Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8232

Search results for: generating test

8232 Design of a Tool for Generating Test Cases from BPMN

Authors: Prat Yotyawilai, Taratip Suwannasart


Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is more important in the business process and creating functional models, and is a standard for OMG, which becomes popular in various organizations and in education. Researches related to software testing based on models are prominent. Although most researches use the UML model in software testing, not many researches use the BPMN Model in creating test cases. Therefore, this research proposes a design of a tool for generating test cases from the BPMN. The model is analyzed and the details of the various components are extracted before creating a flow graph. Both details of components and the flow graph are used in generating test cases.

Keywords: software testing, test case, BPMN, flow graph

Procedia PDF Downloads 469
8231 Rating and Generating Sudoku Puzzles Based on Constraint Satisfaction Problems

Authors: Bahare Fatemi, Seyed Mehran Kazemi, Nazanin Mehrasa


Sudoku is a logic-based combinatorial puzzle game which people in different ages enjoy playing it. The challenging and addictive nature of this game has made it a ubiquitous game. Most magazines, newspapers, puzzle books, etc. publish lots of Sudoku puzzles every day. These puzzles often come in different levels of difficulty so that all people, from beginner to expert, can play the game and enjoy it. Generating puzzles with different levels of difficulty is a major concern of Sudoku designers. There are several works in the literature which propose ways of generating puzzles having a desirable level of difficulty. In this paper, we propose a method based on constraint satisfaction problems to evaluate the difficulty of the Sudoku puzzles. Then, we propose a hill climbing method to generate puzzles with different levels of difficulty. Whereas other methods are usually capable of generating puzzles with only few number of difficulty levels, our method can be used to generate puzzles with arbitrary number of different difficulty levels. We test our method by generating puzzles with different levels of difficulty and having a group of 15 people solve all the puzzles and recording the time they spend for each puzzle.

Keywords: constraint satisfaction problem, generating Sudoku puzzles, hill climbing

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
8230 Automated Test Data Generation For some types of Algorithm

Authors: Hitesh Tahbildar


The cost of test data generation for a program is computationally very high. In general case, no algorithm to generate test data for all types of algorithms has been found. The cost of generating test data for different types of algorithm is different. Till date, people are emphasizing the need to generate test data for different types of programming constructs rather than different types of algorithms. The test data generation methods have been implemented to find heuristics for different types of algorithms. Some algorithms that includes divide and conquer, backtracking, greedy approach, dynamic programming to find the minimum cost of test data generation have been tested. Our experimental results say that some of these types of algorithm can be used as a necessary condition for selecting heuristics and programming constructs are sufficient condition for selecting our heuristics. Finally we recommend the different heuristics for test data generation to be selected for different types of algorithms.

Keywords: ongest path, saturation point, lmax, kL, kS

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
8229 A New Approach for Assertions Processing during Assertion-Based Software Testing

Authors: Ali M. Alakeel


Assertion-based software testing has been shown to be a promising tool for generating test cases that reveal program faults. Because the number of assertions may be very large for industry-size programs, one of the main concerns to the applicability of assertion-based testing is the amount of search time required to explore a large number of assertions. This paper presents a new approach for assertions exploration during the process of Assertion-Based software testing. Our initial exterminations with the proposed approach show that the performance of Assertion-Based testing may be improved, therefore, making this approach more efficient when applied on programs with large number of assertions.

Keywords: software testing, assertion-based testing, program assertions, generating test

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
8228 Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

Authors: Loke Mun Sei


Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, Robot Framework, and Jenkins.

Keywords: test automation tools, test case, test execution, test reporting

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
8227 Generating Product Description with Generative Pre-Trained Transformer 2

Authors: Minh-Thuan Nguyen, Phuong-Thai Nguyen, Van-Vinh Nguyen, Quang-Minh Nguyen


Research on automatically generating descriptions for e-commerce products is gaining increasing attention in recent years. However, the generated descriptions of their systems are often less informative and attractive because of lacking training datasets or the limitation of these approaches, which often use templates or statistical methods. In this paper, we explore a method to generate production descriptions by using the GPT-2 model. In addition, we apply text paraphrasing and task-adaptive pretraining techniques to improve the qualify of descriptions generated from the GPT-2 model. Experiment results show that our models outperform the baseline model through automatic evaluation and human evaluation. Especially, our methods achieve a promising result not only on the seen test set but also in the unseen test set.

Keywords: GPT-2, product description, transformer, task-adaptive, language model, pretraining

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
8226 Practical Methods for Automatic MC/DC Test Cases Generation of Boolean Expressions

Authors: Sekou Kangoye, Alexis Todoskoff, Mihaela Barreau


Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MC/DC) is a structural coverage criterion that aims to prove that all conditions involved in a Boolean expression can influence the result of that expression. In the context of automotive, MC/DC is highly recommended and even required for most security and safety applications testing. However, due to complex Boolean expressions that often embedded in those applications, generating a set of MC/DC compliant test cases for any of these expressions is a nontrivial task and can be time consuming for testers. In this paper we present an approach to automatically generate MC/DC test cases for any Boolean expression. We introduce novel techniques, essentially based on binary trees to quickly and optimally generate MC/DC test cases for the expressions. Thus, the approach can be used to reduce the manual testing effort of testers.

Keywords: binary trees, MC/DC, test case generation, nontrivial task

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
8225 A Mechanism of Reusable, Portable, and Reliable Script Generator on Android

Authors: Kuei-Chun Liu, Yu-Yu Lai, Ching-Hong Wu


A good automated testing tool could reduce as much as possible the manual work done by testers. Traditional record-replay testing tool provides an automated testing solution by recording mouse coordinates as test scripts, but it will be easily broken if any change of resolutions. Therefore, more and more testers design multiple test scripts to automate the testing process for different devices. In order to improve the traditional record-replay approach and reduce the effort that the testers spending on writing test scripts, we propose an approach for generating the Android application test scripts based on accessibility service without connecting to a computer. This approach simulates user input actions and replays them correctly even at the different conditions such as the internet connection is unstable when the device under test, the different resolutions on Android devices. In this paper, we describe how to generate test scripts automatically and make a comparison with existing tools for Android such as Robotium, Appium, UIAutomator, and MonkeyTalk.

Keywords: accessibility service, Appium, automated testing, MonkeyTalk, Robotium, testing, UIAutomator

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
8224 An Automatic Generating Unified Modelling Language Use Case Diagram and Test Cases Based on Classification Tree Method

Authors: Wassana Naiyapo, Atichat Sangtong


The processes in software development by Object Oriented methodology have many stages those take time and high cost. The inconceivable error in system analysis process will affect to the design and the implementation process. The unexpected output causes the reason why we need to revise the previous process. The more rollback of each process takes more expense and delayed time. Therefore, the good test process from the early phase, the implemented software is efficient, reliable and also meet the user’s requirement. Unified Modelling Language (UML) is the tool which uses symbols to describe the work process in Object Oriented Analysis (OOA). This paper presents the approach for automatically generated UML use case diagram and test cases. UML use case diagram is generated from the event table and test cases are generated from use case specifications and Graphic User Interfaces (GUI). Test cases are derived from the Classification Tree Method (CTM) that classify data to a node present in the hierarchy structure. Moreover, this paper refers to the program that generates use case diagram and test cases. As the result, it can reduce work time and increase efficiency work.

Keywords: classification tree method, test case, UML use case diagram, use case specification

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
8223 Learning Styles Difference in Difficulties of Generating Idea

Authors: M. H. Yee, J. Md Yunos, W. Othman, R. Hassan, T. K. Tee, M. M. Mohamad


The generation of an idea that goes through several phases is affected by individual factors, interests, preferences and motivation. The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference in difficulties of generating ideas according to individual learning styles. A total of 375 technical students from four technical universities in Malaysia were randomly selected as samples. The Kolb Learning Styles Inventory and a set of developed questionnaires were used in this research. The results showed that the most dominant learning style is among technical students is Doer. A total of 319 (85.1%) technical students faced difficulties in solving individual assignments. Most of the problem faced by technical students is the difficulty of generating ideas for solving individual assignments. There was no significant difference in difficulties of generating ideas according to students’ learning styles. Therefore, students need to learn higher order thinking skills enabling students to generate ideas and consequently complete assignments.

Keywords: difference, difficulties, generating idea, learning styles, Kolb Learning Styles Inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
8222 Some Issues of Measurement of Impairment of Non-Financial Assets in the Public Sector

Authors: Mariam Vardiashvili


The economic value of the asset impairment process is quite large. Impairment reflects the reduction of future economic benefits or service potentials itemized in the asset. The assets owned by public sector entities bring economic benefits or are used for delivery of the free-of-charge services. Consequently, they are classified as cash-generating and non-cash-generating assets. IPSAS 21 - Impairment of non-cash-generating assets, and IPSAS 26 - Impairment of cash-generating assets, have been designed considering this specificity.  When measuring impairment of assets, it is important to select the relevant methods. For measurement of the impaired Non-Cash-Generating Assets, IPSAS 21 recommends three methods: Depreciated Replacement Cost Approach, Restoration Cost Approach, and  Service Units Approach. Impairment of Value in Use of Cash-Generating Assets (according to IPSAS 26) is measured by discounted value of the money sources to be received in future. Value in use of the cash-generating asserts (as per IPSAS 26) is measured by the discounted value of the money sources to be received in the future. The article provides classification of the assets in the public sector  as non-cash-generating assets and cash-generating assets and, deals also with the factors which should be considered when evaluating  impairment of assets. An essence of impairment of the non-financial assets and the methods of measurement thereof evaluation are formulated according to IPSAS 21 and IPSAS 26. The main emphasis is put on different methods of measurement of the value in use of the impaired Cash-Generating Assets and Non-Cash-Generation Assets and the methods of their selection. The traditional and the expected cash flow approaches for calculation of the discounted value are reviewed. The article also discusses the issues of recognition of impairment loss and its reflection in the financial reporting. The article concludes that despite a functional purpose of the impaired asset, whichever method is used for measuring the asset, presentation of realistic information regarding the value of the assets should be ensured in the financial reporting. In the theoretical development of the issue, the methods of scientific abstraction, analysis and synthesis were used. The research was carried out with a systemic approach. The research process uses international standards of accounting, theoretical researches and publications of Georgian and foreign scientists.

Keywords: cash-generating assets, non-cash-generating assets, recoverable (usable restorative) value, value of use

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8221 Reusing Assessments Tests by Generating Arborescent Test Groups Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ovidiu Domşa, Nicolae Bold


Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) notions in education and three basic processes of education (teaching, learning and assessment) can bring benefits to the pupils and the professional development of teachers. In this matter, we refer to these notions as concepts taken from the informatics area and apply them to the domain of education. These notions refer to genetic algorithms and arborescent structures, used in the specific process of assessment or evaluation. This paper uses these kinds of notions to generate subtrees from a main tree of tests related between them by their degree of difficulty. These subtrees must contain the highest number of connections between the nodes and the lowest number of missing edges (which are subtrees of the main tree) and, in the particular case of the non-existence of a subtree with no missing edges, the subtrees which have the lowest (minimal) number of missing edges between the nodes, where a node is a test and an edge is a direct connection between two tests which differs by one degree of difficulty. The subtrees are represented as sequences. The tests are the same (a number coding a test represents that test in every sequence) and they are reused for each sequence of tests.

Keywords: chromosome, genetic algorithm, subtree, test

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
8220 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee


Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.

Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor test

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
8219 Equipment Design for Lunar Lander Landing-Impact Test

Authors: Xiaohuan Li, Wangmin Yi, Xinghui Wu


In order to verify the performance of lunar lander structure, landing-impact test is urgently needed. Moreover, the test equipment is necessary for the test. The functions and the key points of the equipment is presented to satisfy the requirements of the test,and the design scheme is proposed. The composition, the major function and the critical parts’ design of the equipment are introduced. By the load test of releasing device and single-beam hoist, and the compatibility test of landing-impact testing system, the rationality and reliability of the equipment is proved.

Keywords: landing-impact test, lunar lander, releasing device, test equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
8218 Preliminary Study of the Phonological Development in Three and Four Year Old Bulgarian Children

Authors: Tsvetomira Boycheva, Miglena Simonska


The article presents the results of a research of phonological processes in three and four-year-old children. For the purpose of the study, an author's test was developed and conducted among 120 children. The study included three areas of research - at the level of words (96 words), at the level of sentence repetition (10 sentences) and at the level of generating own speech from a picture (15 pictures). The test also gives us additional information about the articulation errors of the assessed children. The main purpose of the icing is to analyze all phonological processes that occur at this age in Bulgarian children and to identify which are typical and atypical for this age. The results show that the most common phonology errors that children make are: sound substitution, an elision of sound, metathesis of sound, elision of a syllable, elision of consonants clustered in a syllable. All examined children were identified with the articulatory disorder from type bilabial lambdacism. Measuring the correlation between average length of repeated speech and average length of generated speech, the analysis proves that the more words a child can repeat in part “repeated speech,” the more words they can be expected to generate in part “generating a sentence.” The results of this study show that the task of naming a word provides sufficient and representative information to assess the child's phonology.

Keywords: assessment, phonology, articulation, speech-language development

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
8217 Bernstein Type Polynomials for Solving Differential Equations and Their Applications

Authors: Yilmaz Simsek


In this paper, we study the Bernstein-type basis functions with their generating functions. We give various properties of these polynomials with the aid of their generating functions. These polynomials and generating functions have many valuable applications in mathematics, in probability, in statistics and also in mathematical physics. By using the Bernstein-Galerkin and the Bernstein-Petrov-Galerkin methods, we give some applications of the Bernstein-type polynomials for solving high even-order differential equations with their numerical computations. We also give Bezier-type curves related to the Bernstein-type basis functions. We investigate fundamental properties of these curves. These curves have many applications in mathematics, in computer geometric design and other related areas. Moreover, we simulate these polynomials with their plots for some selected numerical values.

Keywords: generating functions, Bernstein basis functions, Bernstein polynomials, Bezier curves, differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
8216 A Survey on the Status of Test Automation

Authors: Andrei Contan, Richard Torkar


Aim: The process of test automation and its practices in industry have to be better understood, both for the industry itself and for the research community. Method: We conducted a quantitative industry survey by asking IT professionals to answer questions related to the area of test automation. Results: Test automation needs and practices vary greatly between organizations at different stages of the software development life cycle. Conclusions: Most of the findings are general test automation challenges and are specific to small- to medium-sized companies, developing software applications in the web, desktop or mobile domain.

Keywords: survey, testing, test automation, status of test automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
8215 Developing a Test Specifications for an Internationalization Course: Environment for Health in Thai Context

Authors: Rungrawee Samawathdana, Aim-Utcha Wattanaburanon


Test specifications for open book or notes exams provide the essential information to identify the types of the test items with validity of the evaluations process. This article explains the purpose of test specifications and illustrates how to use it to help construct the approach of open book or notes exams. The complication of the course objectives is challenging for the test designing.

Keywords: course curriculum, environment for health, internationalization, test specifications

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
8214 Inference for Synthetic Control Methods with Multiple Treated Units

Authors: Ziyan Zhang


Although the Synthetic Control Method (SCM) is now widely applied, its most commonly- used inference method, placebo test, is often problematic, especially when the treatment is not uniquely assigned. This paper discusses the problems with the placebo test under the multivariate treatment case. And, to improve the power of inferences, I further propose an Andrews-type procedure as it potentially solves some drawbacks of the placebo test. Simulations are conducted to show the Andrews’ test is often valid and powerful, compared with the placebo test.

Keywords: Synthetic Control Method, Multiple treatments, Andrews' test, placebo test

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
8213 An Approach to Analyze Testing of Nano On-Chip Networks

Authors: Farnaz Fotovvatikhah, Javad Akbari


Test time of a test architecture is an important factor which depends on the architecture's delay and test patterns. Here a new architecture to store the test results based on network on chip is presented. In addition, simple analytical model is proposed to calculate link test time for built in self-tester (BIST) and external tester (Ext) in multiprocessor systems. The results extracted from the model are verified using FPGA implementation and experimental measurements. Systems consisting 16, 25, and 36 processors are implemented and simulated and test time is calculated. In addition, BIST and Ext are compared in terms of test time at different conditions such as at different number of test patterns and nodes. Using the model the maximum frequency of testing could be calculated and the test structure could be optimized for high speed testing.

Keywords: test, nano on-chip network, JTAG, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
8212 The Role of Brand Loyalty in Generating Positive Word of Mouth among Malaysian Hypermarket Customers

Authors: S. R. Nikhashemi, Laily Haj Paim, Ali Khatibi


Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test a hypothesized model explaining Malaysian hypermarket customers’ perceptions of brand trust (BT), customer perceived value (CPV) and perceived service quality (PSQ) on building their brand loyalty (CBL) and generating positive word-of-mouth communication (WOM). Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from 374 Malaysian hypermarket customers from Mydin, Tesco, Aeon Big and Giant in Kuala Lumpur, a metropolitan city of Malaysia. The data strongly supported the model exhibiting that BT, CPV and PSQ are prerequisite factors in building customer brand loyalty, while PSQ has the strongest effect on prediction of customer brand loyalty compared to other factors. Besides, the present study suggests the effect of the aforementioned factors via customer brand loyalty strongly contributes to generate positive word of mouth communication.

Keywords: brand trust, perceived value, Perceived Service Quality, Brand loyalty, positive word of mouth communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
8211 A Study on Design for Parallel Test Based on Embedded System

Authors: Zheng Sun, Weiwei Cui, Xiaodong Ma, Hongxin Jin, Dongpao Hong, Jinsong Yang, Jingyi Sun


With the improvement of the performance and complexity of modern equipment, automatic test system (ATS) becomes widely used for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. However, the conventional ATS mainly works in a serial mode, and lacks the ability of testing several equipments at the same time. That leads to low test efficiency and ATS redundancy. Especially for a large majority of equipment under test, the conventional ATS cannot meet the requirement of efficient testing. To reduce the support resource and increase test efficiency, we propose a method of design for the parallel test based on the embedded system in this paper. Firstly, we put forward the general framework of the parallel test system, and the system contains a central management system (CMS) and several distributed test subsystems (DTS). Then we give a detailed design of the system. For the hardware of the system, we use embedded architecture to design DTS. For the software of the system, we use test program set to improve the test adaption. By deploying the parallel test system, the time to test five devices is now equal to the time to test one device in the past. Compared with the conventional test system, the proposed test system reduces the size and improves testing efficiency. This is of great significance for equipment to be put into operation swiftly. Finally, we take an industrial control system as an example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The result shows that the method is reasonable, and the efficiency is improved up to 500%.

Keywords: parallel test, embedded system, automatic test system, automatic test system (ATS), central management system, central management system (CMS), distributed test subsystems, distributed test subsystems (DTS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
8210 Travel Planning in Public Transport Networks Applying the Algorithm A* for Metropolitan District of Quito

Authors: M. Fernanda Salgado, Alfonso Tierra, Wilbert Aguilar


The present project consists in applying the informed search algorithm A star (A*) to solve traveler problems, applying it by urban public transportation routes. The digitization of the information allowed to identify 26% of the total of routes that are registered within the Metropolitan District of Quito. For the validation of this information, data were taken in field on the travel times and the difference with respect to the times estimated by the program, resulting in that the difference between them was not greater than 2:20 minutes. We validate A* algorithm with the Dijkstra algorithm, comparing nodes vectors based on the public transport stops, the validation was established through the student t-test hypothesis. Then we verified that the times estimated by the program using the A* algorithm are similar to those registered on field. Furthermore, we review the performance of the algorithm generating iterations in both algorithms. Finally, with these iterations, a hypothesis test was carried out again with student t-test where it was concluded that the iterations of the base algorithm Dijsktra are greater than those generated by the algorithm A*.

Keywords: algorithm A*, graph, mobility, public transport, travel planning, routes

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
8209 Correlation of Material Mechanical Characteristics Obtained by Means of Standardized and Miniature Test Specimens

Authors: Vaclav Mentl, P. Zlabek, J. Volak


New methods of mechanical testing were developed recently that are based on making use of miniature test specimens (e.g. Small Punch Test). The most important advantage of these method is the nearly non-destructive withdrawal of test material and small size of test specimen what is interesting in cases of remaining lifetime assessment when a sufficient volume of the representative material cannot be withdrawn of the component in question. In opposite, the most important disadvantage of such methods stems from the necessity to correlate test results with the results of standardised test procedures and to build up a database of material data in service. The correlations among the miniature test specimen data and the results of standardised tests are necessary. The paper describes the results of fatigue tests performed on miniature tests specimens in comparison with traditional fatigue tests for several steels applied in power producing industry. Special miniature test specimens fixtures were designed and manufactured for the purposes of fatigue testing at the Zwick/Roell 10HPF5100 testing machine. The miniature test specimens were produced of the traditional test specimens. Seven different steels were fatigue loaded (R = 0.1) at room temperature.

Keywords: mechanical properties, miniature test specimens, correlations, small punch test, micro-tensile test, mini-charpy impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
8208 Multi-Criteria Test Case Selection Using Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Niranjana Devi N.


Test case selection is to select the subset of only the fit test cases and remove the unfit, ambiguous, redundant, unnecessary test cases which in turn improve the quality and reduce the cost of software testing. Test cases optimization is the problem of finding the best subset of test cases from a pool of the test cases to be audited. It will meet all the objectives of testing concurrently. But most of the research have evaluated the fitness of test cases only on single parameter fault detecting capability and optimize the test cases using a single objective. In the proposed approach, nine parameters are considered for test case selection and the best subset of parameters for test case selection is obtained using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Rough Set. Test case selection is done in two stages. The first stage is the fuzzy entropy-based filtration technique, used for estimating and reducing the ambiguity in test case fitness evaluation and selection. The second stage is the ant colony optimization-based wrapper technique with a forward search strategy, employed to select test cases from the reduced test suite of the first stage. The results are evaluated using the Coverage parameters, Precision, Recall, F-Measure, APSC, APDC, and SSR. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that by this approach considerable computational effort can be avoided.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, fuzzy entropy, interval type-2 fuzzy rough set, test case selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
8207 Nanoenergetic Materials as Effective Heat Energy Sources for Enhanced Gas Generators

Authors: Sang Beom Kim, Kyung Ju Kim, Myung Hoon Cho, Ji Hoon Kim, Soo Hyung Kim


In this study, we systematically investigated the effect of nanoscale energetic materials in formulations of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs; heat source)/copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs; oxidizer) on the combustion and gas-generating properties of sodium azide microparticles (NaN3 MPs; gas-generating agent) for potential applications in gas generators. The burn rate of the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder was only ~0.3 m/s. However, the addition of Al NPs to the NaN3 MP/CuO NP matrix caused the rates to reach ~5.3 m/s, respectively. In addition, the N2 gas volume flow rate generated by the ignition of the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder was only ~0.6 L/s, which was significantly increased to ~3.9 L/s by adding Al NPs to the NaN3 MP/CuO NP composite powder. This suggested that the highly reactive NPs, with the assistance of CuO NPs, were effective heat-generating sources enabling the complete thermal decomposition of NaN3 MPs upon ignition. Al NPs were highly effective in the gas generators because of the increased reactivity induced by the reduced particle size. Finally, we successfully demonstrated that a homemade airbag with a specific volume of ~140 mL could be rapidly and fully inflated by the thermal activation of nanoscale energetic material-added gas-generating agents (i.e., NaN3 MP/Al NP/CuO NP composites) within the standard time of ~50 ms for airbag inflation.

Keywords: nanoenergetic materials, aluminum nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles, gas generators

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
8206 The Analysis of Differential Item and Test Functioning between Sexes by Studying on the Scholastic Aptitude Test 2013

Authors: Panwasn Mahalawalert


The purposes of this research were analyzed differential item functioning and differential test functioning of SWUSAT aptitude test classification by sex variable. The data used in this research is the secondary data from Srinakharinwirot University Scholastic Aptitude Test 2013 (SWUSAT). SWUSAT test consists of four subjects. There are verbal ability test, number ability test, reasoning ability test and spatial ability test. The data analysis was analyzed in 2 steps. The first step was analyzing descriptive statistics. In the second step were analyzed differential item functioning (DIF) and differential test functioning (DTF) by using the DIFAS program. The research results were as follows: The results of DIF and DTF analysis for all 10 tests in year 2013. Gender was the characteristic that found DIF all 10 tests. The percentage of item number that found DIF is between 6.67% - 60%. There are 5 tests that most of items favors female group and 2 tests that most of items favors male group. There are 3 tests that the number of items favors female group equal favors male group. For Differential test functioning (DTF), there are 8 tests that have small level.

Keywords: aptitude test, differential item functioning, differential test functioning, educational measurement

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8205 An Investigation of Differential Item and Test Functioning of Scholastic Aptitude Test 2011 (SWUSAT 2011)

Authors: Ruangdech Sirikit


The purposes of this study were analyzed differential item functioning and differential test functioning of SWUSAT aptitude test classification by sex variable. The data used in this research is the secondary data from Srinakharinwirot University Scholastic Aptitude Test 2011 (SWUSAT 2011) SWUSAT test consists of four subjects. There are verbal ability test, number ability test, reasoning ability test and spatial ability test. The data analysis was carried out in 2 steps. The first step was analyzing descriptive statistics. In the second step were analyzed differential item functioning (DIF) and differential test functioning (DTF) by using the DIFAS program. The research results were as follows: The results of data analysis for all 10 tests in year 2011. Sex was the characteristic that found DIF all 10 tests. The percentage of item number that found DIF was between 10% - 46.67%. There are 4 tests that most of items favors female group. There are 3 tests that most of items favors male group and there are 3 tests that the number of items favors female group equal favors male group. For Differential test functioning (DTF), there are 8 tests that have small DIF effect variance.

Keywords: differential item functioning, differential test functioning, SWUSAT, aptitude test

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8204 Wally Feelings Test: Validity and Reliability Study

Authors: Gökhan Kayili, Ramazan Ari


In this research, it is aimed to be adapted Wally Feelings Test to Turkish children and performed the reliability and validity analysis of the test. The sampling of the research was composed of three to five year-old 699 Turkish preschoolers who are attending official and private nursery school. The schools selected with simple random sampling method by considering different socio economic conditions and different central district in Konya. In order to determine reliability of Wally Feelings Test, internal consistency coefficients (KR-20), split-half reliability and test- retest reliability analysis have been performed. During validation process construct validity, content/scope validity and concurrent/criterion validity were used. When validity and reliability of the test examined, it is seen that Wally Feelings Test is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate three to five year old Turkish children’s understanding feeling skills.

Keywords: reliability, validity, wally feelings test, social sciences

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8203 Rank of Semigroup: Generating Sets and Cases Revealing Limitations of the Concept of Independence

Authors: Zsolt Lipcsey, Sampson Marshal Imeh


We investigate a certain characterisation for rank of a semigroup by Howie and Ribeiro (1999), to ascertain the relevance of the concept of independence. There are cases where the concept of independence fails to be useful for this purpose. One would expect the basic element to be the maximal independent subset of a given semigroup. However, we construct examples for semigroups where finite basis exist and the basis is larger than the number of independent elements.

Keywords: generating sets, independent set, rank, cyclic semigroup, basis, commutative

Procedia PDF Downloads 87