Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4301

Search results for: numerical wave tank

4301 Numerical Simulation of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Using OpenFOAM in Indian Scenario

Authors: Pooja Verma, Sumana Ghosh

Abstract:

There is a growing need for alternative way of power generation worldwide. The reason can be attributed to limited resources of fossil fuels, environmental pollution, increasing cost of conventional fuels, and lower efficiency of conversion of energy in existing systems. In this context, one of the potential alternatives for power generation is wave energy. However, it is difficult to estimate the amount of electrical energy generation in an irregular sea condition by experiment and or analytical methods. Therefore in this work, a numerical wave tank is developed using the computational fluid dynamics software Open FOAM. In this software a specific utility known as waves2Foam utility is being used to carry out the simulation work. The computational domain is a tank of dimension: 5m*1.5m*1m with a floating object of dimension: 0.5m*0.2m*0.2m. Regular waves are generated at the inlet of the wave tank according to Stokes second order theory. The main objective of the present study is to validate the numerical model against existing experimental data. It shows a good matching with the existing experimental data of floater displacement. Later the model is exploited to estimate energy extraction due to the movement of such a point absorber in real sea conditions. Scale down the wave properties like wave height, wave length, etc. are used as input parameters. Seasonal variations are also considered.

Keywords: OpenFOAM, numerical wave tank, regular waves, floating object, point absorber

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
4300 Improving the Residence Time of a Rectangular Contact Tank by Varying the Geometry Using Numerical Modeling

Authors: Yamileth P. Herrera, Ronald R. Gutierrez, Carlos, Pacheco-Bustos

Abstract:

This research aims at the numerical modeling of a rectangular contact tank in order to improve the hydrodynamic behavior and the retention time of the water to be treated with the disinfecting agent. The methodology to be followed includes a hydraulic analysis of the tank to observe the fluid velocities, which will allow evidence of low-speed areas that may generate pathogenic agent incubation or high-velocity areas, which may decrease the optimal contact time between the disinfecting agent and the microorganisms to be eliminated. Based on the results of the numerical model, the efficiency of the tank under the geometric and hydraulic conditions considered will be analyzed. This would allow the performance of the tank to be improved before starting a construction process, thus avoiding unnecessary costs.

Keywords: contact tank, numerical models, hydrodynamic modeling, residence time

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
4299 Study of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in Overhead Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed

Abstract:

During the period storage of liquefied natural gas, stability is necessarily affected by natural convection along the walls of the tank with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the numerical simulation of heat transfert by natural convection double diffusion,in unsteady laminar regime in a storage tank. The storage tank contains a liquefied natural gas (LNG) in its gaseous phase. Fluent, a commercial CFD package, based on the numerical finite volume method, is used to simulate the flow. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
4298 3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline

Authors: Zuodong Liang, Dong-Sheng Jeng

Abstract:

Seabed instability around an offshore pipeline is one of key factors that need to be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. Unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2-D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.

Keywords: pore pressure, 3D wave model, seabed liquefaction, pipeline

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
4297 Coupling Heat Transfer by Natural Convection and Thermal Radiation in a Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: R. Hariti, M. Saighi, H. Saidani-Scott

Abstract:

A numerical simulation of natural convection double diffusion, coupled with thermal radiation in unsteady laminar regime in a storage tank is carried out. The storage tank contains a liquefied natural gas (LNG) in its gaseous phase. Fluent, a commercial CFD package, based on the numerical finite volume method, is used to simulate the flow. The radiative transfer equation is solved using the discrete coordinate method. This numerical simulation is used to determine the temperature profiles, stream function, velocity vectors and variation of the heat flux density for unsteady laminar natural convection. Furthermore, the influence of thermal radiation on the heat transfer has been investigated and the results obtained were compared to those found in the literature. Good agreement between the results obtained by the numerical method and those taken on site for the temperature values.

Keywords: tank, storage, liquefied natural gas, natural convection, thermal radiation, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
4296 Numerical Investigation of Wave Run-Up on Curved Dikes

Authors: Suba Periyal Subramaniam, Babette Scheres, Altomare Corrado, Holger Schuttrumpf

Abstract:

Due to the climatic change and the usage of coastal areas, there is an increasing risk of dike failures along the coast worldwide. Wave run-up plays a key role in planning and design of a coastal structure. The coastal dike lines are bent either due to geological characteristics or due to influence of anthropogenic activities. The effect of the curvature of coastal dikes on wave run-up and overtopping is not yet investigated. The scope of this research is to find the effects of the dike curvature on wave run-up by employing numerical model studies for various dike opening angles. Numerical simulation is carried out using DualSPHysics, a meshless method, and OpenFOAM, a mesh-based method. The numerical results of the wave run-up on a curved dike and the wave transformation process for various opening angles, wave attacks, and wave parameters will be compared and discussed. This research aims to contribute a more precise analysis and understanding the influence of the curvature in the dike line and thus ensuring a higher level of protection in the future development of coastal structures.

Keywords: curved dikes, DualSPHysics, OpenFOAM, wave run-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
4295 Terminal Ballistic Analysis of Non-Filled and Water-Filled Tank

Authors: M. R. Aziz, W. Kuntjoro, N. V. David

Abstract:

This paper presents the ballistic terminal study of the non-filled and water-filled aluminum tank. The objective was to determine the failure stages for both cases. The tank was impacted by fragment simulating projectile (FSP) with 260 m/s for non-filled and 972 m/s for water-filled. The aluminum tank was 3 mm thick, 150 mm wide and 750 mm long. The ends of the tank were closed with two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) windows. The test was conducted at the Science and Technology Research Institute for Defense (STRIDE) Batu Arang, Selangor, Malaysia. The results showed four main stages for non-filled tank, which were first contact between FSP and the tank, partially perforated, fully perforated with FSP and plug still intact and lastly fully perforated with FSP and plug separated. Meanwhile, for the water-filled tank, there were seven main stages, which were first contact between FSP and the tank, partial perforation, full perforation, drag phase, cavity phase, bounce wave event and the collapse of the cavity.

Keywords: fragment simulating projectile, high speed camera, tensile test, terminal ballistic

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
4294 Study of Natural Convection in Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed

Abstract:

Heat transfer by natural convection in storage tanks for LNG is extremely related to heat gains through the walls with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the study of natural convection in the unsteady regime for natural gas in aware phase using the fluent software. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. The CFD numerical method used to solve the system of equations is based on the finite volume method. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
4293 Effect of Blade Layout on Unidirectional Rotation of a Vertical-Axis Rotor in Waves

Authors: Yingchen Yang

Abstract:

Ocean waves are a rich renewable energy source that is nearly untapped to date, even though many wave energy conversion (WEC) technologies are currently under development. The present work discusses a vertical-axis WEC rotor for power generation. The rotor was specially designed to allow easy rearrangement of the same blades to achieve different rotor configurations and result in different wave-rotor interaction behaviors. These rotor configurations were tested in a wave tank under various wave conditions. The testing results indicate that all the rotor configurations perform unidirectional rotation about the vertical axis in waves, but the response characteristics are somewhat different. The rotor's unidirectional rotation about its vertical axis is essential in wave energy harvesting since it makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency and in any wave propagation directions. Result comparison among different configurations leads to a preferred rotor design for further hydrodynamic optimization.

Keywords: unidirectional rotation, vertical axis rotor, wave energy conversion, wave-rotor interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
4292 Turbulence Modeling and Wave-Current Interactions

Authors: A. C. Bennis, F. Dumas, F. Ardhuin, B. Blanke

Abstract:

The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high-resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

Keywords: numerical modeling, wave-current interactions, turbulence modeling, rip currents

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
4291 Generic Hybrid Models for Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Guided Wave Problems

Authors: Manoj Reghu, Prabhu Rajagopal, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam

Abstract:

A thorough understanding of guided ultrasonic wave behavior in structures is essential for the application of existing Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technologies, as well as for the development of new methods. However, the analysis of guided wave phenomena is challenging because of their complex dispersive and multimodal nature. Although numerical solution procedures have proven to be very useful in this regard, the increasing complexity of features and defects to be considered, as well as the desire to improve the accuracy of inspection often imposes a large computational cost. Hybrid models that combine numerical solutions for wave scattering with faster alternative methods for wave propagation have long been considered as a solution to this problem. However usually such models require modification of the base code of the solution procedure. Here we aim to develop Generic Hybrid models that can be directly applied to any two different solution procedures. With this goal in mind, a Numerical Hybrid model and an Analytical-Numerical Hybrid model has been developed. The concept and implementation of these Hybrid models are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: guided ultrasonic waves, Finite Element Method (FEM), Hybrid model

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4290 Rock-Bed Thermocline Storage: A Numerical Analysis of Granular Bed Behavior and Interaction with Storage Tank

Authors: Nahia H. Sassine, Frédéric-Victor Donzé, Arnaud Bruch, Barthélemy Harthong

Abstract:

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems are central elements of various types of power plants operated using renewable energy sources. Packed bed TES can be considered as a cost–effective solution in concentrated solar power plants (CSP). Such a device is made up of a tank filled with a granular bed through which heat-transfer fluid circulates. However, in such devices, the tank might be subjected to catastrophic failure induced by a mechanical phenomenon known as thermal ratcheting. Thermal stresses are accumulated during cycles of loading and unloading until the failure happens. For instance, when rocks are used as storage material, the tank wall expands more than the solid medium during charge process, a gap is created between the rocks and tank walls and the filler material settles down to fill it. During discharge, the tank contracts against the bed, resulting in thermal stresses that may exceed the wall tank yield stress and generate plastic deformation. This phenomenon is repeated over the cycles and the tank will be slowly ratcheted outward until it fails. This paper aims at studying the evolution of tank wall stresses over granular bed thermal cycles, taking into account both thermal and mechanical loads, with a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM). Simulations were performed to study two different thermal configurations: (i) the tank is heated homogeneously along its height or (ii) with a vertical gradient of temperature. Then, the resulting loading stresses applied on the tank are compared as well the response of the internal granular material. Besides the study of the influence of different thermal configurations on the storage tank response, other parameters are varied, such as the internal angle of friction of the granular material, the dispersion of particles diameters as well as the tank’s dimensions. Then, their influences on the kinematics of the granular bed submitted to thermal cycles are highlighted.

Keywords: discrete element method (DEM), thermal cycles, thermal energy storage, thermocline

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4289 Three Dimensional Numerical Analysis for Longitudinal Seismic Response of Tunnels under Asynchronous Earthquake

Authors: Peng Li, Er-xiang Song

Abstract:

Numerical analysis of longitudinal tunnel seismic response due to spatial variation of earthquake ground motion is an important issue that cannot be ignored in the design and safety evaluation of tunnel structures. In this paper, numerical methods for analysis of tunnel longitudinal response under asynchronous seismic wave is extensively studied, including the improvement of the 1D time-domain finite element method, three dimensional numerical simulation technique for the site asynchronous earthquake response as well as the 3-D soil-tunnel structure interaction analysis. The study outcome will be beneficial to aid further research on the nonlinear meticulous numerical analysis and seismic response mechanism of tunnel structures under asynchronous earthquake motion.

Keywords: asynchronous input, longitudinal seismic response, tunnel structure, numerical simulation, traveling wave effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
4288 Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach

Authors: F. U. Rahman, R. Q. Zhang

Abstract:

This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.

Keywords: Green’s function, hydrogen atom, Lippmann Schwinger equation, radial wave

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4287 Experimental Modeling of Spray and Water Sheet Formation Due to Wave Interactions with Vertical and Slant Bow-Shaped Model

Authors: Armin Bodaghkhani, Bruce Colbourne, Yuri S. Muzychka

Abstract:

The process of spray-cloud formation and flow kinematics produced from breaking wave impact on vertical and slant lab-scale bow-shaped models were experimentally investigated. Bubble Image Velocimetry (BIV) and Image Processing (IP) techniques were applied to study the various types of wave-model impacts. Different wave characteristics were generated in a tow tank to investigate the effects of wave characteristics, such as wave phase velocity, wave steepness on droplet velocities, and behavior of the process of spray cloud formation. The phase ensemble-averaged vertical velocity and turbulent intensity were computed. A high-speed camera and diffused LED backlights were utilized to capture images for further post processing. Various pressure sensors and capacitive wave probes were used to measure the wave impact pressure and the free surface profile at different locations of the model and wave-tank, respectively. Droplet sizes and velocities were measured using BIV and IP techniques to trace bubbles and droplets in order to measure their velocities and sizes by correlating the texture in these images. The impact pressure and droplet size distributions were compared to several previously experimental models, and satisfactory agreements were achieved. The distribution of droplets in front of both models are demonstrated. Due to the highly transient process of spray formation, the drag coefficient for several stages of this transient displacement for various droplet size ranges and different Reynolds number were calculated based on the ensemble average method. From the experimental results, the slant model produces less spray in comparison with the vertical model, and the droplet velocities generated from the wave impact with the slant model have a lower velocity as compared with the vertical model.

Keywords: spray charachteristics, droplet size and velocity, wave-body interactions, bubble image velocimetry, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
4286 Chaos in a Stadium-Shaped 2-D Quantum Dot

Authors: Roger Yu

Abstract:

A numerical scheme has been developed to solve wave equations for chaotic systems such as stadium-shaped cavity. The same numerical method can also be used for finding wave properties of rectangle cavities with randomly placed obstacles. About 30k eigenvalues have been obtained accurately on a normal circumstance. For comparison, we also initiated an experimental study which determines both eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of a stadium-shaped cavity using pulse and normal mode analyzing techniques. The acoustic cavity was made adjustable so that the transition from nonchaotic (circle) to chaotic (stadium) waves can be investigated.

Keywords: quantum dot, chaos, numerical method, eigenvalues

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
4285 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang

Abstract:

Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: characteristic equation, interface waves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
4284 Numerical Modeling of Wave Run-Up in Shallow Water Flows Using Moving Wet/Dry Interfaces

Authors: Alia Alghosoun, Michael Herty, Mohammed Seaid

Abstract:

We present a new class of numerical techniques to solve shallow water flows over dry areas including run-up. Many recent investigations on wave run-up in coastal areas are based on the well-known shallow water equations. Numerical simulations have also performed to understand the effects of several factors on tsunami wave impact and run-up in the presence of coastal areas. In all these simulations the shallow water equations are solved in entire domain including dry areas and special treatments are used for numerical solution of singularities at these dry regions. In the present study we propose a new method to deal with these difficulties by reformulating the shallow water equations into a new system to be solved only in the wetted domain. The system is obtained by a change in the coordinates leading to a set of equations in a moving domain for which the wet/dry interface is the reconstructed using the wave speed. To solve the new system we present a finite volume method of Lax-Friedrich type along with a modified method of characteristics. The method is well-balanced and accurately resolves dam-break problems over dry areas.

Keywords: dam-break problems, finite volume method, run-up waves, shallow water flows, wet/dry interfaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
4283 Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes

Authors: F. M. Mohamed, A. Y. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.

Keywords: crude oil, fire, floating roof tank, lightning protection system

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
4282 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Floating Body Motion Interacting with Focused Waves

Authors: Seul-Ki Park, Jong-Chun Park, Gyu-Mok Jeon, Dae-Kyung Ock, Seung-Gyu Jeong

Abstract:

Rogue waves cause frequent accidents of ships and offshore structures, which can result in severe damage to the structures. The Rogue waves, which are also known as big waves, freak waves, extreme waves, monster waves, focused waves, giant waves and abnormal waves, are unexpected and suddenly appearing, and can have a breaking force to destroy the structure even though modern structures are designed to tolerate a breaking wave. In the present study, a series of focused waves are numerically reproduced by concentrating nonlinear multi-directional waves into a target point using a commercial CFD software, Star-CCM+. A flow analysis for investigating the physical characteristics of the focused waves is performed using the Star-CCM+, while it has several difficulties to examine the inner properties of the waves in existing potential theory and experiments. Additionally, the 6-DOF (Degree of Freedom) motion of a floating body interacting with the focused waves are simulated, and the dynamic response of the body are discussed.

Keywords: multidirectional waves, focused waves, rogue waves, wave-structure interaction, numerical wave tank, computational fluid dynamics

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4281 Solar Wind Turbulence and the Role of Circularly Polarized Dispersive Alfvén Wave

Authors: Swati Sharma, R. P. Sharma

Abstract:

We intend to study the nonlinear evolution of the parallel propagating finite frequency Alfvén wave (also called Dispersive Alfvén wave/Hall MHD wave) propagating in the solar wind regime of the solar region when a perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave is present in the background. The finite frequency Alfvén wave behaves differently from the usual non-dispersive behavior of the Alfvén wave. To study the nonlinear processes (such as filamentation) taking place in the solar regions such as solar wind, the dynamical equation of both the waves are derived. Numerical simulation involving finite difference method for the time domain and pseudo spectral method for the spatial domain is then performed to analyze the transient evolution of these waves. The power spectra of the Dispersive Alfvén wave is also investigated. The power spectra shows the distribution of the magnetic field intensity of the Dispersive Alfvén wave over different wave numbers. For DAW the spectra shows a steepening for scales larger than the proton inertial length. This means that the wave energy gets transferred to the solar wind particles as the wave reaches higher wave numbers. This steepening of the power spectra can be explained on account of the finite frequency of the Alfvén wave. The obtained results are consistent with the observations made by CLUSTER spacecraft.

Keywords: solar wind, turbulence, dispersive alfven wave

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4280 Case-Wise Investigation of Body-Wave Propagation in a Cross-Anisotropic Soil Exhibiting Inhomogeneity along Depth

Authors: Sumit Kumar Vishawakarma, Tapas Ranjan Panihari

Abstract:

The article investigates the propagation behavior of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in a continuously inhomogeneous cross-anisotropic material, where the material properties such as Young's moduli, shear modulus, and density vary as an arbitrary continuous function of depth. In the considered model, Hook's law, strain-displacement relations along with equilibrium equations have been used to derive the governing equation. The mathematical formulation of this physical problem gives rise to an eigenvalue problem with displacement components as fundamental variables. This leads to achieving the closed-form expressions for quasi-wave velocities of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in the considered framework. These characteristics of wave propagation along with the above-stated variation have been scrutinized based on their numerical results. This parametric study reveals that wave velocity remarkably fluctuates as the magnitude of inhomogeneity parameters increases and decreases. The prominent effect has been shown depicting the dependence of wave velocity on the degree of material anisotropy. The influence of phase angle and depth of the medium has been remarkably established. The present study may facilitate the theoretical foundation and practical application in the field of earthquake source mechanisms.

Keywords: cross-anisotropic, inhomogeneity, P-wave, SH-wave, SV-wave, shear modulus, Young’s modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
4279 Tank Barrel Surface Damage Detection Algorithm

Authors: Tomáš Dyk, Stanislav Procházka, Martin Drahanský

Abstract:

The article proposes a new algorithm for detecting damaged areas of the tank barrel based on the image of the inner surface of the tank barrel. Damage position is calculated using image processing techniques such as edge detection, discrete wavelet transformation and image segmentation for accurate contour detection. The algorithm can detect surface damage in smoothbore and even in rifled tank barrels. The algorithm also calculates the volume of the detected damage from the depth map generated, for example, from the distance measurement unit. The proposed method was tested on data obtained by a tank barrel scanning device, which generates both surface image data and depth map. The article also discusses tank barrel scanning devices and how damaged surface impacts material resistance.

Keywords: barrel, barrel diagnostic, image processing, surface damage detection, tank

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
4278 Liquid Sulphur Storage Tank

Authors: Roya Moradifar, Naser Agharezaee

Abstract:

In this paper corrosion in the liquid sulphur storage tank at South pars gas complex phases 2&3 is presented. This full hot insulated field-erected storage tanks are used for the temporary storage of 1800m3 of molten sulphur. Sever corrosion inside the tank roof was observed during over haul inspections, in the direction of roof gradient. Investigation shown, in spite of other parts of tank there was no insulation around these manholes. Internal steam coils do not maintain a sufficiently high tank roof temperature in the vapor space. Sulphur and formation of liquid water at cool metal surface, this combination leads to the formation of iron sulfide. By employing a distributed external heating system, the temperatures of any point of the tank roof should be based on ambient dew point and the liquid storage solidification point. Also other construction and operation of tank is more important. This paper will review potential corrosion mechanism and operational case study which illustrate the importance of heating systems.

Keywords: tank, steam, corrosion, sulphur

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
4277 Drift-Wave Turbulence in a Tokamak Edge Plasma

Authors: S. Belgherras Bekkouche, T. Benouaz, S. M. A. Bekkouche

Abstract:

Tokamak plasma is far from having a stable background. The study of turbulent transport is an important part of the current research and advanced scenarios were devised to minimize it. To do this, we used a three-wave interaction model which allows to investigate the occurrence drift-wave turbulence driven by pressure gradients in the edge plasma of a tokamak. In order to simulate the energy redistribution among different modes, the growth/decay rates for the three waves was added. After a numerical simulation, we can determine certain aspects of the temporal dynamics exhibited by the model. Indeed for a wide range of the wave decay rate, an intermittent transition from periodic behavior to chaos is observed. Then, a control strategy of chaos was introduced with the aim of reducing or eliminating the weak turbulence.

Keywords: wave interaction, plasma drift waves, wave turbulence, tokamak, edge plasma, chaos

Procedia PDF Downloads 469
4276 Numerical Verification of a Backfill-Rectangular Tank-Fluid System

Authors: Ramazan Livaoğlu, Tufan Çakır

Abstract:

The performance of rectangular tanks during earthquakes has been observed to depend significantly on the existence of water in the container and the presence of the backfill acting on tank wall. Therefore, in design of rectangular tanks, the topics of fluid-structure-backfill interactions and determination of modal characteristics of the interaction system have traditionally been one of the great theoretical and practical controversy. Although finite element method has been and will continue to be used to a significant extent in treating the response of the system, experimental verification of numerical models remains prerequisite for their adoption and reliable application in practice. Thus, in this study, the numerical and experimental investigations were performed on the backfill-exterior wall-fluid interaction system. Firstly, three dimensional finite element model (3D-FEM) was developed to acquire modal frequencies and mode shapes of the system by means of ANSYS. Secondly, a series of in-situ tests were fulfilled to define modal characteristics of same system to determine the applicability of the FEM to a real physical situation under field conditions. Finally, comparing the theoretical predictions from the model to results from experimental measurement, a close agreement was found between theory and experiment. Thus, it can be easily stated that experimental verification provides strong support for the use of proposed model in further investigations.

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, modal analysis, rectangular tank, soil structure interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
4275 Wave Interaction with Defects in Pressurized Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos, V. Thierry

Abstract:

A wave finite element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method is presented by which the dispersion properties as well as the wave interaction coefficients for one-dimensional structural system can be predicted. The structural system is discretized as a system comprising a number of waveguides connected by a coupling joint. Uniform nodes are ensured at the interfaces of the coupling element with each waveguide. Then, equilibrium and continuity conditions are enforced at the interfaces. Wave propagation properties of each waveguide are calculated using the WFE method and the coupling element is modelled using the FE method. The scattering of waves through the coupling element, on which damage is modelled, is determined by coupling the FE and WFE models. Furthermore, the central aim is to evaluate the effect of pressurization on the wave dispersion and scattering characteristics of the prestressed structural system compared to that which is not prestressed. Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled through a coupling joint.

Keywords: Finite Element, Prestressed Structures, Wave Finite Element, Wave Propagation Properties, Wave Scattering Coefficients.

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
4274 A Numerical Investigation of Lamb Wave Damage Diagnosis for Composite Delamination Using Instantaneous Phase

Authors: Haode Huo, Jingjing He, Rui Kang, Xuefei Guan

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of Lamb wave damage diagnosis of composite delamination using instantaneous phase data. Numerical experiments are performed using the finite element method. Different sizes of delamination damages are modeled using finite element package ABAQUS. Lamb wave excitation and responses data are obtained using a pitch-catch configuration. Empirical mode decomposition is employed to extract the intrinsic mode functions (IMF). Hilbert–Huang Transform is applied to each of the resulting IMFs to obtain the instantaneous phase information. The baseline data for healthy plates are also generated using the same procedure. The size of delamination is correlated with the instantaneous phase change for damage diagnosis. It is observed that the unwrapped instantaneous phase of shows a consistent behavior with the increasing delamination size.

Keywords: delamination, lamb wave, finite element method, EMD, instantaneous phase

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4273 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Blast Pressure on Discrete Model in Shock Tube

Authors: Aldin Justin Sundararaj, Austin Lord Tennyson, Divya Jose, A. N. Subash

Abstract:

Blast waves are generated due to the explosions of high energy materials. An explosion yielding a blast wave has the potential to cause severe damage to buildings and its personnel. In order to understand the physics of effects of blast pressure on buildings, studies in the shock tube on generic configurations are carried out at various pressures on discrete models. The strength of shock wave is systematically varied by using different driver gases and diaphragm thickness. The basic material of the diaphragm is Aluminum. To simulate the effect of shock waves on discrete models a shock tube was used. Generic models selected for this study are suitably scaled cylinder, cone and cubical blocks. The experiments were carried out with 2mm diaphragm with burst pressure ranging from 28 to 31 bar. Numerical analysis was carried out over these discrete models. A 3D model of shock-tube with different discrete models inside the tube was used for CFD computation. It was found that cone has dissipated most of the shock pressure compared to cylinder and cubical block. The robustness and the accuracy of the numerical model were validation with the analytical and experimental data.

Keywords: shock wave, blast wave, discrete models, shock tube

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4272 Desktop High-Speed Aerodynamics by Shallow Water Analogy in a Tin Box for Engineering Students

Authors: Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

In this paper, we show shallow water in a tin box as an analogous simulation tool for high-speed aerodynamics education and research. It is customary that we use a water tank to create shallow water flow. While a flow in a water tank is not necessarily uniform and is sometimes wavy, we can visualize a clear supercritical flow even when we move a body manually in stationary water in a simple shallow tin box. We can visualize a blunt shock wave around a moving circular cylinder together with a shock pattern around a diamond airfoil. Another interesting analogous experiment is a hydrodynamic shock tube with water and tea. We observe the contact surface clearly due to color difference of the two liquids those are invisible in the real gas dynamics experiment. We first revisit the similarities between high-speed aerodynamics and shallow water hydraulics. Several educational and research experiments are then introduced for engineering students. Shallow water experiments in a tin box simulate properly the high-speed flows.

Keywords: aerodynamics compressible flow, gas dynamics, hydraulics, shock wave

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