Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 118

Search results for: neonatal

118 Risk Factors for Maternal and Neonatal Morbidities Associated with Operative Vaginal Deliveries

Authors: Maria Reichenber Arcilla

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the risk factors for maternal and neonatal complications associated with operative vaginal deliveries. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 435 patients who underwent operative vaginal deliveries was done. Patient profiles – age, parity, AOG, duration of labor – and outcomes – birthweight, maternal and neonatal complications - were tabulated and multivariable analysis and logistic regression were performed using SPSS® Statistics Base. Results and Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the incidence of maternal and neonatal complications between those that underwent vacuum and forceps extraction. Among the variables analysed, parity and duration of labor reached statistical significance. The odds of maternal complications were 3 times higher among nulliparous patients. Neonatal complications were seen in those whose labor lasted more than 9 hours.

Keywords: operative vaginal deliveries, maternal, neonatal, morbidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
117 Improving Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Assessments

Authors: Nancy Wilson

Abstract:

In utero, fetal drug exposure is prevalent amongst birthing facilities. Assessment tools for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are often cumbersome and ill-fitting, harboring immense subjectivity. This paradox often leads the clinical assessor to be hypervigilant when assessing the newborn for subtle symptoms of NAS, often mistaken for normal newborn behaviors. As a quality improvement initiative, this project led to a more adaptable NAS tool termed eat, sleep, console (ESC). This function-based NAS assessment scores the infant based on the ability to accomplish three basic newborn necessities- to sleep, to eat, and to be consoled. Literature supports that ESC methodology improves patient and family outcomes while providing more cost-effective care.

Keywords: neonatal abstinence syndrome, neonatal opioid withdrawal, maternal substance abuse, pregnancy, and addiction, Finnegan neonatal abstinence syndrome tool, eat, sleep, console

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
116 Antenatal Factors Associated with Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis among Neonates 0-7 Days at Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital

Authors: Moses Balina, Archbald Bahizi

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Introduction: Early onset neonatal sepsis is a systemic infection in a newborn baby during the first week after birth and contributes to 50% of neonatal deaths each year. Risk factors for early onset neonatal sepsis, which can be maternal, health care provider, or health care facility associated, can be prevented with access to quality antenatal care. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess early onset neonatal sepsis and antenatal factors associated with Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital. Methodology: A cross sectional study design was used. The study involved 60 respondents who were mothers of breastfeeding neonates being treated for early onset neonatal sepsis at Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital neonatal intensive care unit. Simple random sampling was used to select study participants. Data were collected using questionnaires, entered in Stata 16, and analysed using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis at Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital was 25%. Multivariate analysis revealed that institutional factors were the only antenatal factors found to be significantly associated with early onset neonatal sepsis at Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital (p < 0.01). Bivariate analysis revealed that attending antenatal care at a health centre III or IV instead of a hospital (p = 0.011) and attending antenatal care in health care facilities with no laboratory investigations (p = 0.048) were risk factors for early onset neonatal sepsis in the newborn at Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital. Conclusion: Antenatal factors were associated with early onset neonatal sepsis, and health care facility factors like lower level health centre and unavailability of quality laboratory investigations to pregnant women contributed to early onset neonatal sepsis in the newborn. Mentorships, equipping/stocking laboratories, and improving staffing levels were necessary to reduce early onset neonatal sepsis.

Keywords: antenatal factors, early onset neonatal sepsis, neonates 0-7 days, fort portal regional referral hospital

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115 Developmental Delays among Children with Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

Authors: Simplejit Kaur Dhanoa, Manmohan Singh

Abstract:

This study was done with the primary objective to evaluate the motor and mental developmental delays among children having neonatal Jaundice. A total sample of 300 neonates were collected; out of them, 150 were preterm neonates, and 150 were full term neonates from the hospital setting and follow up study was done with the help of the Developmental Assessment scale of the Indian Infant. The registered samples were assessed up to 2.6 years with a gap of 6 months. The outcomes of this study reveal that developmental delays were present among children who had preterm neonatal jaundice as compare to full term normal babies. Further, It was reported that both motor and mental development is affected due to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in addition to preterm birth.

Keywords: hyperbinirubinemia, preterm neonates, developmental delays, preterm

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
114 Definition, Barriers to and Facilitators of Moral Distress as Perceived by Neonatal Intensive Care Physicians

Authors: M. Deligianni, P. Voultsos, E. Tsamadou

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Background/Introduction: Moral distress is a common occurrence for health professionals working in neonatal critical care. Despite a growing number of critically ill neonatal and pediatric patients, only a few articles related to moral distress as experienced by neonatal physicians have been published over the last years. Objectives/Aims: The aim of this study was to define and identify barriers to and facilitators of moral distress based on the perceptions and experiences of neonatal physicians working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This pilot study is a part of a larger nationwide project. Methods: A multicenter qualitative descriptive study using focus group methodology was conducted. In-depth interviews lasting 45 to 60 minutes were audio-recorded. Once data were transcribed, conventional content analysis was used to develop the definition and categories, as well as to identify the barriers to and facilitators of moral distress. Results: Participants defined moral distress broadly in the context of neonatal critical care. A wide variation of definitions was displayed. The physicians' responses to moral distress included different feelings and other situations. The overarching categories that emerged from the data were patient-related, family-related, and physician-related factors. Moreover, organizational factors may constitute major facilitators of moral distress among neonatal physicians in NICUs. Note, however, that moral distress may be regarded as an essential component to caring for neonates in critical care. The present study provides further insight into the moral distress experienced by physicians working in Greek NICUs. Discussion/Conclusions: Understanding how neonatal and pediatric critical care nurses define moral distress and what contributes to its development is foundational to developing targeted strategies for mitigating the prevalence of moral distress among neonate physicians in the context of NICUs.

Keywords: critical care, moral distress, neonatal physician, neonatal intensive care unit, NICU

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
113 Neural Network Analysis Applied to Risk Prediction of Early Neonatal Death

Authors: Amanda R. R. Oliveira, Caio F. F. C. Cunha, Juan C. L. Junior, Amorim H. P. Junior

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Children deaths are traumatic events that most often can be prevented. The technology of prevention and intervention in cases of infant deaths is available at low cost and with solid evidence and favorable results, however, with low access cover. Weight is one of the main factors related to death in the neonatal period, so the newborns of low birth weight are a population at high risk of death in the neonatal period, especially early neonatal period. This paper describes the development of a model based in neural network analysis to predict the mortality risk rating in the early neonatal period for newborns of low birth weight to identify the individuals of this population with increased risk of death. The neural network applied was trained with a set of newborns data obtained from Brazilian health system. The resulting network presented great success rate in identifying newborns with high chances of death, which demonstrates the potential for using this tool in an integrated manner to the health system, in order to direct specific actions for improving prognosis of newborns.

Keywords: low birth weight, neonatal death risk, neural network, newborn

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112 Canine Neonatal Mortality at the São Paulo State University Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil – Preliminary Data

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

The neonatal mortality rates in dogs are considered high, varying between 5.7 and 21.2% around the world, and the causes of the deaths are often unknown. Data regarding canine neonatal mortality are scarce in Brazil. This study aims at describing the neonatal mortality rates in dogs, as well as the main causes of death. The study included 152 litters and 669 neonates admitted to the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil between January 2018 and September 2019. The overall mortality rate was 16.7% (112/669), with 40% (61/152) of the litters presenting at least one case of stillbirth or neonatal mortality. The rate of stillbirths was 7.7% (51/669), while the neonatal mortality rate was 9% (61/669). The early mortality rate (0 to 2 days) was 13.7% (92/669), accounting for 82.1% (92/112) of all deaths. The late mortality rate (3 to 30 days) was 2.7% (18/669), accounting for 16% (18/112) of all deaths. Infection was the causa mortis in 51.8% (58/112) of the newborns, of which 30.3% (34/112) were caused by bacterial sepsis, and 21.4% (24/112) were caused by other bacterial, viral or parasite infections. Other causes of death included congenital malformations (15.2%, 17/112), of which 5.3% (6/112) happened through euthanasia due to malformations incompatible with life; asphyxia/hypoxia by dystocia (9.8%, 11/112); wasting syndrome in debilitated newborns (6.2%, 7/112); aspiration pneumonia (3.6%, 4/112); agalactia (2.7%, 3/112); trauma (1.8%, 2/112); administration of contraceptives to the mother (1.8%, 2/112) and unknown causes (7.1%, 8/112). The neonatal mortality rate was considered high, but they may be even higher in locations without adequate care for the mothers and neonates. Therefore, prenatal examinations and early neonatal care are of utmost importance for the survival of these patients.

Keywords: neonate dogs, puppies, mortality rate, neonatal death

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
111 Incidence and Etiology of Neonatal Calf Diarrhea in the Region of Blida, Algeria

Authors: A. Dadda, D. Khelef, K. Ait-Oudia, R. Kaidi

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Neonatal calf diarrhea is the most important disease of neonatal calves and results in the greatest economic losses due to disease in this age group in both dairy and beef calves. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the morbidity and the mortality of neonatal diarrhea in dairy calves also to determine aetiology and risk factors were caused diarrhea in dairy veal under 60 days old. A total of 324 claves, housed in 30 dairy breeding were followed during two velage season from January to Juan 2013. The total mortality was 5,9% and was significantly higher in calves had less than 15 days of age. The incidence rate of diarrhea was 31,5% and peaked in the first two weeks after velage. The main causes were breeding controls, defect of passive immunity, old of calf, production season, and nutrient of pregnant cattle, veal’s housing and infectious agents. ELISA test on 22 fecal samples revealed that the 31, 82% of dairy breeding were infected, by cryptosporidium parvum in 13, 6% of study population, E.Coli F5 in 9% and Rotavirus with rate of 4, 5%.

Keywords: diarrhoea, neonatal, mortality, aetiology, risk factors, incidence

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110 Train-The-Trainer in Neonatal Resuscitation in Rural Uganda: A Model for Sustainability and the Barriers Faced

Authors: Emilia K. H. Danielsson-Waters, Malaz Elsaddig, Kevin Jones

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Unfortunately, it is well known that neonatal deaths are a common and potentially preventable occurrence across the world. Neonatal resuscitation is a simple and inexpensive intervention that can effectively reduce this rate, and can be taught and implemented globally. This project is a follow-on from one in 2012, which found that neonatal resuscitation simulation was valuable for education, but would be better improved by being delivered by local staff. Methods: This study involved auditing the neonatal admission and death records within a rural Ugandan hospital, alongside implementing a Train-The-Trainer teaching scheme to teach Neonatal Resuscitation. One local doctor was trained for simulating neonatal resuscitation, whom subsequently taught an additional 14 staff members in one-afternoon session. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires to assess their knowledge and confidence pre- and post-simulation, and a survey to identify barriers and drivers to simulation. Results: The results found that the neonatal mortality rate in this hospital was 25% between July 2016- July 2017, with birth asphyxia, prematurity and sepsis being the most common causes. Barriers to simulation that were identified predominantly included a lack of time, facilities and opportunity, yet all members stated simulation was beneficial for improving skills and confidence. The simulation session received incredibly positive qualitative feedback, and also a 0.58-point increase in knowledge (p=0.197) and 0.73-point increase in confidence (0.079). Conclusion: This research shows that it is possible to create a teaching scheme in a rural hospital, however, many barriers are in place for its sustainability, and a larger sample size with a more sensitive scale is required to achieve statistical significance. This is undeniably important, because teaching neonatal resuscitation can have a direct impact on neonatal mortality. Subsequently, recommendations include that efforts should be put in place to create a sustainable training scheme, for example, by employing a resuscitation officer. Moreover, neonatal resuscitation teaching should be conducted more frequently in hospitals, and conducted in a wider geographical context, including within the community, in order to achieve its full effect.

Keywords: neonatal resuscitation, sustainable medical education, train-the-trainer, Uganda

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109 Delays for Emergency Cesarean Sections and Neonatal Outcomes in Three Rural District Hospitals in Rwanda: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: J. Niyitegeka, G. Nshimirimana, A. Silverstein, J. Odhiambo, Y. Lin, T. Nkurunziza, R. Riviello, S. Rulisa, P. Banguti, H. Magge, M. Macharia, J. P. Dushime, R. Habimana, B. Hedt-Gauthier

Abstract:

In low-resource settings, women needing an emergency cesarean section experiences various delays in both reaching and receiving care that is often linked to poor neonatal outcomes. In this study, we quantified different measures of delays and assessed the association between these delays and neonatal outcomes at three rural district hospitals in Rwanda. This retrospective study included 441 neonates and their mothers who underwent emergency cesarean sections in 2015 at Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu District Hospitals. Four possible delays were measured: Time from start of labor to district hospital admission, travel time from a health center to the district hospital, time from admission to surgical incision, and time from the decision for the emergency cesarean section to surgical incision. Neonatal outcomes were categorized as unfavorable (APGAR < 7 or death) and favorable (APGAR ≥ 7). We assessed the relationship between each type of delay and neonatal outcomes using multivariate logistic regression. In our study, 38.7% (108 out of 279) of neonates’ mothers labored for 12 to 24 hours before hospital admission and 44.7% (159 of 356) of mothers were transferred from health centers that required 30 to 60 minutes of travel time to reach the district hospital. 48.1% (178 of 370) of caesarean sections started within five hours after admission and 85.2% (288 of 338) started more than thirty minutes after the decision for the emergency cesarean section was made. Neonatal outcomes were significantly worse among mothers with more than 90 minutes of travel time from the health center to the district hospital compared to health centers attached to the hospital (OR = 5.12, p = 0.02). Neonatal outcomes were also significantly different depending on decision to incision intervals; neonates with cesarean deliveries starting more than thirty minutes after decision had better outcomes than those started immediately (OR = 0.32, p = 0.04). Interventions that decrease barriers to access to maternal health care services can improve neonatal outcome after emergency cesarean section. Triaging could explain the inverse relationship between time from decision to incision and neonatal outcome; this must be studied more in the future.

Keywords: Africa, emergency obstetric care, rural health delivery, maternal and child health

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108 A Natural Killer T Cell Subset That Protects against Airway Hyperreactivity

Authors: Ya-Ting Chuang, Krystle Leung, Ya-Jen Chang, Rosemarie H. DeKruyff, Paul B. Savage, Richard Cruse, Christophe Benoit, Dirk Elewaut, Nicole Baumgarth, Dale T. Umetsu

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We examined characteristics of a Natural Killer T (NKT) cell subpopulation that developed during influenza infection in neonatal mice, and that suppressed the subsequent development of allergic asthma in a mouse model. This NKT cell subset expressed CD38 but not CD4, produced IFN-γ, but not IL-17, IL-4 or IL-13, and inhibited the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) through contact-dependent suppressive activity against helper CD4 T cells. The NKT subset expanded in the lungs of neonatal mice after infection with influenza, but also after treatment of neonatal mice with a Th1-biasing α-GalCer glycolipid analogue, Nu-α-GalCer. These results suggest that early/neonatal exposure to infection or to antigenic challenge can affect subsequent lung immunity by altering the profile of cells residing in the lung and that some subsets of NKT cells can have direct inhibitory activity against CD4+ T cells in allergic asthma. Importantly, our results also suggest a potential therapy for young children that might provide protection against the development of asthma.

Keywords: NKT subset, asthma, airway hyperreactivity, hygiene hypothesis, influenza

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
107 Perinatal and Postnatal Counseling as Determinants of Early Newborn Sepsis in Rural Bangladesh

Authors: Sajia Islam, T. Tahsina, S. Raihana, M. M. Rahman, Q. S. Rahman, T. M. Huda, S. E. Arifeen, M. J. Dibley

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Early neonatal sepsis accounts for more than two-thirds of all deaths in the first year of life. This study assessed the counseling during antenatal, perinatal, post natal periods and its association with possible sepsis in rural Bangladesh. Method: Data were collected from a large community-based trial in Bangladesh where pregnant women were enrolled from 2013-2015 covering 29,497 newborns. Sepsis was defined using neonatal danger signs reported by 'The Young-Infants Clinical Science Study Group. 'Result: Signs of sepsis was found among 15% of the neonates. Neonatal sepsis was higher among those who did not receive advice on TT vaccinations (15.4% vs. 11%, p < 0.05) and danger signs (14.8% vs. 12.8%, p < 0.05) during pregnancy. Advice on delivering in well-lit place was significantly associated with lower incidence of sepsis (12.7% vs. 14.8% p < 0.05). Sepsis was lower among neonates whose mothers were counseled on immediate newborn care for bathing after 3 days of delivery (13.4% vs. 15.2% p=0), breastfeeding within 1hr of birth (13.82 % vs. 15.28% p=0), apply nothing on the cord (11.54 vs. 15.06 p=0), immediate drying of child (12.62% vs. 14.89%, p=0). Neonatal sepsis was lower among children whose mothers received 2-4 advice [OR=0.91(95% CI: 0.85-0.97)] compared to neonates whose mothers received only 1 or none. Overall, children to mothers who received ≥ 5 advice had lowest incidence of sepsis [OR=0.83 (95% CI: 0.71-0.97)] Conclusion: Advice on antenatal, prenatal and post natal is significantly reduced with early newborn sepsis. Further research is required to identify specific type of counseling messages that translate into practices and reduce pathways towards early-newborn morbidities.

Keywords: ante natal care, counseling, neonatal sepsis, post natal care

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106 Inpatient Neonatal Deaths in Rural Uganda: A Retrospective Comparative Mortality Study of Labour Ward versus Community Admissions

Authors: Najade Sheriff, Malaz Elsaddig, Kevin Jones

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Background: Death in the first month of life accounts for an increasing proportion of under-five mortality. Advancement to reduce this number is being made across the globe; however, progress is slowest in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: The study aims to identify differences between neonatal deaths of inpatient babies born in a hospital facility in rural Uganda to those of neonates admitted from the community and to explore whether they can be used to risk stratify neonatal admissions. Results: A retrospective chart review was conducted on records for neonates admitted to the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) Kitovu Hospital from 1st July 2016 to 21st July 2017. A total of 442 babies were admitted and the overall neonatal mortality was 24.8% (40% inpatient, 37% community, 23% hospital referrals). 40% of deaths occurred within 24 hours of admission and the majority were male (63%). 43% of babies were hypothermic upon admission, a significantly greater proportion of which were inpatient babies born in labour ward (P=0.0025). Intrapartum related death accounted for ½ of all inpatient babies whereas complications of prematurity were the predominant cause of death in the community group (37%). Severe infection does not seem like a significant factor of mortality for inpatients (2%) as it does for community admissions (29%). Furthermore, with 52.5% of community admissions weighing < 1500g, very low birth weight (VLBW) may be a significant risk factor for community neonatal death. Conclusion: The neonatal mortality rate in this study is high, and the leading causes of death are all largely preventable. A high rate of inpatient birth asphyxiation indicates the need for good quality facility-based perinatal care as well as a greater focus on the management of hypothermia, such as Kangaroo care. Moreover, a reduction in preterm deliveries is necessary to reduce associated comorbidities, and monitoring for signs of infection is especially important for community admissions.

Keywords: community, mortality, newborn, Uganda

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
105 Incidence of Orphans Neonatal Puppies Attend in Veterinary Hospital – Causes, Consequences and Mortality

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Orphaned is a risk factor for mortality in newborns since it is a condition with total or partial absence of maternal care that is essential for neonatal survival, including nursing (nutrition, the transference of passive immunity and hydration), warmth, urination, and defecation stimuli, and protection. The most common causes of mortality in orphans are related to lack of assistance, handling mistakes and infections. This study aims to describe the orphans rates in neonatal puppies, the main causes, and the mortality rates. The study included 735 neonates admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, between January 2018 and November 2019. The orphans rate was 43.4% (319/735) of all neonates included, and the main causes for orphaned were related to maternal agalactia/hypogalactia (23.5%, 75/319); numerous litter (15.7%, 50/319), toxic milk syndrome due to maternal mastitis (14.4%, 46/319), absence of suction/weak neonate (12.2%, 39/319), maternal disease (9.4%, 30/319), cleft palate/lip (6.3%, 20/319), maternal death (5.9%, 19/319), prematurity (5.3%, 17/319), rejection/failure in maternal instinct (3.8%, 12/319) and abandonment by the owner/separation of mother and neonate (3.5%, 11/319). The main consequences of orphaned observed in the admitted neonates were hypoglycemia, hypothermia, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, wasting syndrome, failure in the transference of passive immunity, infections and sepsis, which happened due to failure of identifying the problem early, lack of adequate assistance, negligence and handling mistakes by the owner. The total neonatal mortality rate was 8% (59/735) and the neonatal mortality rate among orphans was 18.5% (59/319). The orphaned and mortality rates were considered high, but even higher rates may be observed in locations without adequate neonatal assistance and owner orientation. The survival of these patients is related to constant monitoring of the litter, early diagnosis and assistance, and the implementation of effective handling for orphans. Understanding the correct handling for neonates and instructing the owners regarding proper handling are essential to minimize the consequences of orphaned and the mortality rates.

Keywords: orphans, neonatal care, puppies, newborn dogs

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104 The Impact of Neonatal Methamphetamine on Spatial Learning and Memory of Females in Adulthood

Authors: Ivana Hrebickova, Maria Sevcikova, Romana Slamberova

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The present study was aimed at evaluation of cognitive changes following scheduled neonatal methamphetamine exposure in combination with long-term exposure in adulthood of female Wistar rats. Pregnant mothers were divided into two groups: group with indirect exposure (methamphetamine in dose 5 mg/ml/kg, saline in dose 1 ml/kg) during early lactation period (postnatal day 1–11) - progeny of these mothers were exposed to the effects of methamphetamine or saline indirectly via the breast milk; and the second group with direct exposure – all mothers were left intact for the entire lactation period, while progeny was treated with methamphetamine (5 mg/ml/kg) by injection or the control group, which was received needle pick (shame, not saline) at the same time each day of period of application (postnatal day 1–11). Learning ability and memory consolidation were tested in the Morris Water Maze, which consisted of three types of tests: ‘Place Navigation Test ‘; ‘Probe Test ‘; and ‘Memory Recall Test ‘. Adult female progeny were injected daily, after completion last trial with saline or methamphetamine (1 mg/ml/kg). We compared the effects of indirect/direct neonatal methamphetamine exposure and adult methamphetamine treatment on cognitive function of female rats. Statistical analyses showed that neonatal methamphetamine exposure worsened spatial learning and ability to remember the position of the platform. The present study demonstrated that direct methamphetamine exposure has more significant impact on process of learning and memory than indirect exposure. Analyses of search strategies (thigmotaxis, scanning) used by females during the Place Navigation Test and Memory Recall Test confirm all these results.

Keywords: methamphetamine, Morris water maze, neonatal exposure, strategies, Wistar rats

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103 Maternal and Neonatal Outcome Analysis in Preterm Abdominal Delivery Underwent Umbilical Cord Milking Compared to Early Cord Clamping

Authors: Herlangga Pramaditya, Agus Sulistyono, Risa Etika, Budiono Budiono, Alvin Saputra

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Preterm birth and anemia of prematurity are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, and anemia of the preterm neonates has become a major issue. The timing of umbilical cord clamping after a baby is born determines the amount of blood transferred from the placenta to fetus, Delayed Cord Clamping (DCC) has proven to prevent anemia in the neonates but it is constrained concern regarding the delayed in neonatal resuscitation. Umbilical Cord Milking (UCM) could be an alternative method for clamping the umbilical cord due to the active blood transfer from the placenta to the fetus. The aim of this study was to analyze the difference between maternal and neonatal outcome in preterm abdominal delivery who underwent UCM compared to ECC. This was an experimental study with randomized post-test only control design. Analyzed maternal and neonatal outcomes, significant P values (P <0.05). Statistical comparison was carried out using Paired Samples t-test (α two tailed 0,05). The result was the mean of preoperative mother’s hemoglobin in UCM group compared to ECC (10,9 + 0,9 g/dL vs 10,4 + 0,9 g/dL) and postoperative (11,1 + 1,1 g/dL vs 10,5 + 0,7 g/dL), the delta was (0,2 + 0,7 vs 0,1 + 0,6.). It showed no significant difference (P=0,395 vs 0,627). The mean of 3rd phase labor duration in UCM group vs ECC was (20,5 + 3,5 second vs 21,1 + 3,3 second), showed insignificant difference (P=0,634). The amount of bleeding after delivery in UCM group compared to ECC has the median of 190 cc (100-280cc) vs 210 cc (150-330 cc) showed insignificant difference (P=0,083) so the incidence of post-partum bleeding was not found. The mean of the neonates hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocytes of UCM group compared to ECC was (19,3 + 0,7 vs 15,9 + 0,8 g/dl), (57,1 + 3,6 % vs 47,2 + 2,8 %), and (5,4 + 0,4 g/dl vs 4,5 + 0,3 g/dl) showed significant difference (P<0,0001). There was no baby in UCM group received blood transfusion and one baby in the control ECC group received blood transfusion was found. Umbilical Cord Milking has shown to increase the baby’s blood component such as hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocytes 6 hours after birth as well as lowering the incidence of blood transfusions. Maternal and neonatal morbidity were not found. Umbilical Cord Milking was the act of clamping the umbilical cord that was more beneficial to the baby and no adverse or negative effects on the mother.

Keywords: umbilical cord milking, early cord clamping, maternal and neonatal outcome, preterm, abdominal delivery

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102 Neonatology Clinical Routine in Cats and Dogs: Cases, Main Conditions and Mortality

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

The neonatal care of cats and dogs represents a challenge to veterinarians due to the small size of the newborns and their physiological particularities. In addition, many Veterinary Medicine colleges around the world do not include neonatology in the curriculum, which makes it less likely for the veterinarian to have basic knowledge regarding neonatal care and worsens the clinical care these patients receive. Therefore, lack of assistance and negligence have become frequent in the field, which contributes towards the high mortality rates. This study aims at describing cases and the main conditions pertaining to the neonatology clinical routine in cats and dogs, highlighting the importance of specialized care in this field of Veterinary Medicine. The study included 808 neonates admitted to the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, between January 2018 and November 2019. Of these, 87.3% (705/808) were dogs and 12.7% (103/808) were cats. Among the neonates admitted, 57.3% (463/808) came from emergency c-sections due to dystocia, 8.7% (71/808) cane from vaginal deliveries with obstetric maneuvers due to dystocia, and 34% (274/808) were admitted for clinical care due to neonatal conditions. Among the neonates that came from emergency c-sections and vaginal deliveries, 47.3% (253/534) was born in respiratory distress due to severe hypoxia or persistent apnea and required resuscitation procedure, such as the Jen Chung acupuncture point (VG26), oxygen therapy with mask, pulmonary expansion with resuscitator, heart massages and administration of emergency medication, such as epinephrine. On the other hand, in the neonatal clinical care, the main conditions and alterations observed in the newborns were omphalophlebitis, toxic milk syndrome, neonatal conjunctivitis, swimmer puppy syndrome, neonatal hemorrhagic syndrome, pneumonia, trauma, low weight at birth, prematurity, congenital malformations (cleft palate, cleft lip, hydrocephaly, anasarca, vascular anomalies in the heart, anal atresia, gastroschisis, omphalocele, among others), neonatal sepsis and other local and systemic bacterial infections, viral infections (feline respiratory complex, parvovirus, canine distemper, canine infectious traqueobronchitis), parasitical infections (Toxocara spp., Ancylostoma spp., Strongyloides spp., Cystoisospora spp., Babesia spp. and Giardia spp.) and fungal infections (dermatophytosis by Microsporum canis). The most common clinical presentation observed was the neonatal triad (hypothermia, hypoglycemia and dehydration), affecting 74.6% (603/808) of the patients. The mortality rate among the neonates was 10.5% (85/808). Being knowledgeable about neonatology is essential for veterinarians to provide adequate care for these patients in the clinical routine. Adding neonatology to college curriculums, improving the dissemination of information on the subject, and providing annual training in neonatology for veterinarians and employees are important to improve immediate care and reduce the mortality rates.

Keywords: neonatal care, puppies, neonatal, conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
101 Effect of Parenteral Administration of Vitamin A in Pregnant Dry Cows, on Vitamin A Status of Neonatal Calves

Authors: Samad Lotfollahzadeh

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To evaluate the effect of intramuscular administration of vitamin A during dry period in pregnant dairy cows, which already received it in their daily ration, on vitamin A status of neonatal calves, a total of 30 cows were randomly selected and divided to two main groups; treatment and control group. Animals in the treatment group were subdivided into two groups. Single intramuscular injection of 2000000 IU vitamin A; was carried in 10 dairy cows at 7 months of pregnancy (group 1). In the second group of treated animals (10 cows) the injection was performed in 8 months of pregnancy (group 2). Ten pregnant dairy cows were received saline injection as placebo and selected as the control group. Blood samples were collected from experimental dairy cows at 7 and 8 months of pregnancy as well as their newborn calves’ pre and after colostrum intake. There was no significant difference between vitamin A and β- carotene concentration of dairy cows of three groups in two last months of pregnancy (P > 0.05). Vitamin A concentration of calves of two treatment groups before and after receiving of colostrum were significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between serum concentrations of vitamin A in calves of two treated groups (P > 0.05). β- Carotene concentration of serum samples of dairy cows and neonatal calves of three groups were not significantly different as compared with together. From results of the present study it can be concluded that daily supplementation of vitamin A in late pregnancy in dairy cows may not compensate the calves need for vitamin A and single injection of this vitamin A during dry either in 7 or 8 months of pregnancy can significantly increase level of vitamin A in their colostrum and neonatal calves.

Keywords: dry cow, beta carotene, newborn calves, vitamin A, dry cows

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
100 Importance of Cryptosporidiosis in Dairy Calves

Authors: Mohammad Asadpour

Abstract:

Cryptosporidium spp. is zoonotic pathogens transmissible from a variety of animals to humans and is a considerable public health concern. Calves have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. Parasite has a different species that are the cases of zoonotic disease in immunodeficient people and neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium oocysts are extremely resistant to chlorine and other physical cases that commonly used in drinking water. Reproduction of resistant oocytes is a way for this monoxenous parasite to remain in the environment. Cryptosporidium parvum is the most important species that has human and cattle genotypes. Cryptosporidium is one of the most important causes of diarrhea in neonatal calves and also, one of the four causes of diarrhea symptoms in pre-weaned calves. Because of the incompetent immune system in calves, Cryptosporidium infection is the cause of a lot of problems in raising farms.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium spp, dairy calves, importance, veterinary medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
99 A Case Report on Neonatal Conjunctivitis in Pugs

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenco, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Neonatal conjunctivitis, or ophthalmia, is an infection of the conjunctiva or cornea before opening the eyelids. It is believed that immunodeficiency contributes to the development of the condition. This study aims at reporting a case of ophthalmia neonatorum in a dog, in addition to its diagnosis and treatment. A litter of five pug neonates was admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with complaints of ocular secretion. The neonates were five days old. The clinical examination revealed that three newborns presented swelling in the ocular region and a purulent secretion in the medial corner of the eye that was exerting pressure on the ocular globes, which are compatible with the description of this disease. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical signs and bacterial culture of the secretion, which revealed the presence of bacteria belonging to the genus Staphylococcus sp. The laboratory assays did not reveal any alterations. The treatment was instituted gently, opening the eyelids early and cleaning the purulent ocular secretion with saline solution. An ophthalmic ointment with retinol, amino acids, methionine, and chloramphenicol (Epitezan®) was prescribed four times a day for seven days. Blood plasma (2 mL/100 g) was administered subcutaneously because bacterial infections in neonates may represent a failure in the transference of passive immunity. A more thorough cleaning of the environment was also recommended. Neonatal conjunctivitis has a simple diagnosis and treatment. If not treated early, it can evolve to adherence of the eyelids to the cornea, ulceration, and perforation of the cornea. Therefore, the prognosis is favorable as long as the condition is diagnosed early, and the treatment is instituted quickly.

Keywords: ophthalmia neonatorum, neonatal infection, puppy, newborn

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
98 Transforming Maternity and Neonatal Services in a Middle Eastern Country

Authors: M. A. Brown, K. Hugill, D. Meredith

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Since the establishment of midwifery, as a professional identity in its own right, in the early years of the 20th century, midwifery-led models of childbirth have prevailed in many parts of the world. However, in many locations midwives’ scope of practice remains underdeveloped or absent. In Qatar, all births take place in hospital and are under the professional jurisdiction of obstetricians, predominately supported by internationally trained nurse-midwives and obstetric nurses. The strategic vision for health services in Qatar endorsed a desire to provide women with the ‘Best Care Always’ and the introduction of midwifery was seen as a way to achieve this. In 2015 the process of recruiting postgraduate educated Clinical Midwife Specialists from international sources began. The midwives were brought together to initiate an in hospital and community service transformation plan. This plan set out a series of wide-ranging actions to transform maternity and neonatal services to make care safer and give women more health choices. Change in any organization is a complex and dynamic process. This is made even more complex when multifaceted professional and cross cultural factors are involved. This presentation reports upon the motivations and challenges that exist and the progress around introducing a multicultural midwifery model of childbirth care in the state of Qatar. The paper examines and reflects upon the drivers and unique features of childbirth in the country. Despite accomplishments, progress still needs to be made in order to fully implement sustainable changes to further improve care and ensure women and neonates get the ‘Best Care Always’. The progress within the transformation plan highlights how midwifery may coexist with competing models of maternity care to create an innovative, eclectic and culturally sensitive paradigm that can best serve women and neonatal health needs.

Keywords: culture, managing change, midwifery, neonatal, service transformation plan

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
97 Klinefelter Syndrome Presenting with Perinatal Ascites Associated with Unilateral Renal Agenesis and a Prostatic Utricle Cyst: A Case Report

Authors: Xuxin Lim, Rambha Rai, Suresh Chandran, Anette Jacobsen

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We present a rare case of Klinefelter syndrome who presented with perinatal ascites, unilateral renal agenesis and a prostatic utricle cyst. Antenatally, amniocentesis revealed a fetal karyotype of Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY), and the 34-week ultrasound scan showed a cyst measuring 17mm x 21mm x 27mm located inferior-posterior to the bladder. There were no ascites noted then, but a small left pelvic kidney was present. We report the first case of Klinefelter syndrome associated with a prostatic utricle cyst and unilateral renal agenesis, presenting with neonatal ascites.

Keywords: congenital disorders, utricle cyst, neonatal, surgery, prostate

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
96 Effects of Umbilical Cord Clamping on Puppies Neonatal Vitality

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

In veterinary medicine, the standard procedure during a caesarian section is clamping the umbilical cord immediately after birth. In human neonates, when the umbilical cord is kept intact after birth, blood continues to flow from the cord to the newborn, but this procedure may prove to be difficult in dogs due to the shorter umbilical cord and the number of newborns in the litter. However, a possible detachment of the placenta while keeping the umbilical cord intact may make the residual blood to flow to the neonate. This study compared the effects on neonatal vitality between clamping and no clamping the umbilical cord of dogs born through cesarean section, assessing them through Apgar and reflex scores. Fifty puppies delivered from 16 bitches were randomly allocated to receive clamping of the umbilical cord immediately (n=25) or to not receive the clamping until breathing (n=25). The neonates were assessed during the first five min of life and once again 10 min after the first assessment. The differences observed between the two moments were significant (p < 0.01) for both the Apgar and reflex scores. The differences observed between the groups (clamped vs. not clamped) were not significant for the Apgar score in the 1st moment (p=0.1), but the 2nd moment was significantly (p < 0.01) in the group not clamped, as well as significant (p < 0.05) for the reflex score in the 1st moment and 2nd moment (p < 0.05), revealing higher neonatal vitality in the not clamped group. The differences observed between the moments (1st vs. 2nd) of each group as significant (p < 0.01), revealing higher neonatal vitality in the 2nd moments. In the no clamping group, after removing the neonates together with the umbilical cord and the placenta, we observed that the umbilical cords were full of blood at the time of birth and later became whitish and collapsed, demonstrating the blood transfer. The results suggest that keeping the umbilical cord intact for at least three minutes after the onset breathing is not detrimental and may contribute to increase neonate vitality in puppies delivered by cesarean section.

Keywords: puppy vitality, newborn dog, cesarean section, Apgar score

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95 Neonatal Sepsis in Dogs Attend in Veterinary Hospital of the Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil – Incidence, Clinical Aspects and Mortality

Authors: Maria Lucia G. Lourenco, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Vivane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Neonatal sepsis is a systemic response to the acute generalized infection caused by one or more bacterial agents, representing the main infectious cause of neonatal mortality in dogs during the first three weeks of life. This study aims to describe the incidence of sepsis in neonate dogs, as well as the main clinical signs and mortality rates. The study included 735 neonates admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, between January 2018 and November 2019. Seven hundred thirty-five neonates, 14% (98/703) presented neonatal sepsis. The main sources of infection for the neonates were intrauterine (72.5%, 71/98), lactogenic (13.2%, 13/98), umbilical (5.1%, 5/98) and unidentified sources (9.2%, 9/98). The main non-specific clinical signs observed in the newborns were weakness, depression, impaired or absent reflexes, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, dehydration, reduced muscle tonus and diarrhea. The newborns also manifested clinical signs of severe infection, such as hyperemia in the abdominal and anal regions, omphalitis, hematuria, abdomen and extremities with purplish-blue coloration necrosing injuries in the pads, bradycardia, dyspnea, epistaxis, hypotension and evolution to septic shock. Infections acquired during intrauterine life led to the onset of the clinical signs at the time of birth, with fast evolution during the first hours of life. On the other hand, infections acquired via milk or umbilical cord presented clinical signs later. The total mortality rate was 5.4% (38/703) and the mortality rate among the neonates with sepsis was 38.7% (38/98). The early mortality rate (0 to 2 days) accounted for 86.9% (33/38) and the late mortality rate (3 to 30 days) for 13.1% (5/38) of the deaths among the newborns with sepsis. The main bacterial agents observed were Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp. Mannheimia spp. and Escherichia coli. Neonatal sepsis evolves quickly and may lead to high mortality in a litter. The prognosis is usually favorable if the diagnosis is reached early and the antibiotic therapy instituted as soon as possible, even before the results of blood cultures and antibiograms. The therapeutic recommendations should meet the special physiological conditions of a neonate in terms of metabolism and excretion of medication. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that the veterinarian is knowledgeable regarding neonatology to provide effective intervention and improve the survival rates of these patients.

Keywords: Neonatal infection , bacteria, puppies, newborn

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94 Assessment of Very Low Birth Weight Neonatal Tracking and a High-Risk Approach to Minimize Neonatal Mortality in Bihar, India

Authors: Aritra Das, Tanmay Mahapatra, Prabir Maharana, Sridhar Srikantiah

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In the absence of adequate well-equipped neonatal-care facilities serving rural Bihar, India, the practice of essential home-based newborn-care remains critically important for reduction of neonatal and infant mortality, especially among pre-term and small-for-gestational-age (Low-birth-weight) newborns. To improve the child health parameters in Bihar, ‘Very-Low-Birth-Weight (vLBW) Tracking’ intervention is being conducted by CARE India, since 2015, targeting public facility-delivered newborns weighing ≤2000g at birth, to improve their identification and provision of immediate post-natal care. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, 200 public health facilities were randomly selected from all functional public-sector delivery points in Bihar and various outcomes were tracked among the neonates born there. Thus far, one pre-intervention (Feb-Apr’2015-born neonates) and three post-intervention (for Sep-Oct’2015, Sep-Oct’2016 and Sep-Oct’2017-born children) follow-up studies were conducted. In each round, interviews were conducted with the mothers/caregivers of successfully-tracked children to understand outcome, service-coverage and care-seeking during the neonatal period. Data from 171 matched facilities common across all rounds were analyzed using SAS-9.4. Identification of neonates with birth-weight ≤ 2000g improved from 2% at baseline to 3.3%-4% during post-intervention. All indicators pertaining to post-natal home-visits by frontline-workers (FLWs) improved. Significant improvements between baseline and post-intervention rounds were also noted regarding mothers being informed about ‘weak’ child – at the facility (R1 = 25 to R4 = 50%) and at home by FLW (R1 = 19%, to R4 = 30%). Practice of ‘Kangaroo-Mother-Care (KMC)’– an important component of essential newborn care – showed significant improvement in postintervention period compared to baseline in both facility (R1 = 15% to R4 = 31%) and home (R1 = 10% to R4=29%). Increasing trend was noted regarding detection and birth weight-recording of the extremely low-birth-weight newborns (< 1500 g) showed an increasing trend. Moreover, there was a downward trend in mortality across rounds, in each birth-weight strata (< 1500g, 1500-1799g and >= 1800g). After adjustment for the differential distribution of birth-weights, mortality was found to decline significantly from R1 (22.11%) to R4 (11.87%). Significantly declining trend was also observed for both early and late neonatal mortality and morbidities. Multiple regression analysis identified - birth during immediate post-intervention phase as well as that during the maintenance phase, birth weight > 1500g, children of low-parity mothers, receiving visit from FLW in the first week and/or receiving advice on extra care from FLW as predictors of survival during neonatal period among vLBW newborns. vLBW tracking was found to be a successful and sustainable intervention and has already been handed over to the Government.

Keywords: weak newborn tracking, very low birth weight babies, newborn care, community response

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93 Comparative Study for Neonatal Outcome and Umbilical Cord Blood Gas Parameters in Balanced and Inhalant Anesthesia for Elective Cesarean Section in Dogs

Authors: Agnieszka Antończyk, MałGorzata Ochota, Wojciech Niżański, ZdzisłAw Kiełbowicz

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The goal of the cesarean section (CS) is the delivery of healthy, vigorous pups with the provision of surgical plane anesthesia, appropriate analgesia, and rapid recovery of the dam. In human medicine, spinal or epidural anesthesia is preferred for a cesarean section as associated with a lower risk of neonatal asphyxia and the need for resuscitation. Nevertheless, the specificity of veterinary patients makes the application of regional anesthesia as a sole technique impractical, thus to obtain patient compliance the general anesthesia is required. This study aimed to compare the influence of balanced (inhalant with epidural) and inhalant anesthesia on neonatal umbilical cord blood gas (UCBG) parameters and vitality (modified Apgar scoring). The bitches (31) undergoing elective CS were enrolled in this study. All females received a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg s.c. Meloxicam. Females were randomly assigned into two groups: Gr I (Isoflurane, n=16) and Gr IE (Isoflurane plus Epidural, n=15). Anesthesia was induced with propofol at 4-6 mg/kg to effect, and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen; in IE group epidural anesthesia was also done using lidocaine (3-4 mg/kg) into the lumbosacral space. CSs were performed using a standard mid-line approach. Directly after the puppy extraction, the umbilical cord was double clamped before the placenta detachment. The vessels were gently stretched between forceps to allow blood sampling. At least 100 mcl of mixed umbilical cord blood was collected into a heparinized syringe for further analysis. The modified Apgar scoring system (AS) was used to objectively score neonatal health and vitality immediately after birth (before first aid or neonatal care was instituted), at 5 and 20 min after birth. The neonates were scored as normal (AS 7-10), weak (AS 4-6), or critical (AS 0-3). During surgery, the IE group required a lower isoflurane concentration compared to the females in group I (MAC 1.05±0.2 and 1.4±0.13, respectively, p<0.01). All investigated UCBG parameters were not statistically different between groups. All pups had mild acidosis (pH 7.21±0.08 and 7.21±0.09 in Gr I and IE, respectively) with moderately elevated pCO2 (Gr I 57.18±11.48, Gr IE 58.74±15.07), HCO3- on the lower border (Gr I 22.58±3.24, Gr IE 22.83±3.6), lowered BE (Gr I -6.1±3.57, Gr IE -5.6±4.19) and mildly elevated level of lactates (Gr I 2.58±1.48, Gr IE2.53±1.03). The glucose levels were above the reference limits in both groups of puppies (74.50±25.32 in Gr I, 79.50±29.73 in Gr IE). The initial Apgar score results were similar in I and IE groups. However, the subsequent measurements of AS revealed significant differences between both groups. Puppies from the IE group received better AS scores at 5 and 20 min compared to the I group (6.86±2.23 and 8.06±2.06 vs 5.11±2.40 and 7.83±2.05, respectively). The obtained results demonstrated that administration of epidural anesthesia reduced the requirement for isoflurane in dams undergoing cesarean section and did not affect the neonatal umbilical blood gas results. Moreover, newborns from the epidural anesthesia group were scored significantly higher in AS at 5 and 20 min, indicating their better vitality and quicker improvement post-surgery.

Keywords: apgar scoring, balanced anesthesia, cesarean section, umbilical blood gas

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92 Constructing a Grounded Theory of Parents' Musical Engagement with Their Premature Baby Contributing to Their Emerging Parental Identity in a Neonatal Unit

Authors: Elizabeth McLean, Katrina Skewes-McFerran, Grace Thompson

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Scholarship highlights the need to further examine and better understand and foster the process of becoming a parent to a premature baby in the neonatal context to support the critical development of the parent-infant relationship. Music therapy research documents significant benefits of music therapy on neonatal physiological and neurodevelopmental function, reduced maternal anxiety and validating parents’ relationship with their premature baby, yet limited studies examine the role of music in supporting parental identity. This was a multi-site study, exploring parents’ musical engagement with their hospitalised baby and parental identity in a NU. In-depth interviews with nine parents of a premature baby across varying time points in their NU journey took place. Data collection and analysis was influenced by Constructive Grounded Theory methodology. Findings in the form of a substantive grounded theory illuminated the contribution of parents’ musical engagement on their sense of parental identity in the NU. Specifically, the significance of their baby’s level and type of response during musical interactions in influencing parents’ capacity to engage in musical dialogue with their baby emerged. Specific conditions that acted as both barriers and fosters in parents’ musical engagement across a high- risk pregnancy and NU admission also emerged. Recommendations for future research into the role of music and music therapy in supporting parental coping and transition to parenthood during a high-risk pregnancy and birth and beyond the NU will be discussed.

Keywords: grounded theory, musical engagement, music therapy, parental identity

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91 Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis Pathogens in Malaysian Hospitals: Determining Empiric Antibiotic

Authors: Nazedah Ain Ibrahim, Mohamed Mansor Manan

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Treatment of suspected early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is essential. However, information regarding EONS pathogens may vary between regions. Global perspectives showed Group B Streptococcal (GBS) as the most common causative pathogens, but the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotics has changed the pathogens pattern towards gram negative microorganisms, especially E. coli. Objective of this study is to describe the pathogens isolated, to assess current treatment and risk of EONS. Records of 899 neonates born in three General Hospitals between 2009 until 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were neonates with blood culture taken prior to empiric antibiotics administration and within 72 hours of life. Of the study group, a total of 734 (82%) cases had documented blood culture that met the inclusion criteria. Proven EONS (as confirmed by positive blood culture) was found in 22 (3%) neonates. The majority was isolated with gram positive organisms, 17 (2.3%). In addition, other common gram positive organism isolated were Coagulase negative staphylococci (7) followed by Bacillus sp. (5) and Streptococcus pneumonia (2), and only one case isolated with GBS, Streptococcus spp. and Enterococcus sp. Meanwhile, only five cases of gram negative organisms [Stenotropomonas (xantho) maltophi (1), Haemophilus influenza (1), Spingomonas paucimobilis (1), Enterobacter gergoviae (1) and E. coli (1)] were isolated. A total of 286 (39%) cases were exposed to intrapartum antibiotics and of those, 157 (21.4%) were administered prior to delivery. All grams positive and most gram negative organisms showed sensitivity to the tested antibiotics. Only two rare gram negative organisms showed total resistant. Male, surfactant, caesarean delivery and prolonged rapture of membrane >18hours were a possible risk of proven EONS. Although proven EONS remains uncommon in Malaysia, nonetheless, the effect of intrapartum antibiotics still required continuous surveillance. However, by analyzing isolated pathogens it can be used as treatment guidance in managing suspected EONS.

Keywords: early onset neonatal sepsis, neonates, pathogens, gram positive, gram negative

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90 Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Women Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Nicolas Galazis, Nikolina Docheva, Constantinos Simillis, Kypros Nicolaides

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Background: Obese women are at increased risk for many pregnancy complications, and bariatric surgery (BS) before pregnancy has shown to improve some of these. Objectives: To review the current literature and quantitatively assess the obstetric and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women who have undergone BS. Search Strategy: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify studies that reported on pregnancy outcomes after BS. Selection Criteria: Pregnancy outcome in firstly, women after BS compared to obese or BMI-matched women with no BS and secondly, women after BS compared to the same or different women before BS. Only observational studies were included. Data Collection and Analysis: Two investigators independently collected data on study characteristics and outcome measures of interest. These were analysed using the random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed and sensitivity analysis was performed to account for publication bias. Main Results: The entry criteria were fulfilled by 17 non-randomised cohort or case-control studies, including seven with high methodological quality scores. In the BS group, compared to controls, there was a lower incidence of preeclampsia (OR, 0.45, 95% CI, 0.25-0.80; p=0.007), GDM (OR, 0.47, 95% CI, 0.40-0.56; P<0.001) and large neonates (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62; p<0.001) and a higher incidence of small neonates (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52-2.44; p<0.001), preterm birth (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.58; p=0.006), admission for neonatal intensive care (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.72; p=0.03) and maternal anaemia (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.56-7.44, p=0.002). Conclusions: BS as a whole improves some pregnancy outcomes. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding does not appear to increase the rate of small neonates that was seen with other BS procedures. Obese women of childbearing age undergoing BS need to be aware of these outcomes.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, pregnancy, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, birth weight

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89 Thrombocytopenia and Prolonged Prothrombin Time in Neonatal Septicemia

Authors: Shittu Bashirat, Shittu Mujeeb, Oluremi Adeolu, Orisadare Olayiwola, Jikeme Osameke, Bello Lateef

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Septicemia in neonates refers to generalized bacterial infection documented by positive blood culture in the first 28 days of life and is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality in sub-Sahara Africa. Thrombocytopenia in newborns is a result of increased platelet consumption; sepsis was found to be the most common risk factor. The objective of the study was to determine if there are organism-specific platelet responses among the 2 groups of bacterial agents: Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also to examine the association of platelet count and prothrombin time with neonatal septicemia. 232 blood samples were collected for this study. The blood culture was performed using Bactec 9050, an instrumented blood culture system. The platelet count and prothrombin time were performed using Abacus Junior 5 hematology analyzer and i-STAT 1 analyzer respectively. Of the 231 neonates hospitalized with clinical sepsis, blood culture reports were positive in 51 cases (21.4%). Klebsiella spp. (35.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (27.5%) were the most common Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates respectively. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 30 (58.8%) of the neonates with septicemia. Of the 9 (17.6%) patients with severe thrombocytopenia, seven (77.8%) had Klebsiella spp. septicemia. Out of the 21(63.6%) of thrombocytopenia produced by Gram-negative isolate, 17 (80.9) had increased prothrombin time. In conclusion, Gram-negative organisms showed the highest cases of severe thrombocytopenia and prolonged PT. This study has helped to establish a disturbance in hemostatic systems in neonates with septicemia. Further studies, however, may be required to assess other hemostasis parameters in order to understand their interaction with the infectious organisms in neonates.

Keywords: neonates, septicemia, thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, platelet count

Procedia PDF Downloads 332