Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8143

Search results for: wave energy conversion

8143 Effect of Blade Layout on Unidirectional Rotation of a Vertical-Axis Rotor in Waves

Authors: Yingchen Yang


Ocean waves are a rich renewable energy source that is nearly untapped to date, even though many wave energy conversion (WEC) technologies are currently under development. The present work discusses a vertical-axis WEC rotor for power generation. The rotor was specially designed to allow easy rearrangement of the same blades to achieve different rotor configurations and result in different wave-rotor interaction behaviors. These rotor configurations were tested in a wave tank under various wave conditions. The testing results indicate that all the rotor configurations perform unidirectional rotation about the vertical axis in waves, but the response characteristics are somewhat different. The rotor's unidirectional rotation about its vertical axis is essential in wave energy harvesting since it makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency and in any wave propagation directions. Result comparison among different configurations leads to a preferred rotor design for further hydrodynamic optimization.

Keywords: unidirectional rotation, vertical axis rotor, wave energy conversion, wave-rotor interaction

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8142 Development of a Mathematical Theoretical Model and Simulation of the Electromechanical System for Wave Energy Harvesting

Authors: P. Valdez, M. Pelissero, A. Haim, F. Muiño, F. Galia, R. Tula


As a result of the studies performed on the wave energy resource worldwide, a research project was set up to harvest wave energy for its conversion into electrical energy. Within this framework, a theoretical model of the electromechanical energy harvesting system, developed with MATLAB’s Simulink software, will be provided. This tool recreates the site conditions where the device will be installed and offers valuable information about the amount of energy that can be harnessed. This research provides a deeper understanding of the utilization of wave energy in order to improve the efficiency of a 1:1 scale prototype of the device.

Keywords: electromechanical device, modeling, renewable energy, sea wave energy, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
8141 Techno-Economic Analysis Framework for Wave Energy Conversion Schemes under South African Conditions: Modeling and Simulations

Authors: Siyanda S. Biyela, Willie A. Cronje


This paper presents a desktop study of comparing two different wave energy to electricity technologies (WECs) using a techno-economic approach. This techno-economic approach forms basis of a framework for rapid comparison of current and future technologies. The approach also seeks to assist in investment and strategic decision making expediting future deployment of wave energy harvesting in South Africa.

Keywords: cost of energy (COE) tool, sea state, wave energy converter (WEC), WEC-Sim

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
8140 Effect of Blade Shape on the Performance of Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Katsuya Takasaki, Manabu Takao, Toshiaki Setoguchi


Effect of 3-dimensional (3D) blade on the turbine characteristics of Wells turbine for wave energy conversion has been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions in the study, in order to improve the peak efficiency and the stall characteristics. The aim of the use of 3D blade is to prevent flow separation on the suction surface near the tip. The chord length is constant with radius and the blade profile changes gradually from mean radius to tip. The proposed blade profiles in the study are NACA0015 from hub to mean radius and NACA0025 at the tip. The performances of Wells turbine with 3D blades has been compared with those of the original Wells turbine, i.e. the turbine with 2-dimensional (2D) blades. As a result, it was concluded that although the peak efficiency of Wells turbine can be improved by the use of the proposed 3D blade, its blade does not overcome the weakness of stalling.

Keywords: fluid machinery, ocean engineering, stall, wave energy conversion, wells turbine

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8139 Near Shore Wave Manipulation for Electricity Generation

Authors: K. D. R. Jagath-Kumara, D. D. Dias


The sea waves carry thousands of GWs of power globally. Although there are a number of different approaches to harness offshore energy, they are likely to be expensive, practically challenging and vulnerable to storms. Therefore, this paper considers using the near shore waves for generating mechanical and electrical power. It introduces two new approaches, the wave manipulation and using a variable duct turbine, for intercepting very wide wave fronts and coping with the fluctuations of the wave height and the sea level, respectively. The first approach effectively allows capturing much more energy yet with a much narrower turbine rotor. The second approach allows using a rotor with a smaller radius but captures energy of higher wave fronts at higher sea levels yet preventing it from totally submerging. To illustrate the effectiveness of the approach, the paper contains a description and the simulation results of a scale model of a wave manipulator. Then, it includes the results of testing a physical model of the manipulator and a single duct, axial flow turbine, in a wave flume in the laboratory. The paper also includes comparisons of theoretical predictions, simulation results and wave flume tests with respect to the incident energy, loss in wave manipulation, minimal loss, brake torque and the angular velocity.

Keywords: near-shore sea waves, renewable energy, wave energy conversion, wave manipulation

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8138 A Vertical-Axis Unidirectional Rotor with Nested Blades for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Yingchen Yang


In the present work, development of a new vertical-axis unidirectional wave rotor is reported. The wave rotor is a key component of a wave energy converter (WEC), which harvests energy from ocean waves. Differing from the huge majority of WEC designs that perform reciprocating motions (heaving up and down, swaying back and forth, etc.), our wave rotor performs unidirectional rotation about a vertical axis when directly exposed in waves. The unidirectional feature of the rotor makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency. The vertical axis arrangement of the rotor makes the rotor insensitive to the wave propagation direction. The rotor employs blades with a cross-section in an airfoil shape and a span curled into a semi-oval shape. Two sets of blades, with one nested inside the other, constitute the rotor. In waves, water particles perform an omnidirectional motion that constantly changes in both spatial and temporal domains. The blade nesting permits a compact rotor configuration that ‘sees’ a relatively uniform local flow in the spatial domain. The rotor was experimentally tested in simulated waves in a wave flume under various conditions. The testing results show a promising unidirectional rotor that is capable of extracting energy from waves at a capture width ratio of 0.08 to 0.15, depending on detailed wave conditions.

Keywords: unidirectional, vertical axis, wave energy converter, wave rotor

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8137 Investigating the Invalidity of the Law of Energy Conservation Based on Waves Interference Phenomenon Inside a Ringed Waveguide

Authors: M. Yusefzad


Law of energy conservation is one of the fundamental laws of physics. Energy is conserved, and the total amount of energy is constant. It can be transferred from one object to another and changed from one state to another. However, in the case of wave interference, this law faces important contradictions. Based on the presented mathematical relationship in this paper, it seems that validity of this law depends on the path of energy wave, like light, in which it is located. In this paper, by using some fundamental concepts in physics like the constancy of the electromagnetic wave speed in a specific media and wave theory of light, it will be shown that law of energy conservation is not valid in every condition and in some circumstances, it is possible to increase energy of a system with a determined amount of energy without any input.

Keywords: power, law of energy conservation, electromagnetic wave, interference, Maxwell’s equations

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8136 The Effect of Surface Wave on the Performance Characteristic of a Wave-Tidal Integral Turbine Hybrid Generation System

Authors: Norshazmira Mat Azmi, Sayidal El Fatimah Masnan, Shatirah Akib


More than 70% of the Earth is covered by oceans, which are considered to possess boundless renewable energy, such as tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, thermal energy, and chemical energy. The hybrid system help in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of renewable energy systems to fulfill the energy demand. The concept of hybridizing renewable energy is to meet the desired system requirements, with the lowest value of the energy cost. This paper propose a hybrid power generation system suitable for remote area application and highlight the impact of surface waves on turbine design and performance, and the importance of understanding the site-specific wave conditions.

Keywords: marine current energy, tidal turbines, wave turbine, renewable energy, surface waves, hydraulic flume experiments, instantaneous wave phase

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8135 [Keynote Talk]: Wave-Tidal Integral Turbine Hybrid Generation Approach for Characterizing Performance of Surface Wave

Authors: Norshazmira Mat Azmi, Sayidal El Fatimah Masnan, Shatirah Akib


Boundless renewable energy, such as tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, thermal energy and chemical energy are covered and possessed by oceans. The hybrid system helps in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of renewable energy systems to fulfill the energy demand. The objective and concept of hybridizing renewable energy is to meet the desired system requirements, with the lowest value of the energy cost. This paper reviews applications of using hybrid power generation system for remote area. It also highlights the future directions to investigate the impacts of surface waves on turbine design and performance. The importance of understanding the site-specific wave conditions could also been explored.

Keywords: hybrid, marine current energy, tidal turbine, wave turbine

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8134 Numerical Simulation of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Using OpenFOAM in Indian Scenario

Authors: Pooja Verma, Sumana Ghosh


There is a growing need for alternative way of power generation worldwide. The reason can be attributed to limited resources of fossil fuels, environmental pollution, increasing cost of conventional fuels, and lower efficiency of conversion of energy in existing systems. In this context, one of the potential alternatives for power generation is wave energy. However, it is difficult to estimate the amount of electrical energy generation in an irregular sea condition by experiment and or analytical methods. Therefore in this work, a numerical wave tank is developed using the computational fluid dynamics software Open FOAM. In this software a specific utility known as waves2Foam utility is being used to carry out the simulation work. The computational domain is a tank of dimension: 5m*1.5m*1m with a floating object of dimension: 0.5m*0.2m*0.2m. Regular waves are generated at the inlet of the wave tank according to Stokes second order theory. The main objective of the present study is to validate the numerical model against existing experimental data. It shows a good matching with the existing experimental data of floater displacement. Later the model is exploited to estimate energy extraction due to the movement of such a point absorber in real sea conditions. Scale down the wave properties like wave height, wave length, etc. are used as input parameters. Seasonal variations are also considered.

Keywords: OpenFOAM, numerical wave tank, regular waves, floating object, point absorber

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8133 Power Production Performance of Different Wave Energy Converters in the Southwestern Black Sea

Authors: Ajab G. Majidi, Bilal Bingölbali, Adem Akpınar


This study aims to investigate the amount of energy (economic wave energy potential) that can be obtained from the existing wave energy converters in the high wave energy potential region of the Black Sea in terms of wave energy potential and their performance at different depths in the region. The data needed for this purpose were obtained using the calibrated nested layered SWAN wave modeling program version 41.01AB, which was forced with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) winds from 1979 to 2009. The wave dataset at a time interval of 2 hours was accumulated for a sub-grid domain for around Karaburun beach in Arnavutkoy, a district of Istanbul city. The annual sea state characteristic matrices for the five different depths along with a vertical line to the coastline were calculated for 31 years. According to the power matrices of different wave energy converter systems and characteristic matrices for each possible installation depth, the probability distribution tables of the specified mean wave period or wave energy period and significant wave height were calculated. Then, by using the relationship between these distribution tables, according to the present wave climate, the energy that the wave energy converter systems at each depth can produce was determined. Thus, the economically feasible potential of the relevant coastal zone was revealed, and the effect of different depths on energy converter systems is presented. The Oceantic at 50, 75 and 100 m depths and Oyster at 5 and 25 m depths presents the best performance. In the 31-year long period 1998 the most and 1989 is the least dynamic year.

Keywords: annual power production, Black Sea, efficiency, power production performance, wave energy converter

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8132 All Optical Wavelength Conversion Based On Four Wave Mixing in Optical Fiber

Authors: Surinder Singh, Gursewak Singh Lovkesh


We have designed wavelength conversion based on four wave mixing in an optical fiber at 10 Gb/s. The power of converted signal increases with increase in signal power. The converted signal power is investigated as a function of input signal power and pump power. On comparison of converted signal power at different value of input signal power, we observe that best converted signal power is obtained at -2 dBm input signal power for both up conversion as well as for down conversion. Further, FWM efficiency, quality factor is observed for increase in input signal power and optical fiber length.

Keywords: FWM, optical fiiber, wavelngth converter, quality

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8131 Electrodynamic Principles for Generation and Wireless Transfer of Energy

Authors: Steven D. P. Moore


An electrical discharge in the air induces an electromagnetic (EM) wave capable of wireless transfer, reception, and conversion back into electrical discharge at a distant location. Following Norton’s ground wave principles, EM wave radiation (EMR) runs parallel to the Earth’s surface. Energy in an EMR wave can move through the air and be focused to create a spark at a distant location, focused by a receiver to generate a local electrical discharge. This local discharge can be amplified and stored but also has the propensity to initiate another EMR wave. In addition to typical EM waves, lightning is also associated with atmospheric events, trans-ionospheric pulse pairs, the most powerful natural EMR signal on the planet. With each lightning strike, regardless of global position, it generates naturally occurring pulse-pairs that are emitted towards space within a narrow cone. An EMR wave can self-propagate, travel at the speed of light, and, if polarized, contain vector properties. If this reflective pulse could be directed by design through structures that have increased probabilities for lighting strikes, it could theoretically travel near the surface of the Earth at light speed towards a selected receiver for local transformation into electrical energy. Through research, there are several influencing parameters that could be modified to model, test, and increase the potential for adopting this technology towards the goal of developing a global grid that utilizes natural sources of energy.

Keywords: electricity, sparkgap, wireless, electromagnetic

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8130 Energy Recovery from Swell with a Height Inferior to 1.5 m

Authors: A. Errasti, F. Doffagne, O. Foucrier, S. Kao, A. Meigne, H. Pellae, T. Rouland


Renewable energy recovery is an important domain of research in past few years in view of protection of our ecosystem. Several industrial companies are setting up widespread recovery systems to exploit wave energy. Most of them have a large size, are implanted near the shores and exploit current flows. However, as oceans represent 70% of Earth surface, a huge space is still unexploited to produce energy. Present analysis focuses on surface small scale wave energy recovery. The principle is exactly the opposite of wheel damper for a car on a road. Instead of maintaining the car body as non-oscillatory as possible by adapted control, a system is designed so that its oscillation amplitude under wave action will be maximized with respect to a boat carrying it in view of differential potential energy recuperation. From parametric analysis of system equations, interesting domains have been selected and expected energy output has been evaluated.

Keywords: small scale wave, potential energy, optimized energy recovery, auto-adaptive system

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8129 1D PIC Simulation of Cold Plasma Electrostatic Waves beyond Wave-Breaking Limit

Authors: Prabal Singh Verma


Electrostatic Waves in plasma have emerged as a new source for the acceleration of charged particles. The accelerated particles have a wide range of applications, for example in cancer therapy to cutting and melting of hard materials. The maximum acceleration can only be achieved when the amplitude of the plasma wave stays below a critical limit known as wave-breaking amplitude. Beyond this limit amplitude of the wave diminishes dramatically as the coherent energy of the wave starts to convert into random kinetic energy. In this work, spatiotemporal evolution of non-relativistic electrostatic waves in a cold plasma has been studied in the wave-breaking regime using a 1D particle-in-cell simulation (PIC). It is found that plasma gets heated after the wave-breaking but a fraction of initial energy always remains with the remnant wave in the form of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) mode in warm plasma. Another interesting finding of this work is that the frequency of the resultant BGK wave is found be below electron plasma frequency which decreases with increasing initial amplitude and the acceleration mechanism after the wave-breaking is also found to be different from the previous work. In order to explain the results observed in the numerical experiments, a simplified theoretical model is constructed which exhibits a good agreement with the simulation. In conclusion, it is shown in this work that electrostatic waves get shower after the wave-breaking and a fraction of initial coherent energy always remains with remnant wave. These investigations have direct relevance in wakefield acceleration experiments.

Keywords: nonlinear plasma waves, longitudinal, wave-breaking, wake-field acceleration

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8128 Advancement of Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Technologies through Integrated Applications and Alternative Systems

Authors: S. Doyle, G. A. Aggidis


Wave energy converter technologies continue to show good progress in worldwide research. One of the most researched technologies, the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), is arguably one of the most popular categories within the converter technologies due to its robustness, simplicity and versatility. However, the versatility of the OWC is still largely untapped with most deployments following similar trends with respect to applications and operating systems. As the competitiveness of the energy market continues to increase, the demand for wave energy technologies to be innovative also increases. For existing wave energy technologies, this requires identifying areas to diversify for lower costs of energy with respect to applications and synergies or integrated systems. This paper provides a review of all OWCs systems integrated into alternative applications in the past and present. The aspects and variation in their design, deployment and system operation are discussed. Particular focus is given to the Multi-OWCs (M-OWCs) and their great potential to increase capture on a larger scale, especially in synergy applications. It is made clear that these steps need to be taken in order to make wave energy a competitive and viable option in the renewable energy mix as progression to date shows that stand alone single function devices are not economical. Findings reveal that the trend of development is moving toward these integrated applications in order to reduce the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) and will ultimately continue in this direction in efforts to make wave energy a competitive option in the renewable energy mix.

Keywords: wave energy converter, oscillating water column, ocean energy, renewable energy

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8127 Wave Interaction with Single and Twin Vertical and Sloped Porous Walls

Authors: Mohamad Alkhalidi, S. Neelamani, Noor Alanjari


The main purpose of harbors and marinas is to create a calm and safe docking space for marine vessels. Standard rubble mound breakwaters, although widely used, occupy port space and require large amounts of stones or rocks. Kuwait does not have good quality stone, so they are imported at a very high cost. Therefore, there is a need for a new wave energy dissipating structure where stones and rocks are scarce. While permeable slotted vertical walls have been proved to be a suitable alternative to rubble mound breakwaters, the introduction of sloped slotted walls may be more efficient in dissipating wave energy. For example, two slotted barriers with 60degree inclination may be equivalent to three vertical slotted barriers from wave energy dissipation point of view. A detailed physical model study is carried out to determine the effects of slope angle, porosity, and a number of walls on wave energy dissipation for a wide range of random and regular waves. The results of this study can be used to improve and optimize energy dissipation and reduce construction cost.

Keywords: porosity, slope, wave reflection, wave transmission

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8126 An Electromechanical Device to Use in Road Pavements to Convert Vehicles Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy

Authors: Francisco Duarte, Adelino Ferreira, Paulo Fael


With the growing need for alternative energy sources, research into energy harvesting technologies has increased considerably in recent years. The particular case of energy harvesting on road pavements is a very recent area of research, with different technologies having been developed in recent years. However, none of them have presented high conversion efficiencies nor technical or economic viability. This paper deals with the development of a mechanical system to implement on a road pavement energy harvesting electromechanical device, to transmit energy from the device surface to an electrical generator. The main goal is to quantify the energy harvesting, transmission and conversion efficiency of the proposed system and compare it with existing systems. Conclusions about the system’s efficiency are presented.

Keywords: road pavement, energy harvesting, energy conversion, system modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
8125 Influence Analysis of Pelamis Wave Energy Converter Structure Parameters

Authors: Liu Shengnan, Sun Liping, Zhu Jianxun


Based on three dimensional potential flow theory and hinged rigid body motion equations, structure RAOs of Pelamis wave energy converter is analyzed. Analysis of numerical simulation is carried out on Pelamis in the irregular wave conditions, and the motion response of structures and total generated power is obtained. The paper analyzes influencing factors on the average power including diameter of floating body, section form of floating body, draft, hinged stiffness and damping. The optimum parameters are achieved in Zhejiang Province. Compared with the results of the pelamis experiment made by Glasgow University, the method applied in this paper is feasible.

Keywords: Pelamis, hinge, floating multibody, wave energy

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8124 Solar Wind Turbulence and the Role of Circularly Polarized Dispersive Alfvén Wave

Authors: Swati Sharma, R. P. Sharma


We intend to study the nonlinear evolution of the parallel propagating finite frequency Alfvén wave (also called Dispersive Alfvén wave/Hall MHD wave) propagating in the solar wind regime of the solar region when a perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave is present in the background. The finite frequency Alfvén wave behaves differently from the usual non-dispersive behavior of the Alfvén wave. To study the nonlinear processes (such as filamentation) taking place in the solar regions such as solar wind, the dynamical equation of both the waves are derived. Numerical simulation involving finite difference method for the time domain and pseudo spectral method for the spatial domain is then performed to analyze the transient evolution of these waves. The power spectra of the Dispersive Alfvén wave is also investigated. The power spectra shows the distribution of the magnetic field intensity of the Dispersive Alfvén wave over different wave numbers. For DAW the spectra shows a steepening for scales larger than the proton inertial length. This means that the wave energy gets transferred to the solar wind particles as the wave reaches higher wave numbers. This steepening of the power spectra can be explained on account of the finite frequency of the Alfvén wave. The obtained results are consistent with the observations made by CLUSTER spacecraft.

Keywords: solar wind, turbulence, dispersive alfven wave

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8123 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Single and Twin Offshore Rubble Mound Breakwaters under Regular and Random Waves

Authors: M. Alkhalidi, S. Neelamani, Z. Al-Zaqah


This paper investigates the interaction of single and twin offshore rubble mound breakwaters with regular and random water waves through physical modeling to assess their reflection, transmission and energy dissipation characteristics. Various combinations of wave heights and wave periods were utilized in a series of experiments, along with three different water depths. The single and twin permeable breakwater models were both constructed with one layer of rubbles. Both models had the same total volume; however, the single breakwater was of trapezoidal type while the twin breakwaters were of triangular type. Physical modeling experiments were carried out in the wave flume of the coastal engineering laboratory of Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). Measurements of the six wave probes which were fixed in the two-dimensional wave flume were collected and used to determine the generated incident wave heights, as well as the reflected and transmitted wave heights resulting from the wave-breakwater interaction. The possible factors affecting the wave attenuation efficiency of the breakwater models are the relative water depth (d/L), wave steepness (H/L), relative wave height ((h-d)/Hi), relative height of the breakwater (h/d), and relative clear spacing between the twin breakwaters (S/h). The results indicated that the single and double breakwaters show different responds to the change in their relative height as well as the relative wave height which demonstrates that the effect of the relative water depth on wave reflection, transmission, and energy dissipation is highly influenced by the change in the relative breakwater height, the relative wave height and the relative breakwater spacing. In general, within the range of the relative water depth tested in this study, and under both regular and random waves, it is found that the single breakwater allows for lower wave transmission and shows higher energy dissipation effect than both of the tested twin breakwaters, and hence has the best overall performance.

Keywords: random waves, regular waves, relative water depth, relative wave height, single breakwater, twin breakwater, wave steepness

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8122 Energy Content and Spectral Energy Representation of Wave Propagation in a Granular Chain

Authors: Rohit Shrivastava, Stefan Luding


A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Studying the energy as well as spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting) or non-destructive testing for the study of internal structure of solids. The study of Energy content (Kinetic, Potential and Total Energy) of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain can assist in understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder as a function of propagation distance. The spectral analysis of the energy signal can assist in understanding dispersion as well as attenuation due to scattering in different frequencies (scattering attenuation). The selection of one-dimensional granular chain also helps in studying only the P-wave attributes of the wave and removing the influence of shear or rotational waves. Granular chains with different mass distributions have been studied, by randomly selecting masses from normal, binary and uniform distributions and the standard deviation of the distribution is considered as the disorder parameter, higher standard deviation means higher disorder and lower standard deviation means lower disorder. For obtaining macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used. Interpreting information from a Total Energy signal turned out to be much easier in comparison to displacement, velocity or acceleration signals of the wave, hence, indicating a better analysis method for wave propagation through granular materials. Increasing disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal and decreases the Energy of higher frequency signals transmitted, but at the same time the energy of spatially localized high frequencies also increases. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long periods of time.

Keywords: discrete elements, energy attenuation, mass disorder, granular chain, spectral energy, wave propagation

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8121 Rare-Earth Ions Doped Zirconium Oxide Layers for Optical and Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Sylwia Gieraltowska, Lukasz Wachnicki, Bartlomiej S. Witkowski, Marek Godlewski


Oxide layers doped with rare-earth (RE) ions in optimized way can absorb short (ultraviolet light), which will be converted to visible light by so-called down-conversion. Down-conversion mechanisms are usually exploited to modify the incident solar spectrum. In down conversion, multiple low-energy photons are generated to exploit the energy of one incident high-energy photon. These RE-doped oxide materials have attracted a great deal of attention from researchers because of their potential for optical manipulation in optical devices (detectors, temperature sensors, and compact solid-state lasers, light-emitting diodes), bio-analysis, medical therapy, display technologies, and light harvesting (such as in photovoltaic cells). The zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) doped RE ions (Eu, Tb, Ce) multilayer structures were tested as active layers, which can convert short wave emission to light in the visible range (the down-conversion mechanism). For these applications original approach of deposition ZrO2 layers using the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method and doping these layers with RE ions using the spin-coating technique was used. ALD films are deposited at relatively low temperature (well below 250°C). This can be an effective method to achieve the white-light emission and to improve on this way light conversion efficiency, by an extension of absorbed spectral range by a solar cell material. Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurement are analyzed. The research was financially supported by the National Science Centre (decision No. DEC-2012/06/A/ST7/00398 and DEC- 2013/09/N/ST5/00901).

Keywords: ALD, oxide layers, photovoltaics, thin films

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8120 Water Heating System with Solar Energy from Solar Panel as Absorber to Reduce the Reduction of Efficiency Solar Panel Use

Authors: Mas Aji Rizki Widjayanto, Rizka Yunita


The building which has an efficient and low-energy today followed by the developers. It’s not because trends on the building nowaday, but rather because of its positive effects in the long term, where the cost of energy per month to be much cheaper, along with the high price of electricity. The use of solar power (Photovoltaic System) becomes one source of electrical energy for the apartment so that will efficiently use energy, water, and other resources in the operations of the apartment. However, more than 80% of the solar radiation is not converted into electrical energy, but reflected and converted into heat energy. This causes an increase on the working temperature of solar panels and consequently decrease the efficiency of conversion to electrical energy. The high temperature solar panels work caused by solar radiation can be used as medium heat exchanger or heating water for the apartments, so that the working temperature of the solar panel can be lowered to reduce the reduction on the efficiency of conversion to electrical energy.

Keywords: photovoltaic system, efficient, heat energy, heat exchanger, efficiency of conversion

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8119 Feasibility Study of Tidal Current of the Bay of Bengal to Generate Electricity as a Renewable Energy

Authors: Myisha Ahmad, G. M. Jahid Hasan


Electricity is the pinnacle of human civilization. At present, the growing concerns over significant climate change have intensified the importance of the use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation. The interest is primarily due to better energy security, smaller environmental impact and providing a sustainable alternative compared to the conventional energy sources. Solar power, wind, biomass, tidal power, and wave power are some of the most reliable sources of renewable energy. Ocean approximately holds 2×10³ TW of energy and has the largest renewable energy resource on the planet. Ocean energy has many forms namely, encompassing tides, ocean circulation, surface waves, salinity and thermal gradients. Ocean tide in particular, associates both potential and kinetic energy. The study is focused on the latter concept that deals with tidal current energy conversion technologies. Tidal streams or marine currents generate kinetic energy that can be extracted by marine current energy devices and converted into transmittable energy form. The principle of technology development is very comparable to that of wind turbines. Conversion of marine tidal resources into substantial electrical power offers immense opportunities to countries endowed with such resources and this work is aimed at addressing such prospects of Bangladesh. The study analyzed the extracted current velocities from numerical model works at several locations in the Bay of Bengal. Based on current magnitudes, directions and available technologies the most fitted locations were adopted and possible annual generation capacity was estimated. The paper also examines the future prospects of tidal current energy along the Bay of Bengal and establishes a constructive approach that could be adopted in future project developments.

Keywords: bay of Bengal, energy potential, renewable energy, tidal current

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8118 Drift-Wave Turbulence in a Tokamak Edge Plasma

Authors: S. Belgherras Bekkouche, T. Benouaz, S. M. A. Bekkouche


Tokamak plasma is far from having a stable background. The study of turbulent transport is an important part of the current research and advanced scenarios were devised to minimize it. To do this, we used a three-wave interaction model which allows to investigate the occurrence drift-wave turbulence driven by pressure gradients in the edge plasma of a tokamak. In order to simulate the energy redistribution among different modes, the growth/decay rates for the three waves was added. After a numerical simulation, we can determine certain aspects of the temporal dynamics exhibited by the model. Indeed for a wide range of the wave decay rate, an intermittent transition from periodic behavior to chaos is observed. Then, a control strategy of chaos was introduced with the aim of reducing or eliminating the weak turbulence.

Keywords: wave interaction, plasma drift waves, wave turbulence, tokamak, edge plasma, chaos

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8117 Energy Options and Environmental Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Utilization Pathways

Authors: Evar C. Umeozor, Experience I. Nduagu, Ian D. Gates


The energy requirements of carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) technologies/processes are diverse, so also are their environmental footprints. This paper explores the energy and environmental impacts of systems for CO₂ conversion to fuels, chemicals, and materials. Energy needs of the technologies and processes deployable in CO₂ conversion systems are met by one or combinations of hydrogen (chemical), electricity, heat, and light. Likewise, the environmental footprint of any CO₂ utilization pathway depends on the systems involved. So far, evaluation of CDU systems has been constrained to particular energy source/type or a subset of the overall system needed to make CDU possible. This introduces limitations to the general understanding of the energy and environmental implications of CDU, which has led to various pitfalls in past studies. A CDU system has an energy source, CO₂ supply, and conversion units. We apply a holistic approach to consider the impacts of all components in the process, including various sources of energy, CO₂ feedstock, and conversion technologies. The electricity sources include nuclear power, renewables (wind and solar PV), gas turbine, and coal. Heat is supplied from either electricity or natural gas, and hydrogen is produced from either steam methane reforming or electrolysis. The CO₂ capture unit uses either direct air capture or post-combustion capture via amine scrubbing, where applicable, integrated configurations of the CDU system are explored. We demonstrate how the overall energy and environmental impacts of each utilization pathway are obtained by aggregating the values for all components involved. Proper accounting of the energy and emission intensities of CDU must incorporate total balances for the utilization process and differences in timescales between alternative conversion pathways. Our results highlight opportunities for the use of clean energy sources, direct air capture, and a number of promising CO₂ conversion pathways for producing methanol, ethanol, synfuel, urea, and polymer materials.

Keywords: carbon dioxide utilization, processes, energy options, environmental impacts

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8116 Catalytic Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Storage

Authors: Yijin Kang


Chemical-electrical energy conversion and storage are greatly attractive for the development of sustainable energy. Catalytic processes are heavily involved in such energy conversion and storage. Development of high-performance catalyst nanomaterials relies on tuning material structures at nanoscale. This is in particular manifested in the design of catalysts demanding both high activity and durability. Here, a research system will be presented that connects fundamental investigation on well-defined extended surfaces (e.g. single crystal surfaces), extrapolation onto nanocrystals with highly controlled shape and size, exploration of interfacial interaction using novel nanocrystal superlattices as platform, and finally design of high performance catalysts in which all the possible beneficial properties from complex functional structures are implemented. Using recently published results, it will be demonstrated that optimal and fine balanced activity and durability, as well as tunable functionality, can be achieved by carefully tailoring the nanostructure of catalytic nanomaterials.

Keywords: energy, nanomaterials, catalysis, electrocatalysis

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8115 Effects of Peakedness of Bimodal Waves on Overtopping of Sloping Seawalls

Authors: Stephen Orimoloye, Jose Horrillo-Caraballo, Harshinie Karunarathna, Dominic E. Reeve


Prediction of wave overtopping is an essential component of coastal seawall designing and management. Not only that excessive overtopping is reported for impermeable seawalls under bimodal waves, but overtopping is also showing a high sensitivity to the peakedness of the random wave propagation patterns. In the present study, we present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of peakedness of bimodal wave patterns of the overtopping of sloping seawalls. An energy-conserved bimodal spectrum with four different spectra peak periods and swell percentages was applied to estimate wave overtopping in both numerical and experimental flumes. Results of incident surface elevations and bimodal spectra were accurately captured across the flume domain using sets of well-positioned resistant-type wave gauges. Peakedness characteristics of the wave patterns were extracted to derive a relationship between the non-dimensional overtopping and the peakedness across the wave groups in the wave series. The full paper will briefly describe the development of the spectrum and present a comprehensive results analysis leading to the derivation of the relationship between dimensionless overtopping and peakedness of bimodal waves.

Keywords: wave overtopping, peakedness, bimodal waves, swell percentages

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8114 Independent Village Planning Based Eco Village and Save Energy in Region of Maritime Tourism

Authors: Muhamad Rasyid Angkotasan


Eco-village is an ecosystem where the countryside or urban communities that are inside trying to integrate the social environment with low impact way of life to achieve this, they integrate the various aspects of ecological design, agriculture permanent, ecological building and the alternative energy. Eco-village in question is eco-village conducted on of marine tourism areas, where natural resources are very good, without ignoring the global issue of climate change. Desperately needed a source of energy, which can support the fulfillment of energy needs in a sustainable. Fulfillment of energy sources that offer is the use or application of environmentally friendly technologies of usage is still very low in Indonesia, the technology namely the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), OTEC is expected to be a source of the alternative energy, which can support the goal of eco-village of the region's of marine tourism.

Keywords: eco village, saving energy, ocean thermal energy conversion, environmental engineering

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