Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1606

Search results for: vertical axis rotor

1606 Effect of Blade Layout on Unidirectional Rotation of a Vertical-Axis Rotor in Waves

Authors: Yingchen Yang

Abstract:

Ocean waves are a rich renewable energy source that is nearly untapped to date, even though many wave energy conversion (WEC) technologies are currently under development. The present work discusses a vertical-axis WEC rotor for power generation. The rotor was specially designed to allow easy rearrangement of the same blades to achieve different rotor configurations and result in different wave-rotor interaction behaviors. These rotor configurations were tested in a wave tank under various wave conditions. The testing results indicate that all the rotor configurations perform unidirectional rotation about the vertical axis in waves, but the response characteristics are somewhat different. The rotor's unidirectional rotation about its vertical axis is essential in wave energy harvesting since it makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency and in any wave propagation directions. Result comparison among different configurations leads to a preferred rotor design for further hydrodynamic optimization.

Keywords: unidirectional rotation, vertical axis rotor, wave energy conversion, wave-rotor interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1605 A Vertical-Axis Unidirectional Rotor with Nested Blades for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Yingchen Yang

Abstract:

In the present work, development of a new vertical-axis unidirectional wave rotor is reported. The wave rotor is a key component of a wave energy converter (WEC), which harvests energy from ocean waves. Differing from the huge majority of WEC designs that perform reciprocating motions (heaving up and down, swaying back and forth, etc.), our wave rotor performs unidirectional rotation about a vertical axis when directly exposed in waves. The unidirectional feature of the rotor makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency. The vertical axis arrangement of the rotor makes the rotor insensitive to the wave propagation direction. The rotor employs blades with a cross-section in an airfoil shape and a span curled into a semi-oval shape. Two sets of blades, with one nested inside the other, constitute the rotor. In waves, water particles perform an omnidirectional motion that constantly changes in both spatial and temporal domains. The blade nesting permits a compact rotor configuration that ‘sees’ a relatively uniform local flow in the spatial domain. The rotor was experimentally tested in simulated waves in a wave flume under various conditions. The testing results show a promising unidirectional rotor that is capable of extracting energy from waves at a capture width ratio of 0.08 to 0.15, depending on detailed wave conditions.

Keywords: unidirectional, vertical axis, wave energy converter, wave rotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
1604 Numerical Investigation of the Operating Parameters of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz, Tytus Tulwin

Abstract:

This paper describes the geometrical model, algorithm and CFD simulation of an airflow around a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. A solver, ANSYS Fluent, was applied for the numerical simulation. Numerical simulation, unlike experiments, enables us to validate project assumptions when it is designed to avoid a costly preparation of a model or a prototype for a bench test. This research focuses on the rotor designed according to patent no PL 219985 with its blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on a regulation of blade angle α between the top and bottom parts of blades mounted on an axis. If angle α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. CFD calculations enable us to compare aerodynamic characteristics of forces acting on rotor working surfaces and specify rotor operation parameters like torque or turbine assembly power output. This paper is part of the research to improve an efficiency of a rotor assembly and it contains investigation of the impact of a blade angle of wind turbine working blades on the power output as a function of rotor torque, specific rotational speed and wind speed. The simulation was made for wind speeds ranging from 3.4 m/s to 6.2 m/s and blade angles of 30°, 60°, 90°. The simulation enables us to create a mathematical model to describe how aerodynamic forces acting each of the blade of the studied rotor are generated. Also, the simulation results are compared with the wind tunnel ones. This investigation enables us to estimate the growth in turbine power output if a blade angle changes. The regulation of blade angle α enables a smooth change in turbine rotor power, which is a kind of safety measures if the wind is strong. Decreasing blade angle α reduces the risk of damaging or destroying a turbine that is still in operation and there is no complete rotor braking as it is in other Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, mathematical model, numerical analysis, power, renewable energy, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1603 Optimization of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: C. Andreu Sabater, D. Drago, C. Key-aberg, W. Moukrim, B. Naccache

Abstract:

Present study concerns the optimization of a new vertical axis wind turbine system associated to a dynamoelectric motor. The system is composed by three Savonius wind turbines, arranged in an equilateral triangle. The idea is to propose a new concept of wind turbines through a technical approach allowing find a specific power never obtained before and therefore, a significant reduction of installation costs. In this work different wind flows across the system have been simulated, as well as precise definition of parameters and relations established between them. It will allow define the optimal rotor specific power for a given volume. Calculations have been developed with classical Savonius dimensions.

Keywords: VAWT, savonius, specific power, optimization, weibull

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1602 The Characteristics of the Operating Parameters of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for the Selected Wind Speed

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz

Abstract:

The paper discusses the results of the research into a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation which was performed with the open return wind tunnel, Gunt HM 170, at the laboratory of the Department of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Propulsion Aviation Systems of Lublin University of Technology. Wind tunnel experiments are a necessary step to construct any new type of wind turbine, to validate design assumptions and numerical results. This research focused on the rotor with the blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on adjusting angular aperture α of the top and bottom parts of the blades mounted on an axis. If this angle α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. The study was performed on scaled and geometrically similar models with the criteria of similarity relevant for the type of research preserved. The rotors with varied angular apertures of their blades were printed for the research with a powder 3D printer, ZPrinter® 450. This paper presents the research results for the selected flow speed of 6.5 m/s for the three angular apertures of the rotor blades, i.e. 30°, 60°, 90° at varied speeds. The test stand enables the turbine rotor to be braked to achieve the required speed and airflow speed and torque to be recorded. Accordingly, the torque and power as a function of airflow were plotted. The rotor with its adjustable blades enables turbine power to be adjusted within a wide range of wind speeds. A variable angular aperture of blade working surfaces α in a wind turbine enables us to control the speed of the turbine and consequently its output power. Reducing the angular aperture of working surfaces results in reduced speed, and if a special current generator applied, electrical output power is reduced, too. Speed adjusted by changing angle α enables the maximum load acting on rotor blades to be controlled. The solution under study is a kind of safety against a damage of a turbine due to possible high wind speed.

Keywords: drive torque, renewable energy, power, wind turbine, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1601 Influence of Geometrical Parameters of a Wind Turbine on the Optimal Tip-Speed Ratio

Authors: Zdzislaw Piotr Kaminski, Miroslaw Wendeker, Zbigniew Czyz

Abstract:

The paper describes the geometric model, calculation algorithm and results of the CFD simulation of the airflow around a rotor in the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with the ANSYS Fluent computational solver. The CFD method enables creating aerodynamic characteristics of forces acting on rotor working surfaces and determining parameters such as torque or power generated by the rotor assembly. The object of the research was a rotor whose construction is based on patent no.PL219985. The conducted tests enabled a mathematical model with a description of the generation of aerodynamic forces acting on each rotor blade. Additionally, this model was compared to the results of the wind tunnel tests. The analysis also focused on the influence of the blade angle on turbine power and the TSR. The research has shown that the turbine blade angle has a significant impact on the optimal value of the TSR.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, renewable energy, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1600 Sensitivity Analysis of External-Rotor Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Authors: Hadi Aghazadeh, Seyed Ebrahim Afjei, Alireza Siadatan

Abstract:

In this paper, a proper approach is taken to assess a set of the most effective rotor design parameters for an external-rotor permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor (PMaSynRM) and therefore to tackle the design complexity of the rotor structure. There are different advantages for introducing permanent magnets into the rotor flux barriers, some of which are to saturate the rotor iron ribs, to increase the motor torque density and to improve the power factor. Moreover, the d-axis and q-axis inductances are of great importance to simultaneously achieve maximum developed torque and low torque ripple. Therefore, sensitivity analysis of the rotor geometry of an 8-pole external-rotor permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor is performed. Several magnetically accurate finite element analyses (FEA) are conducted to characterize the electromagnetic performance of the motor. The analyses validate torque and power factor equations for the proposed external-rotor motor. Based upon the obtained results and due to an additional term, permanent magnet torque, added to the reluctance torque, the electromagnetic torque of the PMaSynRM increases.

Keywords: permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor, flux barrier, flux carrier, electromagnetic torque, and power factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
1599 Performance Prediction of a SANDIA 17-m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Improved Double Multiple Streamtube

Authors: Abolfazl Hosseinkhani, Sepehr Sanaye

Abstract:

Different approaches have been used to predict the performance of the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT), such as experimental, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and analytical methods. Analytical methods, such as momentum models that use streamtubes, have low computational cost and sufficient accuracy. The double multiple streamtube (DMST) is one of the most commonly used of momentum models, which divide the rotor plane of VAWT into upwind and downwind. In fact, results from the DMST method have shown some discrepancy compared with experiment results; that is because the Darrieus turbine is a complex and aerodynamically unsteady configuration. In this study, analytical-experimental-based corrections, including dynamic stall, streamtube expansion, and finite blade length correction are used to improve the DMST method. Results indicated that using these corrections for a SANDIA 17-m VAWT will lead to improving the results of DMST.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, analytical, double multiple streamtube, streamtube expansion model, dynamic stall model, finite blade length correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
1598 Design and Validation of a Darrieus Type Hydrokinetic Turbine for South African Irrigation Canals Experimentally and Computationally

Authors: Maritz Lourens Van Rensburg, Chantel Niebuhr

Abstract:

Utilizing all available renewable energy sources is an ever-growing necessity, this includes a newfound interest into hydrokinetic energy systems, which open the door to installations where conventional hydropower shows no potential. Optimization and obtaining high efficiencies are key in these installations. In this study a vertical axis Darrieus hydrokinetic turbine is designed and constructed to address certain drawbacks experience by axial flow horizontal axis turbines in an irrigation channel. Many horizontal axis turbines have been well developed and optimized to have high efficiencies but depending on the conditions experienced in an open channel, the performance of these turbines may be adversely affected. The study analyses how the designed vertical axis turbine addresses the problems experienced by a horizontal axis turbine while still achieving a satisfactory efficiency. To be able to optimize the vertical axis turbine, a computational fluid dynamics model was validated to the experimental results obtained from the power generated from a test turbine installation operating at various rotational speeds. It was found that an accurate validated model can be obtained through validation of generated power output.

Keywords: hydrokinetic, Darrieus, computational fluid dynamics, vertical axis turbine

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1597 Numerical Study of 5kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using DOE Method

Authors: Yan-Ting Lin, Wei-Nian Su

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the design of 5kW vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) using DOE method. The NACA0015 airfoil was implemented for the design and 3D simulation. The critical design parameters are chord length, tip speed ratio (TSR), aspect ratio (AR) and pitch angle in this investigation. The RNG k-ε turbulent model and the sliding mesh method are adopted in the CFD simulation. The results show that the model with zero pitch, 0.3 m in chord length, TSR of 3, and AR of 10 demonstrated the optimum aerodynamic power under the uniform 10m/s inlet velocity. The aerodynamic power is 3.61kW and 3.89kW under TSR of 3 and 4 respectively. The aerodynamic power decreased dramatically while TSR increased to 5.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, CFD, DOE, VAWT

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1596 Effect of Thickness and Solidity on the Performance of Straight Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Jianyang Zhu, Lin Jiang, Tixian Tian

Abstract:

Inspired by the increasing interesting on the wind power associated with production of clear electric power, a numerical experiment is applied to investigate the aerodynamic performance of straight type vertical axis wind turbine with different thickness and solidity, where the incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with dynamic mesh technique is solved. By analyzing the flow field, as well as energy coefficient of different thickness and solidity turbine, it is found that the thickness and solidity can significantly influence the performance of vertical axis wind turbine. For the turbine under low tip speed, the mean energy coefficient increase with the increasing of thickness and solidity, which may improve the self starting performance of the turbine. However for the turbine under high tip speed, the appropriate thickness and smaller solidity turbine possesses better performance. In addition, delay stall and no interaction of the blade and previous separated vortex are observed around appropriate thickness and solidity turbine, therefore lead better performance characteristics.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, N-S equations, dynamic mesh technique, thickness, solidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
1595 Enhancing Aerodynamic Performance of Savonius Vertical Axis Turbine Used with Triboelectric Generator

Authors: Bhavesh Dadhich, Fenil Bamnoliya, Akshita Swaminathan

Abstract:

This project aims to design a system to generate energy from flowing wind due to the motion of a vehicle on the road or from the flow of wind in compact areas to utilize the wasteful energy into a useful one. It is envisaged through a design and aerodynamic performance improvement of a Savonius vertical axis wind turbine rotor and used in an integrated system with a Triboelectric Nanogenerator (TENG) that can generate a good amount of electrical energy. Aerodynamic calculations are performed numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics software, and TENG's performance is evaluated analytically. The Turbine's coefficient of power is validated with published results for an inlet velocity of 7 m/s with a Tip Speed Ratio of 0.75 and found to reasonably agree with that of experiment results. The baseline design is modified with a new blade arc angle and rotor position angle based on the recommended parameter ranges suggested by previous researchers. Simulations have been performed for different T.S.R. values ranging from 0.25 to 1.5 with an interval of 0.25 with two applicable free stream velocities of 5 m/s and 7m/s. Finally, the newly designed VAWT CFD performance results are used as input for the analytical performance prediction of the triboelectric nanogenerator. The results show that this approach could be feasible and useful for small power source applications.

Keywords: savonius turbine, power, overlap ratio, tip speed ratio, TENG

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1594 Optimization of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Based on Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Mohammed Affanuddin H. Siddique, Jayesh S. Shukla, Chetan B. Meshram

Abstract:

The neural networks are one of the power tools of machine learning. After the invention of perceptron in early 1980's, the neural networks and its application have grown rapidly. Neural networks are a technique originally developed for pattern investigation. The structure of a neural network consists of neurons connected through synapse. Here, we have investigated the different algorithms and cost function reduction techniques for optimization of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) rotor blades. The aerodynamic force coefficients corresponding to the airfoils are stored in a database along with the airfoil coordinates. A forward propagation neural network is created with the input as aerodynamic coefficients and output as the airfoil co-ordinates. In the proposed algorithm, the hidden layer is incorporated into cost function having linear and non-linear error terms. In this article, it is observed that the ANNs (Artificial Neural Network) can be used for the VAWT’s optimization.

Keywords: VAWT, ANN, optimization, inverse design

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1593 Power Performance Improvement of 500W Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Salient Design Parameters

Authors: Young-Tae Lee, Hee-Chang Lim

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance characteristics of Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with NACA airfoil blades. The performance of Darrieus-type VAWT can be characterized by torque and power. There are various parameters affecting the performance such as chord length, helical angle, pitch angle and rotor diameter. To estimate the optimum shape of Darrieustype wind turbine in accordance with various design parameters, we examined aerodynamic characteristics and separated flow occurring in the vicinity of blade, interaction between flow and blade, and torque and power characteristics derived from it. For flow analysis, flow variations were investigated based on the unsteady RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) equation. Sliding mesh algorithm was employed in order to consider rotational effect of blade. To obtain more realistic results we conducted experiment and numerical analysis at the same time for three-dimensional shape. In addition, several parameters (chord length, rotor diameter, pitch angle, and helical angle) were considered to find out optimum shape design and characteristics of interaction with ambient flow. Since the NACA airfoil used in this study showed significant changes in magnitude of lift and drag depending on an angle of attack, the rotor with low drag, long cord length and short diameter shows high power coefficient in low tip speed ratio (TSR) range. On the contrary, in high TSR range, drag becomes high. Hence, the short-chord and long-diameter rotor produces high power coefficient. When a pitch angle at which airfoil directs toward inside equals to -2° and helical angle equals to 0°, Darrieus-type VAWT generates maximum power.

Keywords: darrieus wind turbine, VAWT, NACA airfoil, performance

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1592 Variation of Inductance in a Switched-Reluctance Motor under Various Rotor Faults

Authors: Muhammad Asghar Saqib, Saad Saleem Khan, Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif

Abstract:

In order to have higher efficiency, performance and reliability the regular monitoring of an electrical motor is required. This article presents a novel view of the air-gap magnetic field analysis of a switched reluctance motor under rotor cracks and rotor tilt along its shaft axis. The fault diagnosis is illustrated on the basis of a 3-D model of the motor using finite element analysis (FEA). The analytical equations of flux linkages have been used to determine the inductance. The results of the 3-D finite element analysis on a 6/4 switched reluctance motor (SRM) shows the variation of mutual inductance with the tilting of the rotor shaft and cracked rotor conditions. These results present useful information regarding the detection of shaft tilting and cracked rotors.

Keywords: switched reluctance motor, finite element analysis, cracked rotor, 3-D modelling of a srm

Procedia PDF Downloads 558
1591 Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Authors: Petter Eklund, Jonathan Sjölund, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon

Abstract:

The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted expression for its behavior is suggested.

Keywords: end effects, end leakage flux, permanent magnet machine, spoke type rotor

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1590 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie

Abstract:

In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, Small-scale irrigation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Water pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
1589 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Calculations of the Wind Turbine with an Adjustable Working Surface

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz, Krzysztof Skiba

Abstract:

This paper discusses the CFD simulation of a flow around a rotor of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Numerical simulation, unlike experiments, enables us to validate project assumptions when it is designed and avoid a costly preparation of a model or a prototype for a bench test. CFD simulation enables us to compare characteristics of aerodynamic forces acting on rotor working surfaces and define operational parameters like torque or power generated by a turbine assembly. This research focused on the rotor with the blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on adjusting angular aperture α of the top and bottom parts of the blades mounted on an axis. If this angular aperture α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. The operation of turbines is characterized by parameters like the angular aperture of blades, power, torque, speed for a given wind speed. These parameters have an impact on the efficiency of assemblies. The distribution of forces acting on the working surfaces in our turbine changes according to the angular velocity of the rotor. Moreover, the resultant force from the force acting on an advancing blade and retreating blade should be as high as possible. This paper is part of the research to improve an efficiency of a rotor assembly. Therefore, using simulation, the courses of the above parameters were studied in three full rotations individually for each of the blades for three angular apertures of blade working surfaces, i.e. 30 °, 60 °, 90 °, at three wind speeds, i.e. 4 m / s, 6 m / s, 8 m / s and rotor speeds ranging from 100 to 500 rpm. Finally, there were created the characteristics of torque coefficients and power as a function of time for each blade separately and for the entire rotor. Accordingly, the correlation between the turbine rotor power as a function of wind speed for varied values of rotor rotational speed. By processing this data, the correlation between the power of the turbine rotor and its rotational speed for each of the angular aperture of the working surfaces was specified. Finally, the optimal values, i.e. of the highest output power for given wind speeds were read. The research results in receiving the basic characteristics of turbine rotor power as a function of wind speed for the three angular apertures of the blades. Given the nature of rotor operation, the growth in the output turbine can be estimated if angular aperture of the blades increases. The controlled adjustment of angle α enables a smooth adjustment of power generated by a turbine rotor. If wind speed is significant, this type of adjustment enables this output power to remain at the same level (by reducing angle α) with no risk of damaging a construction. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, renewable energy, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1588 PID Control of Quad-Rotor Unnamed Vehicle Based on Lagrange Approach Modelling

Authors: A. Benbouali, H. Saidi, A. Derrouazin, T. Bessaad

Abstract:

Aerial robotics is a very exciting research field dealing with a variety of subjects, including the attitude control. This paper deals with the control of a four rotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The paper presents a mathematical model based on the approach of Lagrange for the flight control of an autonomous quad-rotor. It also describes the controller architecture which is based on PID regulators. The control method has been simulated in closed loop in different situations. All the calculation stages and the simulation results have been detailed.

Keywords: quad-rotor, lagrange approach, proportional integral derivate (PID) controller, Matlab/Simulink

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1587 Solutions of Thickening the Sludge from the Wastewater Treatment by a Rotor with Bars

Authors: Victorita Radulescu

Abstract:

Introduction: The sewage treatment plants, in the second stage, are formed by tanks having as main purpose the formation of the suspensions with high possible solid concentration values. The paper presents a solution to produce a rapid concentration of the slurry and sludge, having as main purpose the minimization as much as possible the size of the tanks. The solution is based on a rotor with bars, tested into two different areas of industrial activity: the remediation of the wastewater from the oil industry and, in the last year, into the mining industry. Basic Methods: It was designed, realized and tested a thickening system with vertical bars that manages to reduce sludge moisture content from 94% to 87%. The design was based on the hypothesis that the streamlines of the vortices detached from the rotor with vertical bars accelerate, under certain conditions, the sludge thickening. It is moved at the lateral sides, and in time, it became sediment. The formed vortices with the vertical axis in the viscous fluid, under the action of the lift, drag, weight, and inertia forces participate at a rapid aggregation of the particles thus accelerating the sludge concentration. Appears an interdependence between the Re number attached to the flow with vortex induced by the vertical bars and the size of the hydraulic compaction phenomenon, resulting from an accelerated process of sedimentation, therefore, a sludge thickening depending on the physic-chemical characteristics of the resulting sludge is projected the rotor's dimensions. Major findings/ Results: Based on the experimental measurements was performed the numerical simulation of the hydraulic rotor, as to assure the necessary vortices. The experimental measurements were performed to determine the optimal height and the density of the bars for the sludge thickening system, to assure the tanks dimensions as small as possible. The time thickening/settling was reduced by 24% compared to the conventional used systems. In the present, the thickeners intend to decrease the intermediate stage of water treatment, using primary and secondary settling; but they assume a quite long time, the order of 10-15 hours. By using this system, there are no intermediary steps; the thickening is done automatically when are created the vortices. Conclusions: The experimental tests were carried out in the wastewater treatment plant of the Refinery of oil from Brazi, near the city Ploiesti. The results prove its efficiency in reducing the time for compacting the sludge and the smaller humidity of the evacuated sediments. The utilization of this equipment is now extended and it is tested the mining industry, with significant results, in Lupeni mine, from the Jiu Valley.

Keywords: experimental tests, hydrodynamic modeling, rotor efficiency, wastewater treatment

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1586 Design and Analysis of Blade Length and Number of Blades of Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Ali Gul, Bhart Kumar, Samiullah Ansari

Abstract:

The current research is focused on the study of various lengths of blades (i.e. 1 to 5m) and several bladed rotors (3,5,7 & 9) of small horizontal axis wind turbine under low wind conditions usingQBlade software. Initially, the rotor was designed using airfoil SG6043 with five different lengths of the blades. Subsequently, simulations were carried out in which, under low wind regimes, the power output was observed. Further, four rotors having 3,5,7 & 9 blades were analyzed. However, the most promising coefficient of performance (CP) was observed at the 3-bladed rotor. Both studies established a clear view of harvesting wind energy at low wind speeds that can be mobilized in the energy sector. That suggests the utilization of wind energy at the domestic levelwhich is acceleratory growing in the last few decades.

Keywords: small HAWT, QBlade, BEM, CFD

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1585 Prediction of the Mechanical Power in Wind Turbine Powered Car Using Velocity Analysis

Authors: Abdelrahman Alghazali, Youssef Kassem, Hüseyin Çamur, Ozan Erenay

Abstract:

Savonius is a drag type vertical axis wind turbine. Savonius wind turbines have a low cut-in speed and can operate at low wind speed. This makes it suitable for electricity or mechanical generation in low-power applications such as individual domestic installations. Therefore, the primary purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the type of Savonius rotor and the torque and mechanical power generated. And it was to illustrate how the type of rotor might play an important role in the prediction of mechanical power of wind turbine powered car. The main purpose of this paper is to predict and investigate the aerodynamic effects by means of velocity analysis on the performance of a wind turbine powered car by converting the wind energy into mechanical energy to overcome load that rotates the main shaft. The predicted results based on theoretical analysis were compared with experimental results obtained from literature. The percentage of error between the two was approximately around 20%. Prediction of the torque was done at a wind speed of 4 m/s, and an angular velocity of 130 RPM according to meteorological statistics in Northern Cyprus.

Keywords: mechanical power, torque, Savonius rotor, wind car

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1584 Numerical Study for Structural Design of Composite Rotor with Crack Initiation

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb, H.Mechakra, A. Bouderba, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper, the numerical study for the instability of a composite rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor is developed. The use of the composite material for the rotor, offers a good Stability. Numerical calculations on the model develop of three dimensions prove that the damage effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. The study of the composite rotor in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, composite, damage, finite element, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
1583 Dynamic Analysis and Instability of a Rotating Composite Rotor

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb, H. Mechakra, A. Bouderba, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper, the dynamic response for the instability of a composite rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor blade is developed. The use of the composite material for the rotor, offers a good stability. Numerical calculations on the model develop of three dimensions prove that the damage effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. The study of the composite rotor in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, composite, damage, finite element, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
1582 Design and Implementation of PD-NN Controller Optimized Neural Networks for a Quad-Rotor

Authors: Chiraz Ben Jabeur, Hassene Seddik

Abstract:

In this paper, a full approach of modeling and control of a four-rotor unmanned air vehicle (UAV), known as quad-rotor aircraft, is presented. In fact, a PD and a PD optimized Neural Networks Approaches (PD-NN) are developed to be applied to control a quad-rotor. The goal of this work is to concept a smart self-tuning PD controller based on neural networks able to supervise the quad-rotor for an optimized behavior while tracking the desired trajectory. Many challenges could arise if the quad-rotor is navigating in hostile environments presenting irregular disturbances in the form of wind added to the model on each axis. Thus, the quad-rotor is subject to three-dimensional unknown static/varying wind disturbances. The quad-rotor has to quickly perform tasks while ensuring stability and accuracy and must behave rapidly with regard to decision-making facing disturbances. This technique offers some advantages over conventional control methods such as PD controller. Simulation results are obtained with the use of Matlab/Simulink environment and are founded on a comparative study between PD and PD-NN controllers based on wind disturbances. These later are applied with several degrees of strength to test the quad-rotor behavior. These simulation results are satisfactory and have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed PD-NN approach. In fact, this controller has relatively smaller errors than the PD controller and has a better capability to reject disturbances. In addition, it has proven to be highly robust and efficient, facing turbulences in the form of wind disturbances.

Keywords: hostile environment, PD and PD-NN controllers, quad-rotor control, robustness against disturbance

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1581 Influence of Major Axis on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Elliptical Section

Authors: K. B. Rajasekarababu, J. Karthik, G. Vinayagamurthy

Abstract:

This paper is intended to explain the influence of major axis on aerodynamic characteristics of elliptical section. Many engineering applications such as off shore structures, bridge piers, civil structures and pipelines can be modelled as a circular cylinder but flow over complex bodies like, submarines, Elliptical wing, fuselage, missiles, and rotor blades, in which the parameters such as axis ratio can influence the flow characteristics of the wake and nature of separation. Influence of Major axis in Flow characteristics of elliptical sections are examined both experimentally and computationally in this study. For this research, four elliptical models with varying major axis [*AR=1, 4, 6, 10] are analysed. Experimental works have been conducted in a subsonic wind tunnel. Furthermore, flow characteristics on elliptical model are predicted from k-ε turbulence model using the commercial CFD packages by pressure based transient solver with Standard wall conditions.The analysis can be extended to estimation and comparison of Drag coefficient and Fatigue analysis of elliptical sections.

Keywords: elliptical section, major axis, aerodynamic characteristics, k-ε turbulence model

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
1580 Development of Low Noise Savonius Wind Turbines

Authors: Sanghyeon Kim, Cheolung Cheong

Abstract:

Savonius wind turbines are a drag-type of vertical-axis wind turbine that has been used most commonly as a small-scale wind generator. However, noise is a main hindrance to wide spreading of Savonius wind turbines, just like other wind turbines. Although noise levels radiating from Savonius wind turbines may be relatively low because of their small size, they induce relatively high annoyance due to their prolonged noise exposure to the near community. Therefore, aerodynamic noise of small vertical-axis wind turbines is one of most important design parameters. In this paper, aerodynamic noise characteristics of Savonius wind turbines are investigated using the hybrid CAA techniques, and their low noise designs are proposed based on understanding of noise generation mechanism. First, flow field around the turbine are analyzed by solving 3-D unsteady incompressible RANS equations. Then, noise radiation is predicted using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. Two distinct harmonic noise components, the well-know BPF components and the harmonics whose fundamental frequency is much higher than the BPF are identified. On a basis of this finding, S-shaped blades are proposed as low noise designs and it can reduce the noise levels of Savonius wind turbines by up to 2.7 dB.

Keywords: aerodynamic noise, Savonius wind turbine, vertical-axis wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
1579 Material Fracture Dynamic of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade

Authors: Samir Lecheb, Ahmed Chellil, Hamza Mechakra, Brahim Safi, Houcine Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper we studied fracture and dynamic behavior of vertical axis wind turbine blade, the VAWT is a historical machine, it has many properties, structure, advantage, component to be able to produce the electricity. We modeled the blade design then imported to Abaqus software for analysis the modes shapes, frequencies, stress, strain, displacement and stress intensity factor SIF, after comparison we chose the idol material. Finally, the CTS test of glass epoxy reinforced polymer plates to obtain the material fracture toughness Kc.

Keywords: blade, crack, frequency, material, SIF

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
1578 Condition Monitoring for Controlling the Stability of the Rotating Machinery

Authors: A. Chellil, I. Gahlouz, S. Lecheb, A. Nour, S. Chellil, H. Mechakra, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper, the experimental study for the instability of a separator rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor are developed. Numerical calculations on the model develop of three dimensions prove that the defects effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. Experimentally, the study of the rotor in the transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to the unbalances and various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, frequency, finite element, specter

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1577 Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Stability

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb , H. Mechakra, A. Bouderba, H. Kebir

Abstract:

The study of the rotor dynamic in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to various excitations. This work presents a coupled gyroscopic effect in the defects of a rotor under dynamic loading. Calculations of different energies and virtual work from the various elements of the rotor are developed. To treat real systems a model of finite element was developed. This model of the rotor makes it possible to extract the frequencies and modal deformed, and to calculate the stresses in the critical zone. The study of the rotor in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to the unbalances, crack and various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, defect, finite element, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 391