Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 230

Search results for: rip currents

230 Velocity Distribution in Density Currents Flowing over Rough Beds

Authors: Reza Nasrollahpour, Mohamad Hidayat Bin Jamal, Zulhilmi Bin Ismail


Density currents are generated when the fluid of one density is released into another fluid with a different density. These currents occur in a variety of natural and man-made environments, and this emphasises the importance of studying them. In most practical cases, the density currents flow over the surfaces which are not plane; however, there have been limited investigations in this regard. This study uses laboratory experiments to analyse the influence of bottom roughness on the velocity distribution within these dense underflows. The currents are analysed over a plane surface and three different configurations of beam-roughened beds. The velocity profiles are collected using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry technique, and the distribution of velocity within these currents is formulated for the tested beds. The results indicate that the empirical power and Gaussian relations can describe the velocity distribution in the inner and outer regions of the profiles, respectively. Moreover, it is found that the bottom roughness is the primary controlling parameter in the inner region.

Keywords: density currents, velocity profiles, Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, bed roughness

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229 Turbulence Modeling and Wave-Current Interactions

Authors: A. C. Bennis, F. Dumas, F. Ardhuin, B. Blanke


The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high-resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

Keywords: numerical modeling, wave-current interactions, turbulence modeling, rip currents

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228 Computation of Induction Currents in a Set of Dendrites

Authors: R. B. Mishra, Sudhakar Tripathi


In this paper, the cable model of dendrites have been considered. The dendrites are cylindrical cables of various segments having variable length and reducing radius from start point at synapse and end points. For a particular event signal being received by a neuron in response only some dendrite are active at a particular instance. Initial current signals with different current flows in dendrite are assumed. Due to overlapping and coupling of active dendrite, they induce currents in the dendrite segments of each other at a particular instance. But how these currents are induced in the various segments of active dendrites due to coupling between these dendrites, It is not presented in the literature. Here the paper presents a model for induced currents in active dendrite segments due to mutual coupling at the starting instance of an activity in dendrite. The model is as discussed further.

Keywords: currents, dendrites, induction, simulation

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227 IT Systems of the US Federal Courts, Justice, and Governance

Authors: Joseph Zernik


The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high-resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

Keywords: e-justice, federal courts, human rights, banking regulation, United States

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
226 Diagnosis of Static Eccentricity in 400 kW Induction Machine Based on the Analysis of Stator Currents

Authors: Saleh Elawgali


Current spectrums of a four pole-pair, 400 kW induction machine were calculated for the cases of full symmetry and static eccentricity. The calculations involve integration of 93 electrical plus four mechanical ordinary differential equations. Electrical equations account for variable inductances affected by slotting and eccentricities. The calculations were followed by Fourier analysis of the stator currents in steady state operation. Zooms of the current spectrums, around the 50 Hz fundamental harmonic as well as of the main slot harmonic zone, were included. The spectrums included refer to both calculated and measured currents.

Keywords: diagnostic, harmonic, induction machine, spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
225 Investigation of Beam Defocusing Impact in Millisecond Laser Drilling for Variable Operational Currents

Authors: Saad Nawaz, Yu Gang, Baber Saeed Olakh, M. Bilal Awan


Owing to its exceptional performance and precision, laser drilling is being widely used in modern manufacturing industries. This experimental study mainly addressed the defocusing of laser beam along with different operational currents. The performance has been evaluated in terms of tapering phenomena, entrance and exit diameters etc. The operational currents have direct influence on laser power which ultimately affected the shape of the drilled hole. Different operational currents in low, medium and high ranges are used for laser drilling of 18CrNi8. Experiment results have depicted that there is an increase in entrance diameter with an increase in defocusing distance. However, the exit diameter first decreases and then increases with respect to increasing defocusing length. The evolution of drilled hole from tapered to straight hole has been explained with defocusing at different levels. The optimum parametric combinations for attaining perfect shape of drilled hole is proposed along with lower heat treatment effects for higher process efficiency.

Keywords: millisecond laser, defocusing beam, operational current, keyhole profile, recast layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
224 Comparison of FASTMAP and B0 Field Map Shimming for 4T MRI

Authors: Mohan L. Jayatiake, Judd Storrs, Jing-Huei Lee


The optimal MRI resolution relies on a homogeneous magnetic field. However, local susceptibility variations can lead to field inhomogeneities that cause artifacts such as image distortion and signal loss. The effects of local susceptibility variation notoriously increase with magnetic field strength. Active shimming improves homogeneity by applying corrective fields generated from shim coils, but requires calculation of optimal current for each shim coil. FASTMAP (fast automatic shimming technique by mapping along projections) is an effective technique for finding optimal currents works well at high-field, but is restricted to shimming spherical regions of interest. The 3D gradient-echo pulse sequence was modified to reduce sensitivity to eddy currents and used to obtain susceptibility field maps at 4T. Measured fields were projected onto first-and second-order spherical harmonic functions corresponding to shim hardware. A spherical phantom was used to calibrate the shim currents. Susceptibility maps of a volunteer’s brain with and without FASTMAP shimming were obtained. Simulations indicate that optimal shim currents derived from the field map may provide better overall shimming of the human brain.

Keywords: shimming, high-field, active, passive

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223 Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani


Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.

Keywords: swell, current, radiation, stress, mesh, mike21, sediment

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222 Study of the Persian Gulf’s and Oman Sea’s Numerical Tidal Currents

Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Sharifi


In this research, a barotropic model was employed to consider the tidal studies in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, where the only sufficient force was the tidal force. To do that, a finite-difference, free-surface model called Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), was employed on the data over the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. To analyze flow patterns of the region, the results of limited size model of The Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) were appropriated. The two points were determined since both are one of the most critical water body in case of the economy, biology, fishery, Shipping, navigation, and petroleum extraction. The OSU Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS) tide and observation data validated the modeled result. Next, tidal elevation and speed, and tidal analysis were interpreted. Preliminary results determine a significant accuracy in the tidal height compared with observation and OTPS data, declaring that tidal currents are highest in Hormuz Strait and the narrow and shallow region between Iranian coasts and Islands. Furthermore, tidal analysis clarifies that the M_2 component has the most significant value. Finally, the Persian Gulf tidal currents are divided into two branches: the first branch converts from south to Qatar and via United Arab Emirate rotates to Hormuz Strait. The secondary branch, in north and west, extends up to the highest point in the Persian Gulf and in the head of Gulf turns counterclockwise.

Keywords: numerical model, barotropic tide, tidal currents, OSU tidal prediction software, OTPS

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221 A Numerical Study of the Tidal Currents in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Sharifi, A. A. Bidokhti, M. Ezam, F. Ahmadi Givi


This study focuses on the tidal oscillation and its speed to create a general pattern in seas. The purpose of the analysis is to find out the amplitude and phase for several important tidal components. Therefore, Regional Ocean Models (ROMS) was rendered to consider the correlation and accuracy of this pattern. Finding tidal harmonic components allows us to predict tide at this region. Better prediction of these tides, making standard platform, making suitable wave breakers, helping coastal building, navigation, fisheries, port management and tsunami research. Result shows a fair accuracy in the SSH. It reveals tidal currents are highest in Hormuz Strait and the narrow and shallow region between Kish Island. To investigate flow patterns of the region, the results of limited size model of FVCOM were utilized. Many features of the present day view of ocean circulation have some precedent in tidal and long- wave studies. Tidal waves are categorized to be among the long waves. So that tidal currents studies have indeed effects in subsequent studies of sea and ocean circulations.

Keywords: barotropic tide, FVCOM, numerical model, OTPS, ROMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
220 Investigation of Grid Supply Harmonic Effects in Wound Rotor Induction Machines

Authors: Nur Sarma, Paul M. Tuohy, Siniša Djurović


This paper presents an in-depth investigation of the effects of several grid supply harmonic voltages on the stator currents of an example wound rotor induction machine. The observed effects of higher order grid supply harmonics are identified using a finite element time stepping transient model, as well as a time-stepping electromagnetic model. In addition, a number of analytical equations to calculate the spectral content of the stator currents are presented in the paper. The presented equations are validated through comparison with the obtained spectra predicted using the finite element and electromagnetic models. The presented study provides a better understanding of the origin of supply harmonic effects identified in the stator currents of the example wound rotor induction machine. Furthermore, the study helps to understand the effects of higher order supply harmonics on the harmonic emissions of the wound rotor induction machine.  

Keywords: wound rotor induction machine, supply harmonics, current spectrum, power spectrum, power quality, harmonic emmisions, finite element analysis

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219 A Novel Idea to Benefit of the Load Side’s Harmonics

Authors: Hussein Al-bayaty


This paper presents a novel idea to show the ability to benefit of the harmonic currents which are produced on the load side of the power grid. The proposed circuit contributes in reduction of the total harmonic distortion (THD) percentage through adding a high pass filter to draw harmonic currents with 150 Hz and multiple frequencies a and convert them to DC current and then reconvert it to AC current with 50 Hz frequency in order to feed different loads. The circuit has been designed, investigated and simulated in the MATLAB, Simulink program; the results will be assessed and compared the two cases: firstly, the system without adding the new circuit. Secondly, with adding the high pas filter circuit to the power system.

Keywords: harmonics elimination, passive filters, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), filter circuit

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218 An Implementation Direct Torque Control Strategy of Induction Machine Using DSPACE TMS 320F2812

Authors: Hamid Chaikhy, Mouna Essaadi, Aziz El Afia


This paper presents an experimental implementation of a new direct torque control strategy of induction machine called twelve sectors direct torque control strategy (12_DTC) using DSPACE TMS 320F2812.The aim of this work is to give an experimental performance analysis of 12_DTC in term of torque, currents distortions and stator flux, to validate simulation results obtained in previous works.

Keywords: 12_DTC, DSPACE TMS 320F2812 torque, stator flux, currents distortions, experimental performance analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
217 Transient Current Investigations in Liquid Crystalline Polyurethane

Authors: Jitendra Kumar Quamara, Sohan Lal, Pushkar Raj


Electrical conduction behavior of liquid crystalline polyurethane (LCPU) has been investigated under transient conditions in the operating temperature range 50-220°C at various electric fields of 4.35-43.45 kV/cm. The transient currents show the hyperbolic decay character and the decay exponent ∆t (one tenth decay time) dependent on field as well as on temperature. The increase in I0/Is values (where I0 represents the current observed immediately after applying the voltage and Is represents the steady state current) and the variation of mobility at high operating temperatures shows the appearance of mesophase. The origin of transient currents has been attributed to the dipolar nature of carbonyl (C=O) groups in the main chain of LCPU and the trapping charge carriers.

Keywords: electrical conduction, transient current, liquid crystalline polymers, mesophase

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216 Open-Loop Vector Control of Induction Motor with Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique

Authors: Karchung, S. Ruangsinchaiwanich


This paper presents open-loop vector control method of induction motor with space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique. Normally, the closed loop speed control is preferred and is believed to be more accurate. However, it requires a position sensor to track the rotor position which is not desirable to use it for certain workspace applications. This paper exhibits the performance of three-phase induction motor with the simplest control algorithm without the use of a position sensor nor an estimation block to estimate rotor position for sensorless control. The motor stator currents are measured and are transformed to synchronously rotating (d-q-axis) frame by use of Clarke and Park transformation. The actual control happens in this frame where the measured currents are compared with the reference currents. The error signal is fed to a conventional PI controller, and the corrected d-q voltage is generated. The controller outputs are transformed back to three phase voltages and are fed to SVPWM block which generates PWM signal for the voltage source inverter. The open loop vector control model along with SVPWM algorithm is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink software and is experimented and validated in TMS320F28335 DSP board.

Keywords: electric drive, induction motor, open-loop vector control, space vector pulse width modulation technique

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215 Simulation and Analytical Investigation of Different Combination of Single Phase Power Transformers

Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır


In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the ideal single-phase power transformer with its appropriate voltage current measurement was presented. The calculated values of the voltages and currents of the different connections single phase normal transformer and the results of the simulation process are compared. As it can be seen, the calculated results are the same as the simulated results. This paper includes eight possible different transformer connections. Depending on the desired voltage level, step-down and step-up application transformer is considered. Modelling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer (primary and secondary), and loads are performed to investigate the combinations. The obtained values are simulated in PSpice environment and then how the currents, voltages and phase angle are distributed between them is explained based on calculation.

Keywords: transformer, simulation, equivalent model, parallel series combinations

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214 Electron Beam Effects on Kinetic Alfven Waves in the Cold Homogenous Plasma

Authors: Jaya Shrivastava


The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, growth/damping rate and associated currents in the presence of electron beam in homogenous plasma. Kinetic effects of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. The plasma parameters appropriate to plasma sheet boundary layer are used. It is found that downward electron beam affects the dispersion relation, growth/damping-rate and associated currents in cold electron limit.

Keywords: magnetospheric physics, plasma waves and instabilities, electron beam, space plasma physics, wave-particle interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
213 Voltage Profile Enhancement in the Unbalanced Distribution Systems during Fault Conditions

Authors: K. Jithendra Gowd, Ch. Sai Babu, S. Sivanagaraju


Electric power systems are daily exposed to service interruption mainly due to faults and human accidental interference. Short circuit currents are responsible for several types of disturbances in power systems. The fault currents are high and the voltages are reduced at the time of fault. This paper presents two suitable methods, consideration of fault resistance and Distributed Generator are implemented and analyzed for the enhancement of voltage profile during fault conditions. Fault resistance is a critical parameter of electric power systems operation due to its stochastic nature. If not considered, this parameter may interfere in fault analysis studies and protection scheme efficiency. The effect of Distributed Generator is also considered. The proposed methods are tested on the IEEE 37 bus test systems and the results are compared.

Keywords: distributed generation, electrical distribution systems, fault resistance

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212 A Double Ended AC Series Arc Fault Location Algorithm Based on Currents Estimation and a Fault Map Trace Generation

Authors: Edwin Calderon-Mendoza, Patrick Schweitzer, Serge Weber


Series arc faults appear frequently and unpredictably in low voltage distribution systems. Many methods have been developed to detect this type of faults and commercial protection systems such AFCI (arc fault circuit interrupter) have been used successfully in electrical networks to prevent damage and catastrophic incidents like fires. However, these devices do not allow series arc faults to be located on the line in operating mode. This paper presents a location algorithm for series arc fault in a low-voltage indoor power line in an AC 230 V-50Hz home network. The method is validated through simulations using the MATLAB software. The fault location method uses electrical parameters (resistance, inductance, capacitance, and conductance) of a 49 m indoor power line. The mathematical model of a series arc fault is based on the analysis of the V-I characteristics of the arc and consists basically of two antiparallel diodes and DC voltage sources. In a first step, the arc fault model is inserted at some different positions across the line which is modeled using lumped parameters. At both ends of the line, currents and voltages are recorded for each arc fault generation at different distances. In the second step, a fault map trace is created by using signature coefficients obtained from Kirchhoff equations which allow a virtual decoupling of the line’s mutual capacitance. Each signature coefficient obtained from the subtraction of estimated currents is calculated taking into account the Discrete Fast Fourier Transform of currents and voltages and also the fault distance value. These parameters are then substituted into Kirchhoff equations. In a third step, the same procedure described previously to calculate signature coefficients is employed but this time by considering hypothetical fault distances where the fault can appear. In this step the fault distance is unknown. The iterative calculus from Kirchhoff equations considering stepped variations of the fault distance entails the obtaining of a curve with a linear trend. Finally, the fault distance location is estimated at the intersection of two curves obtained in steps 2 and 3. The series arc fault model is validated by comparing current registered from simulation with real recorded currents. The model of the complete circuit is obtained for a 49m line with a resistive load. Also, 11 different arc fault positions are considered for the map trace generation. By carrying out the complete simulation, the performance of the method and the perspectives of the work will be presented.

Keywords: indoor power line, fault location, fault map trace, series arc fault

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211 Artificial Neural Networks Controller for Active Power Filter Connected to a Photovoltaic Array

Authors: Rachid Dehini, Brahim Berbaoui


The main objectives of shunt active power filter (SAPF) is to preserve the power system from unwanted harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads, as well as to compensate the reactive power. The aim of this paper is to present a (PAPF) supplied by the Photovoltaic cells ,in such a way that the (PAPF) feeds the linear and nonlinear loads by harmonics currents and the excess of the energy is injected into the power system. In order to improve the performances of conventional (PAPF) This paper also proposes artificial neural networks (ANN) for harmonics identification and DC link voltage control. The simulation study results of the new (SAPF) identification technique are found quite satisfactory by assuring good filtering characteristics and high system stability.

Keywords: SAPF, harmonics current, photovoltaic cells, MPPT, artificial neural networks (ANN)

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210 Effect of Pulse Duration and Current to the EDM Process on Allegheny Ludlum D2 Tool Steel

Authors: S. Sulaiman, M. A. Razak, M. R. Ibrahim, A. A. Khan


An experimental work on the effect of different current and pulse duration on performance of EDM process of Allegheny Ludlum D2 Tool Steel (UNS T30402). The effect of varying the machining parameters on the machining responses such as material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), and surface roughness (Ra) have been investigated. In this study, triangular shape and circular shape of copper was used as an electrode with surface area of 100 mm². The experiments were repeated for three different values of pulse duration (100 µs, 200 µs and 400 µs) with combination of three different values of discharge current (12 A, 16 A and 24 A). It was found that the pulse duration and current have significant effect on MRR, EWR and Ra. An increase in the pulse durations causes an increase in the MRR and Ra, but a decrease in the EWR. Meanwhile, the effect of currents on EDM performance shows that the increasing currents lead to an increase in the MRR, EWR and Ra.

Keywords: allegheny ludlum D2 tool steel, current, EDM, surface roughness, pulse duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
209 Cepstrum Analysis of Human Walking Signal

Authors: Koichi Kurita


In this study, we propose a real-time data collection technique for the detection of human walking motion from the charge generated on the human body. This technique is based on the detection of a sub-picoampere electrostatic induction current, generated by the motion, flowing through the electrode of a wireless portable sensor attached to the subject. An FFT analysis of the wave-forms of the electrostatic induction currents generated by the walking motions showed that the currents generated under normal and restricted walking conditions were different. Moreover, we carried out a cepstrum analysis to detect any differences in the walking style. Results suggest that a slight difference in motion, either due to the individual’s gait or a splinted leg, is directly reflected in the electrostatic induction current generated by the walking motion. The proposed wireless portable sensor enables the detection of even subtle differences in walking motion.

Keywords: human walking motion, motion measurement, current measurement, electrostatic induction

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208 Analysis of Brushless DC Motor with Trapezoidal Back EMF Using Matlab

Authors: Taha Ahmed Husain


The dynamic characteristics such as speed and torque as well as voltages and currents of pwm brushless DC motor inverter are analyzed with a MATLAB model. The contribution of external load torque and friction torque is monitored. The switching function technique is adopted for the current control of the embedded three phase inverter that drives the brushless DC motor.In switching functions the power conversions circuits can be modeled according to their functions rather than circuit topologies. Therefore, it can achieve simplification of the overall power conversion functions. The trapezoidal type (back emf) is used in the model as ithas lower switching loss compared with sinusoidal type (back emf). Results show reliable time analysis for speed, torque, phase and line voltages and currents and the effect of current commutation is clearly observed.

Keywords: BLDC motor, brushless dc motors, pwm inverter, DC motor control, trapezoidal back emf, ripple torque in brushless DC motor

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207 The Effect of Dynamic Eccentricity on the Stator Current Spectrum of 550 kW Induction Motor

Authors: Saleh Elawgali


In order to present the effect of the dynamic eccentricity on the stator currents of squirrel cage induction machines, the current spectrums of a 550 kW induction motor was calculated for the cases of full symmetry and dynamic eccentricity. The calculations presented in this paper are based on the Poly-Harmonic Model accounting for static and dynamic eccentricity, stator and rotor slotting, parallel branches as well as cage asymmetry. The calculations were followed by Fourier analysis of the stator currents in steady state operation. The paper presents the stator current spectrums for full symmetry and dynamic eccentricity cases, and demonstrates the harmonics present in each case. The effect of dynamic eccentricity is demonstrating via comparing the current spectrums related to dynamic eccentricity cases with the full symmetry one.

Keywords: current spectrum, dynamic eccentricity, harmonics, Induction machine, slot harmonic zone.

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206 Experimental and Numerical Study of the Thermomagnetic Convection of Ferrofluid Driven by Non-Uniform Magnetic Field around a Current-Carrying Wire

Authors: Ashkan Vatani, Petere Woodfiel, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Dzung Dao


Thermomagnetic convection of a ferrofluid flow induced by the non-uniform magnetic field around a current-carrying wire was theoretically analyzed, numerically studied and experimentally validated. The dependency of the thermomagnetic convection on the current and fluid temperature has been studied. The Nusselt number for a heated 50um diameter wire in the ferrofluid exponentially scales with applied current to the micro-wire. This result is in good agreement with the correlated Nusselt number by curve-fitting the experimental data at different fluid temperatures. It was shown that at low currents, no significance is observed for thermomagnetic convection rather than the buoyancy-driven convection, while the thermomagnetic convection becomes dominant at high currents. Also, numerical simulations showed a promising cooling ability for large scale applications.

Keywords: ferrofluid, non-uniform magnetic field, Nusselt number, thermomagnetic convection

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205 Induction Motor Stator Fault Analysis Using Phase-Angle and Magnitude of the Line Currents Spectra

Authors: Ahmed Hamida Boudinar, Noureddine Benouzza, Azeddine Bendiabdellah, Mohamed El Amine Khodja


This paper describes a new diagnosis approach for identification of the progressive stator winding inter-turn short-circuit fault in induction motor. This approach is based on a simple monitoring of the combined information related to both magnitude and phase-angle obtained from the fundamental by the three line currents frequency analysis. In addition, to simplify the interpretation and analysis of the data; a new graphical tool based on a triangular representation is suggested. This representation, depending on its size, enables to visualize in a simple and clear manner, the existence of the stator inter-turn short-circuit fault and its discrimination with respect to a healthy stator. Experimental results show well the benefit and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: induction motor, magnitude, phase-angle, spectral analysis, stator fault

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204 Analytical Response Characterization of High Mobility Transistor Channels

Authors: F. Z. Mahi, H. Marinchio, C. Palermo, L. Varani


We propose an analytical approach for the admittance response calculation of the high mobility InGaAs channel transistors. The development of the small-signal admittance takes into account the longitudinal and transverse electric fields through a pseudo two-dimensional approximation of the Poisson equation. The total currents and the potentials matrix relation between the gate and the drain terminals determine the frequency-dependent small-signal admittance response. The analytical results show that the admittance spectrum exhibits a series of resonant peaks corresponding to the excitation of plasma waves. The appearance of the resonance is discussed and analyzed as functions of the channel length and the temperature. The model can be used, on one hand, to control the appearance of plasma resonances, and on the other hand, can give significant information about the admittance phase frequency dependence.

Keywords: small-signal admittance, Poisson equation, currents and potentials matrix, the drain and the gate terminals, analytical model

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203 Scalar Modulation Technique for Six-Phase Matrix Converter Fed Series-Connected Two-Motor Drives

Authors: A. Djahbar, M. Aillerie, E. Bounadja


In this paper we treat a new structure of a high-power actuator which is used to either industry or electric traction. Indeed, the actuator is constituted by two induction motors, the first is a six-phase motor connected in series with another three-phase motor via the stators. The whole is supplied by a single static converter. Our contribution in this paper is the optimization of the system supply source. This is feeding the multimotor group by a direct converter frequency without using the DC-link capacitor. The modelling of the components of multimotor system is presented first. Only the first component of stator currents is used to produce the torque/flux of the first machine in the group. The second component of stator currents is considered as additional degrees of freedom and which can be used for power conversion for the other connected motors. The decoupling of each motor from the group is obtained using the direct vector control scheme. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed structure.

Keywords: induction machine, motor drives, scalar modulation technique, three-to-six phase matrix converter

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202 Electroactivity of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum 1-4N during Carbon Dioxide Reduction in a Bioelectrosynthesis System

Authors: Carlos A. Garcia-Mogollon, Juan C. Quintero-Diaz, Claudio Avignone-Rossa


Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum 1-4N (Csb 1-4N) is an industrial reference strain for Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Csb 1-4N is a solventogenic clostridium and H₂ producer with a metabolic profile that makes it a good candidate for Bioelectrosynthesis System (BES). The aim of this study was to evaluate the electroactivity of Csb 1-4N by cyclic voltammetry technique (CV). The Bioelectrosynthesis fermentation (BES) started in a Triptone-Yeast extract (TY) medium with trace elements and vitamins, Complex Nitrogen Source (CNS), and bicarbonate (NaHCO₃, 4g/L) as a carbon source, run at -600mVAg/AgCl and adding 200uM NADH. The six BES batches were performed with different media composition with and without NADH, CNS, HCO₃⁻ , and applied potential. The CV was performed as three-electrode system: platinum slice working electrode (WE), nickel contra electrode (CE) and reference electrode Ag/AgCl (ER). CVs were run in a potential range of -0.7V to 0.7V vs. VAg/AgCl at a scan rate 10mV/s. A CV recorded using different NaHCO₃ concentrations (0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 4g/L) were obtained. BES fermentation samples were centrifuged (3000 rpm, 5min, 4C), and supernatant (7mL) was used. CVs were obtained for Csb1-4N BES culture cell-free supernatant at 0h, 24h, and 48h. The electrochemical analysis was carried out with a PalmSens 4.0 potentiostat/galvanostat controlled with the PStrace 5.7 software, and CVs curves were characterized by reduction and oxidation currents and reduction and oxidation peaks. The CVs obtained for NaHCO₃ solutions showed that the reduction current and oxidation current decreased as the NaHCO₃ concentration was decreased. All reduction and oxidation currents decreased until exponential growth stop (24h), independence of initial cathodic current, except in medium with trace elements, vitamins, and NaHCO3, in which reduction current was around half at 24h and followed decreasing at 48. In this medium, Csb1-4N did not grow, but pH was increased, indicating that NaHCO₃ was reduced as the reduction current decreased. In general, at 48h reduction currents did not present important changes between different mediums in BES cultures. In terms of intensities in the peaks (Ip) did not present important variations; except with Ipa and Ipc in BES culture with NaHCO₃ and NADH added are higher than peaks in other cultures. Based on results, cathodic and anodic currents changes were induced by NaHCO₃ reduction reactions during Csb1-4N metabolic activity in different BES experiments.

Keywords: clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum 1-4N, bioelectrosynthesis, carbon dioxide fixation, cyclic voltammetry

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201 Analyzing Current Transformer’s Transient and Steady State Behavior for Different Burden’s Using LabVIEW Data Acquisition Tool

Authors: D. Subedi, D. Sharma


Current transformers (CTs) are used to transform large primary currents to a small secondary current. Since most standard equipment’s are not designed to handle large primary currents the CTs have an important part in any electrical system for the purpose of Metering and Protection both of which are integral in Power system. Now a days due to advancement in solid state technology, the operation times of the protective relays have come to a few cycles from few seconds. Thus, in such a scenario it becomes important to study the transient response of the current transformers as it will play a vital role in the operating of the protective devices. This paper shows the steady state and transient behavior of current transformers and how it changes with change in connected burden. The transient and steady state response will be captured using the data acquisition software LabVIEW. Analysis is done on the real time data gathered using LabVIEW. Variation of current transformer characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

Keywords: accuracy, accuracy limiting factor, burden, current transformer, instrument security factor

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