Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 172

Search results for: one-dimensional multilevel wavelets

172 Wavelet Based Residual Method of Detecting GSM Signal Strength Fading

Authors: Danladi Ali, Onah Festus Iloabuchi


In this paper, GSM signal strength was measured in order to detect the type of the signal fading phenomenon using one-dimensional multilevel wavelet residual method and neural network clustering to determine the average GSM signal strength received in the study area. The wavelet residual method predicted that the GSM signal experienced slow fading and attenuated with MSE of 3.875dB. The neural network clustering revealed that mostly -75dB, -85dB and -95dB were received. This means that the signal strength received in the study is a weak signal.

Keywords: one-dimensional multilevel wavelets, path loss, GSM signal strength, propagation, urban environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
171 Nonstationary Increments and Casualty in the Aluminum Market

Authors: Andrew Clark


McCauley, Bassler, and Gunaratne show that integration I(d) processes as used in economics and finance do not necessarily produce stationary increments, which are required to determine causality in both the short term and the long term. This paper follows their lead and shows I(d) aluminum cash and futures log prices at daily and weekly intervals do not have stationary increments, which means prior causality studies using I(d) processes need to be re-examined. Wavelets based on undifferenced cash and futures log prices do have stationary increments and are used along with transfer entropy (versus cointegration) to measure causality. Wavelets exhibit causality at most daily time scales out to 1 year, and weekly time scales out to 1 year and more. To determine stationarity, localized stationary wavelets are used. LSWs have the benefit, versus other means of testing for stationarity, of using multiple hypothesis tests to determine stationarity. As informational flows exist between cash and futures at daily and weekly intervals, the aluminum market is efficient. Therefore, hedges used by producers and consumers of aluminum need not have a big concern in terms of the underestimation of hedge ratios. Questions about arbitrage given efficiency are addressed in the paper.

Keywords: transfer entropy, nonstationary increments, wavelets, localized stationary wavelets, localized stationary wavelets

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170 Theory and Practice of Wavelets in Signal Processing

Authors: Jalal Karam


The methods of Fourier, Laplace, and Wavelet Transforms provide transfer functions and relationships between the input and the output signals in linear time invariant systems. This paper shows the equivalence among these three methods and in each case presenting an application of the appropriate (Fourier, Laplace or Wavelet) to the convolution theorem. In addition, it is shown that the same holds for a direct integration method. The Biorthogonal wavelets Bior3.5 and Bior3.9 are examined and the zeros distribution of their polynomials associated filters are located. This paper also presents the significance of utilizing wavelets as effective tools in processing speech signals for common multimedia applications in general, and for recognition and compression in particular. Theoretically and practically, wavelets have proved to be effective and competitive. The practical use of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) in processing and analysis of speech is then presented along with explanations of how the human ear can be thought of as a natural wavelet transformer of speech. This generates a variety of approaches for applying the (CWT) to many paradigms analysing speech, sound and music. For perception, the flexibility of implementation of this transform allows the construction of numerous scales and we include two of them. Results for speech recognition and speech compression are then included.

Keywords: continuous wavelet transform, biorthogonal wavelets, speech perception, recognition and compression

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169 Hybrid PWM Techniques for the Reduction of Switching Losses and Voltage Harmonics in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters

Authors: Venkata Reddy Kota


These days, the industrial trend is moving away from heavy and bulky passive components to power converter systems that use more and more semiconductor elements. Also, it is difficult to connect the traditional converters to the high and medium voltage. For these reasons, a new family of multilevel inverters has appeared as a solution for working with higher voltage levels. Different modulation topologies like Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHE-PWM) are available for multilevel inverters. In this work, different hybrid modulation techniques which are combination of fundamental frequency modulation and multilevel sinusoidal-modulation are compared. The main characteristic of these modulations are reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance and balanced power loss dissipation among the device. The proposed hybrid modulation schemes are developed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink for cascaded H-bridge inverter. The results validate the applicability of the proposed schemes for cascaded multilevel inverter.

Keywords: hybrid PWM techniques, cascaded multilevel inverters, switching loss minimization

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168 Using Wavelet Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics: From Trajectories Foam to Newtonian Determinism

Authors: Paulo Castro, J. R. Croca, M. Gatta, R. Moreira


Owing to the development of quantum mechanics, we will contextualize the foundations of the theory on the Fourier analysis framework, thus stating the unavoidable philosophical conclusions drawn by Niels Bohr. We will then introduce an alternative way of describing the undulatory aspects of quantum entities by using gaussian Morlet wavelets. The description has its roots in de Broglie's realistic program for quantum physics. It so happens that using wavelets it is possible to formulate a more general set of uncertainty relations. A set from which it is possible to theoretically describe both ends of the behavioral spectrum in reality: the indeterministic quantum trajectorial foam and the perfectly drawn Newtonian trajectories.

Keywords: philosophy of quantum mechanics, quantum realism, morlet wavelets, uncertainty relations, determinism

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
167 Pod and Wavelets Application for Aerodynamic Design Optimization

Authors: Bonchan Koo, Junhee Han, Dohyung Lee


The research attempts to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of a design optimization procedure which combines wavelets-based solution algorithm and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) database management technique. Aerodynamic design procedure calls for high fidelity computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and the consideration of large number of flow conditions and design constraints. Even with significant computing power advancement, current level of integrated design process requires substantial computing time and resources. POD reduces the degree of freedom of full system through conducting singular value decomposition for various field simulations. For additional efficiency improvement of the procedure, adaptive wavelet technique is also being employed during POD training period. The proposed design procedure was applied to the optimization of wing aerodynamic performance. Throughout the research, it was confirmed that the POD/wavelets design procedure could significantly reduce the total design turnaround time and is also able to capture all detailed complex flow features as in full order analysis.

Keywords: POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition), wavelets, CFD, design optimization, ROM (Reduced Order Model)

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166 Implementation of a Novel Modified Multilevel Inverter Topology for Grid Connected PV System

Authors: Dhivya Balakrishnan, Dhamodharan Shanmugam


Multilevel converters offer high power capability, associated with lower output harmonics and lower commutation losses. Their main disadvantage is their complexity requiring a great number of power devices and passive components, and a rather complex control circuitry. This paper proposes a single-phase seven-level inverter for grid connected PV systems, With a novel pulse width-modulated (PWM) control scheme. Three reference signals that are identical to each other with an offset that is equivalent to the amplitude of the triangular carrier signal were used to generate the PWM signals. The inverter is capable of producing seven levels of output-voltage levels from the dc supply voltage. This paper proposes a new multilevel inverter topology using an H-bridge output stage with two bidirectional auxiliary switches. The new topology produces a significant reduction in the number of power devices and capacitors required to implement a multilevel output using the asymmetric cascade configuration.

Keywords: asymmetric cascade configuration, H-Bridge, multilevel inverter, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

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165 Minimization of Switching Losses in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters Using Efficient Sequential Switching Hybrid-Modulation Techniques

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, K. Ramakrishna, Ch. Lokeshwar Reddy, G. Sridhar


This paper presents two different sequential switching hybrid-modulation strategies and implemented for cascaded multilevel inverters. Hybrid modulation strategies represent the combinations of Fundamental-Frequency Pulse Width Modulation (FFPWM) and Multilevel Sinusoidal-Modulation (MSPWM) strategies, and are designed for performance of the well-known Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD), Phase Shifted Carrier (PSC). The main characteristics of these modulations are the reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance, balanced power loss dissipation among the devices with in a cell, and among the series-connected cells. The feasibility of these modulations is verified through spectral analysis, power loss analysis and simulation.

Keywords: cascaded multilevel inverters, hybrid modulation, power loss analysis, pulse width modulation

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164 3D Object Model Reconstruction Based on Polywogs Wavelet Network Parametrization

Authors: Mohamed Othmani, Yassine Khlifi


This paper presents a technique for compact three dimensional (3D) object model reconstruction using wavelet networks. It consists to transform an input surface vertices into signals,and uses wavelet network parameters for signal approximations. To prove this, we use a wavelet network architecture founded on several mother wavelet families. POLYnomials WindOwed with Gaussians (POLYWOG) wavelet families are used to maximize the probability to select the best wavelets which ensure the good generalization of the network. To achieve a better reconstruction, the network is trained several iterations to optimize the wavelet network parameters until the error criterion is small enough. Experimental results will shown that our proposed technique can effectively reconstruct an irregular 3D object models when using the optimized wavelet network parameters. We will prove that an accurateness reconstruction depends on the best choice of the mother wavelets.

Keywords: 3d object, optimization, parametrization, polywog wavelets, reconstruction, wavelet networks

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163 Ant Colony Optimization Control for Multilevel STATCOM

Authors: H. Tédjini, Y. Meslem, B. Guesbaoui, A. Safa


Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) are potentially becoming more flexible and more economical local controllers in the power system; and because of the high MVA ratings, it would be expensive to provide independent, equal, regulated DC voltage sources to power the multilevel converters which are presently proposed for STATCOMs. DC voltage sources can be derived from the DC link capacitances which are charged by the rectified ac power. In this paper a new stronger control combined of nonlinear control based Lyapunov’s theorem and Ant Colony Algorithm (ACA) to maintain stability of multilevel STATCOM and the utility.

Keywords: Static Compensator (STATCOM), ant colony optimization (ACO), lyapunov control theory, Decoupled power control, neutral point clamped (NPC)

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162 A Multilevel-Synthesis Approach with Reduced Number of Switches for 99-Level Inverter

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, V. Ramu, K. Ramakrishna


In this paper, an efficient multilevel wave form synthesis technique is proposed and applied to a 99-level inverter. The basic principle of the proposed scheme is that the continuous output voltage levels can be synthesized by the addition or subtraction of the instantaneous voltages generated from different voltage levels. This synthesis technique can be realized by an array of switching devices composing full-bridge inverter modules and proper mixing of each bi-directional switch modules. The most different aspect, compared to the conventional approach, in the synthesis of the multilevel output waveform is the utilization of a combination of bidirectional switches and full bridge inverter modules with reduced number of components. A 99-level inverter consists of three full-bridge modules and six bi-directional switch modules. The validity of the proposed scheme is verified by the simulation.

Keywords: cascaded connection, multilevel inverter, synthesis, total harmonic distortion

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161 [Keynote Talk]: Implementation of 5 Level and 7 Level Multilevel Inverter in Local Trains of Mumbai

Authors: Sharvari Sane, Swati Sharma, Sanjay K. Prasad


Local trains are the lifelines of Mumbai city. Earlier 1500 Volt D.C. supply, is now completely and successfully converted into 25 KV A.C. in central, western and harbour routes. This task is the outcome of the advancement in the area of power electronics. Author has already done the comparative study between D.C. and A.C. supply of traction and predicted the serious problem regarding the harmonics. In this paper, the simulation for 5 level as well as 7 level multilevel inverter has been done which is the substitute for the present cascade type inverter. This paper also showed the reduced level of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the traction system.

Keywords: total harmonic distortion (THD), traction sub station (TSS), harmonics, multilevel inverter

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160 A Numerical Solution Based on Operational Matrix of Differentiation of Shifted Second Kind Chebyshev Wavelets for a Stefan Problem

Authors: Rajeev, N. K. Raigar


In this study, one dimensional phase change problem (a Stefan problem) is considered and a numerical solution of this problem is discussed. First, we use similarity transformation to convert the governing equations into ordinary differential equations with its boundary conditions. The solutions of ordinary differential equation with the associated boundary conditions and interface condition (Stefan condition) are obtained by using a numerical approach based on operational matrix of differentiation of shifted second kind Chebyshev wavelets. The obtained results are compared with existing exact solution which is sufficiently accurate.

Keywords: operational matrix of differentiation, similarity transformation, shifted second kind chebyshev wavelets, stefan problem

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159 Numerical Solutions of Fredholm Integral Equations by B-Spline Wavelet Method

Authors: Ritu Rani


In this paper, we apply minimalistically upheld linear semi-orthogonal B-spline wavelets, exceptionally developed for the limited interim to rough the obscure function present in the integral equations. Semi-orthogonal wavelets utilizing B-spline uniquely developed for the limited interim and these wavelets can be spoken to in a shut frame. This gives a minimized help. Semi-orthogonal wavelets frame the premise in the space L²(R). Utilizing this premise, an arbitrary function in L²(R) can be communicated as the wavelet arrangement. For the limited interim, the wavelet arrangement cannot be totally introduced by utilizing this premise. This is on the grounds that backings of some premise are truncated at the left or right end purposes of the interim. Subsequently, an uncommon premise must be brought into the wavelet development on the limited interim. These functions are alluded to as the limit scaling functions and limit wavelet functions. B-spline wavelet method has been connected to fathom linear and nonlinear integral equations and their systems. The above method diminishes the integral equations to systems of algebraic equations and afterward these systems can be illuminated by any standard numerical methods. Here, we have connected Newton's method with suitable starting speculation for solving these systems.

Keywords: semi-orthogonal, wavelet arrangement, integral equations, wavelet development

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158 Modelling and Simulation of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Single Source Inverter Using PSIM

Authors: Gaddafi Sani Shehu, Tankut Yalcınoz, Abdullahi Bala Kunya


Multilevel inverters such as flying capacitor, diode-clamped, and cascaded H-bridge inverters are very popular particularly in medium and high power applications. This paper focuses on a cascaded H-bridge module using a single direct current (DC) source in order to generate an 11-level output voltage. The noble approach reduces the number of switches and gate drivers, in comparison with a conventional method. The anticipated topology produces more accurate result with an isolation transformer at high switching frequency. Different modulation techniques can be used for the multilevel inverter, but this work features modulation techniques known as selective harmonic elimination (SHE).This modulation approach reduces the number of carriers with reduction in Switching Losses, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), and thereby increasing Power Quality (PQ). Based on the simulation result obtained, it appears SHE has the ability to eliminate selected harmonics by chopping off the fundamental output component. The performance evaluation of the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter is performed using PSIM simulation package and THD of 0.94% is obtained.

Keywords: cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter, power quality, selective harmonic elimination

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157 Automatic Detection of Defects in Ornamental Limestone Using Wavelets

Authors: Maria C. Proença, Marco Aniceto, Pedro N. Santos, José C. Freitas


A methodology based on wavelets is proposed for the automatic location and delimitation of defects in limestone plates. Natural defects include dark colored spots, crystal zones trapped in the stone, areas of abnormal contrast colors, cracks or fracture lines, and fossil patterns. Although some of these may or may not be considered as defects according to the intended use of the plate, the goal is to pair each stone with a map of defects that can be overlaid on a computer display. These layers of defects constitute a database that will allow the preliminary selection of matching tiles of a particular variety, with specific dimensions, for a requirement of N square meters, to be done on a desktop computer rather than by a two-hour search in the storage park, with human operators manipulating stone plates as large as 3 m x 2 m, weighing about one ton. Accident risks and work times are reduced, with a consequent increase in productivity. The base for the algorithm is wavelet decomposition executed in two instances of the original image, to detect both hypotheses – dark and clear defects. The existence and/or size of these defects are the gauge to classify the quality grade of the stone products. The tuning of parameters that are possible in the framework of the wavelets corresponds to different levels of accuracy in the drawing of the contours and selection of the defects size, which allows for the use of the map of defects to cut a selected stone into tiles with minimum waste, according the dimension of defects allowed.

Keywords: automatic detection, defects, fracture lines, wavelets

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156 Design and Advancement of Hybrid Multilevel Inverter Interface with PhotoVoltaic

Authors: P.Kiruthika, K. Ramani


This paper presented the design and advancement of a single-phase 27-level Hybrid Multilevel DC-AC Converter interfacing with Photo Voltaic. In this context, the Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation method can be implemented in 27-level Hybrid Multilevel Inverter for generating a switching pulse. Perturb & Observer algorithm can be used in the Maximum Power Point Tracking method for the Photo Voltaic system. By implementing Maximum Power Point Tracking with three separate solar panels as an input source to the 27-level Hybrid Multilevel Inverter. This proposed method can be simulated by using MATLAB/simulink. The result shown that the proposed method can achieve silky output wave forms, more flexibility in voltage range, and to reduce Total Harmonic Distortion in medium-voltage drives.

Keywords: Multi Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Technique (MCPWM), Multi Level Inverter (MLI), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Perturb and Observer (P&O)

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155 Neural Network Based Path Loss Prediction for Global System for Mobile Communication in an Urban Environment

Authors: Danladi Ali


In this paper, we measured GSM signal strength in the Dnepropetrovsk city in order to predict path loss in study area using nonlinear autoregressive neural network prediction and we also, used neural network clustering to determine average GSM signal strength receive at the study area. The nonlinear auto-regressive neural network predicted that the GSM signal is attenuated with the mean square error (MSE) of 2.6748dB, this attenuation value is used to modify the COST 231 Hata and the Okumura-Hata models. The neural network clustering revealed that -75dB to -95dB is received more frequently. This means that the signal strength received at the study is mostly weak signal

Keywords: one-dimensional multilevel wavelets, path loss, GSM signal strength, propagation, urban environment and model

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154 Towards a Multilevel System of Talent Management in Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: French Context Exploration

Authors: Abid Kousay


Appeared and developed essentially in large companies and multinationals, Talent Management (TM) in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) has remained an under-explored subject till today. Although the literature on TM in the Anglo-Saxon context is developing, it remains monopolized in non-European contexts, especially in France. Therefore, this article aims to address these shortcomings through contributing to TM issues, by adopting a multilevel approach holding the goal of reaching a global holistic vision of interactions between various levels, while applying TM. A qualitative research study carried out within 12 SMEs in France, built on the methodological perspective of grounded theory, will be used in order to go beyond description, to generate or discover a theory or even a unified theoretical explanation. Our theoretical contributions are the results of the grounded theory, the fruit of context considerations and the dynamic of the multilevel approach. We aim firstly to determine the perception of talent and TM in SMEs. Secondly, we formalize TM in SME through the empowerment of all 3 levels in the organization (individual, collective, and organizational). And we generate a multilevel dynamic system model, highlighting the institutionalization dimension in SMEs and the managerial conviction characterized by the domination of the leader's role. Thirdly, this first study shed the light on the importance of rigorous implementation of TM in SMEs in France by directing CEO and HR and TM managers to focus on elements that upstream TM implementation and influence the system internally. Indeed, our systematic multilevel approach policy reminds them of the importance of the strategic alignment while translating TM policy into strategies and practices in SMEs.

Keywords: French context, institutionalization, talent, multilevel approach, talent management system

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153 Elimination of Low Order Harmonics in Multilevel Inverter Using Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithm

Authors: N. Ould Cherchali, A. Tlemçani, M. S. Boucherit, A. Morsli


Nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms, particularly those founded on swarm intelligence, have attracted much attention over the past decade. Firefly algorithm has appeared in approximately seven years ago, its literature has enlarged considerably with different applications. It is inspired by the behavior of fireflies. The aim of this paper is the application of firefly algorithm for solving a nonlinear algebraic system. This resolution is needed to study the Selective Harmonic Eliminated Pulse Width Modulation strategy (SHEPWM) to eliminate the low order harmonics; results have been applied on multilevel inverters. The final results from simulations indicate the elimination of the low order harmonics as desired. Finally, experimental results are presented to confirm the simulation results and validate the efficaciousness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, metaheuristic algorithm, multilevel inverter, SHEPWM

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152 Multidisciplinary and Multilevel Design Methodology of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Enhanced Collaborative Optimization

Authors: Pedro F. Albuquerque, Pedro V. Gamboa, Miguel A. Silvestre


The present work describes the implementation of the Enhanced Collaborative Optimization (ECO) multilevel architecture with a gradient-based optimization algorithm with the aim of performing a multidisciplinary design optimization of a generic unmanned aerial vehicle with morphing technologies. The concepts of weighting coefficient and a dynamic compatibility parameter are presented for the ECO architecture. A routine that calculates the aircraft performance for the user defined mission profile and vehicle’s performance requirements has been implemented using low fidelity models for the aerodynamics, stability, propulsion, weight, balance and flight performance. A benchmarking case study for evaluating the advantage of using a variable span wing within the optimization methodology developed is presented.

Keywords: multidisciplinary, multilevel, morphing, enhanced collaborative optimization

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151 Damage Detection in Beams Using Wavelet Analysis

Authors: Goutham Kumar Dogiparti, D. R. Seshu


In the present study, wavelet analysis was used for locating damage in simply supported and cantilever beams. Study was carried out varying different levels and locations of damage. In numerical method, ANSYS software was used for modal analysis of damaged and undamaged beams. The mode shapes obtained from numerical analysis is processed using MATLAB wavelet toolbox to locate damage. Effect of several parameters such as (damage level, location) on the natural frequencies and mode shapes were also studied. The results indicated the potential of wavelets in identifying the damage location.

Keywords: damage, detection, beams, wavelets

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150 Anatomically-Based Oropharyngeal Rehabilitation for the Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Using a Multilevel Approach

Authors: Hsin-Yu Lin, Ching-Hsia Hung


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by a complete or partial obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. The vulnerable sites of upper airway collapses are consequences of sleep state-dependent reductions in tone in specific pharyngeal dilators. Clinical examinations reveal multilevel collapses of the upper airway among the patients with OSA. Therefore, an anatomically-based oropharyngeal rehabilitation should comprise a multilevel approach, including retropalatal, retroglossal, hypopharyngeal, temporomandibular, and facial levels, all of which involve different muscle groups and contribute to multifunctional interaction and coordination, such as swallowing, breathing, and phonation. The purpose of the study was to exam the effects of this rehabilitation program with a multilevel approach. In this study, fifteen subjects with newly diagnosed moderate or severe OSA (Apnea-Hypopnea-Index≥15) were randomized into an intervention group and control group. The intervention group (N=8) underwent a 12-week-intervention of a hospital-based rehabilitation program, while the control group (N=7) was kept on the waiting list. The 12-week-intervention comprised an anatomically based multilevel approach. The primary outcome was Polysomnography (PSG) data, and the secondary outcome was oropharyngeal and respiratory muscle function. In the intervention group, Apnea-Hypopnea-Index significantly improved (46.96±19.45 versus 32.78±10.78 events/h, p=0.017) compared with control group (35.77±17.49 versus 42.96±17.32 events/h, p=0.043). While the control group remained no change, the intervention group demonstrated other PSG outcomes significantly improvement, including arousal index (46.04±18.9 versus 32.98±8.35/h, p=0.035), mean SpO2 (92.88±2.1 versus 94.13±1.46%, p=0.039). Besides, the intervention group demonstrated significant improvement in oropharyngeal and respiratory muscle function compared to the control group. This anatomically-based oropharyngeal rehabilitation with a multilevel approach can be proven as a non-invasive therapy for patients with OSA.

Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, upper airway, oropharyngeal rehabilitation, multilevel approach

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149 Directors’ Compensation: Analyzing the Multilevel Factors That Exert the Greatest Influence

Authors: Isabel Acero, Nuria Alcalde


The economic crisis and notorious corporate scandals have caused social indignation and sparked the debate concerning the underlying rationality of the compensation that directors receive. In this context, this study examines the determinants of the remuneration of directors in listed Spanish companies using individualized data. A multilevel methodology appropriate for this type of data has been used that allows us to differentiate between inter-company variations and intra-company variations. The results show that company size is the variable (at the company level) that exerts the greatest influence on the level of director´s compensation. One surprising finding is that the presence of independent directors on the board has a positive influence on remuneration. At the individual level, tenure and experience have a significant influence on the level of compensation, while the director´s level of education does not appear to have an effect on it.

Keywords: board of directors, compensation, experience, multilevel, tenure

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148 A Framework for Auditing Multilevel Models Using Explainability Methods

Authors: Debarati Bhaumik, Diptish Dey


Multilevel models, increasingly deployed in industries such as insurance, food production, and entertainment within functions such as marketing and supply chain management, need to be transparent and ethical. Applications usually result in binary classification within groups or hierarchies based on a set of input features. Using open-source datasets, we demonstrate that popular explainability methods, such as SHAP and LIME, consistently underperform inaccuracy when interpreting these models. They fail to predict the order of feature importance, the magnitudes, and occasionally even the nature of the feature contribution (negative versus positive contribution to the outcome). Besides accuracy, the computational intractability of SHAP for binomial classification is a cause of concern. For transparent and ethical applications of these hierarchical statistical models, sound audit frameworks need to be developed. In this paper, we propose an audit framework for technical assessment of multilevel regression models focusing on three aspects: (i) model assumptions & statistical properties, (ii) model transparency using different explainability methods, and (iii) discrimination assessment. To this end, we undertake a quantitative approach and compare intrinsic model methods with SHAP and LIME. The framework comprises a shortlist of KPIs, such as PoCE (Percentage of Correct Explanations) and MDG (Mean Discriminatory Gap) per feature, for each of these three aspects. A traffic light risk assessment method is furthermore coupled to these KPIs. The audit framework will assist regulatory bodies in performing conformity assessments of AI systems using multilevel binomial classification models at businesses. It will also benefit businesses deploying multilevel models to be future-proof and aligned with the European Commission’s proposed Regulation on Artificial Intelligence.

Keywords: audit, multilevel model, model transparency, model explainability, discrimination, ethics

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147 Reducing Total Harmonic Content of 9-Level Inverter by Use of Cuckoo Algorithm

Authors: Mahmoud Enayati, Sirous Mohammadi


In this paper, a novel procedure to find the firing angles of the multilevel inverters of supply voltage and, consequently, to decline the total harmonic distortion (THD), has been presented. In order to eliminate more harmonics in the multilevel inverters, its number of levels can be lessened or pulse width modulation waveform, in which more than one switching occur in each level, be used. Both cases complicate the non-algebraic equations and their solution cannot be performed by the conventional methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear equations such as Newton-Raphson method. In this paper, Cuckoo algorithm is used to compute the optimal firing angle of the pulse width modulation voltage waveform in the multilevel inverter. These angles should be calculated in such a way that the voltage amplitude of the fundamental frequency be generated while the total harmonic distortion of the output voltage be small. The simulation and theoretical results for the 9-levels inverter offer the high applicability of the proposed algorithm to identify the suitable firing angles for declining the low order harmonics and generate a waveform whose total harmonic distortion is very small and it is almost a sinusoidal waveform.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithms, multilevel inverters, total harmonic content, Cuckoo Algorithm

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146 A Multilevel Authentication Protocol: MAP in VANET for Human Safety

Authors: N. Meddeb, A. M. Makhlouf, M. A. Ben Ayed


Due to the real-time requirement of message in Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET), it is necessary to authenticate vehicles to achieve security, efficiency, and conditional privacy-preserving. Privacy is of utmost relevance in VANETs. For this reason, we have proposed a new protocol called ‘Multilevel Authentication Protocol’ (MAP) that considers different vehicle categories. The proposed protocol is based on our Multilevel Authentication protocol for Vehicular networks (MAVnet). But the MAP leads to human safety, where the priority is given to the ambulance vehicles. For evaluation, we used the Java language to develop a demo application and deployed it on the Network Security Simulation (Nessi2). Compared with existing authentication protocols, MAP markedly enhance the communication overhead and decreases the delay of exchanging messages while preserving conditional privacy.

Keywords: Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET), vehicle categories, safety, databases, privacy, authentication, throughput, delay

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145 Improved Multilevel Inverter with Hybrid Power Selector and Solar Panel Cleaner in a Solar System

Authors: S. Oladoyinbo, A. A. Tijani


Multilevel inverters (MLI) are used at high power application based on their operation. There are 3 main types of multilevel inverters (MLI); diode clamped, flying capacitor and cascaded MLI. A cascaded MLI requires the least number of components to achieve same number of voltage levels when compared to other types of MLI while the flying capacitor has the minimum harmonic distortion. However, maximizing the advantage of cascaded H-bridge MLI and flying capacitor MLI, an improved MLI can be achieved with fewer components and better performance. In this paper an improved MLI is presented by asymmetrically integrating a flying capacitor to a cascaded H-bridge MLI also integrating an auxiliary transformer to the main transformer to decrease the total harmonics distortion (THD) with increased number of output voltage levels. Furthermore, the system is incorporated with a hybrid time and climate based solar panel cleaner and power selector which intelligently manage the input of the MLI and clean the solar panel weekly ensuring the environmental factor effect on the panel is reduced to minimum.

Keywords: multilevel inverter, total harmonics distortion, cascaded h-bridge inverter, flying capacitor

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144 Comparison of Methods of Estimation for Use in Goodness of Fit Tests for Binary Multilevel Models

Authors: I. V. Pinto, M. R. Sooriyarachchi


It can be frequently observed that the data arising in our environment have a hierarchical or a nested structure attached with the data. Multilevel modelling is a modern approach to handle this kind of data. When multilevel modelling is combined with a binary response, the estimation methods get complex in nature and the usual techniques are derived from quasi-likelihood method. The estimation methods which are compared in this study are, marginal quasi-likelihood (order 1 & order 2) (MQL1, MQL2) and penalized quasi-likelihood (order 1 & order 2) (PQL1, PQL2). A statistical model is of no use if it does not reflect the given dataset. Therefore, checking the adequacy of the fitted model through a goodness-of-fit (GOF) test is an essential stage in any modelling procedure. However, prior to usage, it is also equally important to confirm that the GOF test performs well and is suitable for the given model. This study assesses the suitability of the GOF test developed for binary response multilevel models with respect to the method used in model estimation. An extensive set of simulations was conducted using MLwiN (v 2.19) with varying number of clusters, cluster sizes and intra cluster correlations. The test maintained the desirable Type-I error for models estimated using PQL2 and it failed for almost all the combinations of MQL. Power of the test was adequate for most of the combinations in all estimation methods except MQL1. Moreover, models were fitted using the four methods to a real-life dataset and performance of the test was compared for each model.

Keywords: goodness-of-fit test, marginal quasi-likelihood, multilevel modelling, penalized quasi-likelihood, power, quasi-likelihood, type-I error

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143 Separate Powers Control Structure of DFIG Based on Fractional Regulator Fed by Multilevel Inverters DC Bus Voltages of a photovoltaic System

Authors: S. Ghoudelbourk, A. Omeiri, D. Dib, H. Cheghib


This paper shows that we can improve the performance of the auto-adjustable electric machines if a fractional dynamic is considered in the algorithm of the controlling order. This structure is particularly interested in the separate control of active and reactive power of the double-fed induction generator (DFIG) of wind power conversion chain. Fractional regulators are used in the regulation of chain of powers. Knowing that, usually, the source of DFIG is provided by converters through controlled rectifiers, all this system makes the currents of lines strongly polluted that can have a harmful effect for the connected loads and sensitive equipment nearby. The solution to overcome these problems is to replace the power of the rotor DFIG by multilevel inverters supplied by PV which improve the THD. The structure of the adopted adjustment is tested using Matlab/Simulink and the results are presented and analyzed for a variable wind.

Keywords: DFIG, fractional regulator, multilevel inverters, PV

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