synthesis of various di-cyclic carbonates based on C5-, C6- and dithio- cyclic carbonates, from different biobased raw materials (glycerin isosorbide, vegetable oils…). These monomers were used to synthesize NIPUs with various mechanical and thermal properties for various applications. We studied the reactivity of reaction with various catalysts and find optimized conditions for room temperature reaction. We also studied the radical copolymerization of cyclic carbonate monomers in styrene-acrylate copolymers for coating applications. We also succeeded in the elaboration of biobased NIPU flexible foams. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in literature on the preparation of non-isocyanate polyurethane foams.

Keywords: foam, nonisocyanate polyurethane, cyclic carbonate, blowing agent, scanning electron microscopy

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