Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4332

Search results for: myelin basic protein

4332 Citrullinated Myelin Basic Protein Mediated Inflammation in Astrocytes

Authors: Lali Shanshiashvili, Marika Chikviladze, Nino Mamulashvili, Maia Sepashvili, Nana Narmania, David Mikeladze


Purpose: During demyelinating inflammatory diseases and after the damage of the myelin sheet, myelin-derived proteins, including myelin basic protein (MBP), are secreted into the extracellular space. MBP shows extensive post-translational modifications, including the deimination of arginine residues. Deiminated MBP is structurally less ordered, susceptible to proteolytic attack, and more immunogenic than the unmodified one. It is hypothesized that MBP could change the inflammatory response in astrocytes. Methods: MBP was isolated and purified from bovine brain white matter. Primary astrocyte cultures were prepared from whole brains of 2-day-old Wistar rats. For evaluation of glutamate uptake/release in astrocytes following treatment of cells with MBP charge isomers, Glutamate Assay Kit was used. The expression of EAAT-2 (excitatory amino acid transporters), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR- γ), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (IkB), and high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in astrocytes were assayed by Western Blot analysis. Results: This study investigated the action of deiminated isomer (C8) on the cultured primary astrocytes and compared its effects with the effects of unmodified C1 isomers. The study found that C8 and C1 MBP differently act on the uptake and release of glutamate in astrocytes: nonmodified C1 MBP increases the uptake of glutamate and does not change the release, whereas C8 decreases the release of glutamate but does not alter the uptake. Nevertheless, both isomers increased the expression of PPAR-γ and EAAT2 in the same intensity. However, immunostaining and Western Blots of cell lysates showed a decrease of IkB and increased expression of HMGB1 after the treatment of astrocytes by C8. Moreover, in the presence of C8, astrocytes release more nitric oxide than unmodified C1 isomers. Conclusion: These data suggest that the deiminated isomer of MBP evokes an inflammatory response and enhances the ability of astrocytes to release proinflammatory mediators through activation of NF-kB after the breakdown of myelin sheets. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the SRNSF Georgia RF17_534 grant.

Keywords: myelin basic protein, glutamate, deimination, astrocytes, inflammation

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4331 The Effects of Myelin Basic Protein Charge Isomers on the Methyl Cycle Metabolites in Glial Cells

Authors: Elene Zhuravliova, Tamar Barbakadze, Irina Kalandadze, Elnari Zaalishvili, Lali Shanshiashvili, David Mikeladze


Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, neurodegenerative disease, which is accompanied by demyelination and autoimmune response to myelin proteins. Among post-translational modifications, which mediate the modulation of inflammatory pathways during MS, methylation is the main one. The methylation of DNA, also amino acids lysine and arginine, occurs in the cell. It was found that decreased trans-methylation is associated with neuroinflammatory diseases. Therefore, abnormal regulation of the methyl cycle could induce demyelination through the action on PAD (peptidyl-arginine-deiminase) gene promoter. PAD takes part in protein citrullination and targets myelin basic protein (MBP), which is affected during demyelination. To determine whether MBP charge isomers are changing the methyl cycle, we have estimated the concentrations of methyl cycle metabolites in MBP-activated primary astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. For this purpose, the action of the citrullinated MBP- C8 and the most cationic MBP-C1 isomers on the primary cells were investigated. Methods: Primary oligodendrocyte and astrocyte cell cultures were prepared from whole brains of 2-day-old Wistar rats. The methyl cycle metabolites, including homocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), were estimated by HPLC analysis using fluorescence detection and prior derivatization. Results: We found that the action of MBP-C8 and MBP-C1 induces a decrease in the concentration of both methyl cycle metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), in astrocytes compared to the control cells. As for oligodendrocytes, the concentration of SAM was increased by the addition of MBP-C1, while MBP-C8 has no significant effect. As for SAH, its concentration was increased compared to the control cells by the action of both MBP-C1 and MBP-C8. A significant increase in homocysteine concentration was observed by the action of the MBP-C8 isomer in both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Conclusion: These data suggest that MBP charge isomers change the concentration of methyl cycle metabolites. MBP-C8 citrullinated isomer causes elevation of homocysteine in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which may be the reason for decreased astrocyte proliferation and increased oligodendrocyte cell death which takes place in neurodegenerative processes. Elevated homocysteine levels and subsequent abnormal regulation of methyl cycles in oligodendrocytes possibly change the methylation of DNA that activates PAD gene promoter and induces the synthesis of PAD, which in turn provokes the process of citrullination, which is the accompanying process of demyelination. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the SRNSF Georgia RF17_534 grant.

Keywords: myelin basic protein, astrocytes, methyl cycle metabolites, homocysteine, oligodendrocytes

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4330 Protein Isolates from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Its Application in Cake

Authors: Mohamed Abdullah Ahmed


In a study of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) preparation, the wet alkaline extraction was carried out. The objectives were to determine the optimal extracting conditions of CPI and apply CPI into a sponge cake recipe to replace egg and make acceptable product. The design used in extraction was a central composite design. The response surface methodology was preferred to graphically express the relationship between extraction time and pH with the output variables of percent yield and protein content of CPI. It was noted that optimal extracting conditions were 60 min and pH 10.5 resulting in 90.07% protein content and 89.15% yield of CPI. The protein isolate (CPI) could be incorporated in cake to 20% without adversely affecting the cake physical properties such as cake hardness and sensory attributes. The higher protein content in cake was corresponding to the amount of CPI added. Therefore, adding CPI can significantly (p<0.05) increase protein content in cake. However, sensory evaluation showed that adding more than 20% of CPI decreased the overall acceptability. The results of this investigation could be used as a basic knowledge of CPI utilization in other food products.

Keywords: chick bean protein isolate, sponge cake, utilization, sponge

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4329 Lentil Protein Fortification in Cranberry Squash

Authors: Sandhya Devi A


The protein content of the cranberry squash (protein: 0g) may be increased by extracting protein from the lentils (9 g), which is particularly linked to a lower risk of developing heart disease. Using the technique of alkaline extraction from the lentils flour, protein may be extracted. Alkaline extraction of protein from lentil flour was optimized utilizing response surface approach in order to maximize both protein content and yield. Cranberry squash may be taken if a protein fortification syrup is prepared and processed into the squash.

Keywords: alkaline extraction, cranberry squash, protein fortification, response surface methodology

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4328 A Nutrient Formulation Affects Brain Myelination in Infants: An Investigative Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: N. Schneider, M. Bruchhage, M. Hartweg, G. Mutungi, J. O Regan, S. Deoni


Observational neuroimaging studies suggest differences between breast-fed and formula-fed infants in developmental myelination, a key brain process for learning and cognitive development. However, the possible effects of a nutrient formulation on myelin development in healthy term infants in an intervention study have not been investigated. Objective was, therefore, to investigate the efficacy of a nutrient formulation with higher levels of myelin-relevant nutrients as compared to a control formulation with lower levels of the same nutrients on brain myelination and cognitive development in the first 6 months of life. The study is an ongoing randomized, controlled, double-blind, two-center, parallel-group clinical trial with a nonrandomized, non-blinded arm of exclusively breastfed infants. The current findings result from a staged statistical analysis at 6 months; the recruitment and intervention period has been completed for all participants. Follow-up visits at 12, 18 and 24 months are still ongoing. N= 81 enrolled full term, neurotypical infants of both sexes were randomized into either the investigational (N= 42) or the control group (N= 39), and N= 108 children in the breast-fed arm served as a natural reference group. The effect of a blend of docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, iron, vitamin B12, folic acid as well as sphingomyelin from a uniquely proceed whey protein concentrate enriched in alpha-lactalbumin and phospholipids in an infant nutrition product matrix was investigated. The main outcomes for the staged statistical analyses at 6 months included brain myelination measures derived from MRI. Additional outcomes were brain volume, cognitive development and safety. The full analyses set at 6 months comprised N= 66 infants. Higher levels of myelin-relevant nutrients compared to lower levels resulted in significant differences in myelin structure, volume, and rate of myelination as early as 3 and 6 months of life. The cross-sectional change of means between groups for whole-brain myelin volume was 8.4% for investigational versus control formulation (3.5% versus the breastfeeding reference) group at 3 months and increased to 36.4% for investigational versus control formulation (14.1% versus breastfeeding reference) at 6 months. No statistically significant differences were detected for early cognition scores. Safety findings were largely similar across groups. This is the first pediatric nutritional neuroimaging study demonstrating the efficacy of a myelin nutrient blend on developmental myelination in well-nourished term infants. Myelination is a critical process in learning and development. The effects were demonstrated across the brain, particularly in temporal and parietal regions, known to be functionally involved in sensory, motor and language skills. These first results add to the field of nutritional neuroscience by demonstrating early life nutrition benefits for brain architecture which may be foundational for later cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Identifier: NCT03111927 (Infant Nutrition and Brain Development - Full-Text View -

Keywords: brain development, infant nutrition, MRI, myelination

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4327 Hydration of Protein-RNA Recognition Sites

Authors: Amita Barik, Ranjit Prasad Bahadur


We investigate the role of water molecules in 89 protein-RNA complexes taken from the Protein Data Bank. Those with tRNA and single-stranded RNA are less hydrated than with duplex or ribosomal proteins. Protein-RNA interfaces are hydrated less than protein-DNA interfaces, but more than protein-protein interfaces. Majority of the waters at protein-RNA interfaces makes multiple H-bonds; however, a fraction does not make any. Those making Hbonds have preferences for the polar groups of RNA than its partner protein. The spatial distribution of waters makes interfaces with ribosomal proteins and single-stranded RNA relatively ‘dry’ than interfaces with tRNA and duplex RNA. In contrast to protein-DNA interfaces, mainly due to the presence of the 2’OH, the ribose in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the phosphate or the bases. The minor groove in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the major groove, while in protein-DNA interfaces it is reverse. The strands make the highest number of water-mediated H-bonds per unit interface area followed by the helices and the non-regular structures. The preserved waters at protein-RNA interfaces make higher number of H-bonds than the other waters. Preserved waters contribute toward the affinity in protein-RNA recognition and should be carefully treated while engineering protein-RNA interfaces.

Keywords: h-bonds, minor-major grooves, preserved water, protein-RNA interfaces

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4326 Protein Crystallization Induced by Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Tetsuo Okutsu


We have developed a crystallization plate with the function of promoting protein crystallization. A gold thin film is deposited on the crystallization plate. A protein solution is dropped thereon, and crystallization is promoted when the protein is irradiated with light of a wavelength that protein does not absorb. Protein is densely adsorbed on the gold thin film surface. The light excites the surface plasmon resonance of the gold thin film, the protein is excited by the generated enhanced electric field induced by surface plasmon resonance, and the amino acid residues are radicalized to produce protein dimers. The dimers function as templates for protein crystals, crystallization is promoted.

Keywords: lysozyme, plasmon, protein, crystallization, RNaseA

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4325 Protein Remote Homology Detection and Fold Recognition by Combining Profiles with Kernel Methods

Authors: Bin Liu


Protein remote homology detection and fold recognition are two most important tasks in protein sequence analysis, which is critical for protein structure and function studies. In this study, we combined the profile-based features with various string kernels, and constructed several computational predictors for protein remote homology detection and fold recognition. Experimental results on two widely used benchmark datasets showed that these methods outperformed the competing methods, indicating that these predictors are useful computational tools for protein sequence analysis. By analyzing the discriminative features of the training models, some interesting patterns were discovered, reflecting the characteristics of protein superfamilies and folds, which are important for the researchers who are interested in finding the patterns of protein folds.

Keywords: protein remote homology detection, protein fold recognition, profile-based features, Support Vector Machines (SVMs)

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4324 The Effects of pH on p53 Phosphorylation by Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Kinase

Authors: Serap Pektas


Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine-threonine kinase, which is the major regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM is activated upon the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the cells. ATM phosphorylates the proteins involved in apoptotic responses, cell cycle checkpoint control, DNA repair, etc. Tumor protein p53, known as p53 is one of these proteins that phosphorylated by ATM. Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 residue leads to p53 stabilization in the cells. Often enzymes activity is affected by hydrogen ion concentration (pH). In order to find the optimal pH range for ATM activity, steady-state kinetic assays were performed at acidic and basic pH ranges. Ser15 phosphorylation of p53 is determined by using ELISA. The results indicated that the phosphorylation rate was better at basic pH range compared with the acidic pH range. This could be due to enzyme stability, or enzyme-substrate interaction is pH dependent.

Keywords: ataxia telangiectasia mutated, DNA double strand breaks, DNA repair, tumor protein p53

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4323 Membrane Spanning DNA Origami Nanopores for Protein Translocation

Authors: Genevieve Pugh, Johnathan Burns, Stefan Howorka


Single-molecule sensing via protein nanopores has achieved a step-change in portable and label-free DNA sequencing. However, protein pores of both natural or engineered origin are not able to produce the tunable diameters needed for effective protein sensing. Here, we describe a generic strategy to build synthetic DNA nanopores that are wide enough to accommodate folded protein. The pores are composed of interlinked DNA duplexes and carry lipid anchors to achieve the required membrane insertion. Our demonstrator pore has a contiguous cross-sectional channel area of 50 nm2 which is 6-times larger than the largest protein pore. Consequently, transport of folded protein across bilayers is possible. The modular design is amenable for different pore dimensions and can be adapted for protein sensing or to create molecular gates in synthetic biology.

Keywords: biosensing, DNA nanotechnology, DNA origami, nanopore sensing

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4322 In silico Designing of Imidazo [4,5-b] Pyridine as a Probable Lead for Potent Decaprenyl Phosphoryl-β-D-Ribose 2′-Epimerase (DprE1) Inhibitors as Antitubercular Agents

Authors: Jineetkumar Gawad, Chandrakant Bonde


Tuberculosis (TB) is a major worldwide concern whose control has been exacerbated by HIV, the rise of multidrug-resistance (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistance (XDR-TB) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The interest for newer and faster acting antitubercular drugs are more remarkable than any time. To search potent compounds is need and challenge for researchers. Here, we tried to design lead for inhibition of Decaprenyl phosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2′-epimerase (DprE1) enzyme. Arabinose is an essential constituent of mycobacterial cell wall. DprE1 is a flavoenzyme that converts decaprenylphosphoryl-D-ribose into decaprenylphosphoryl-2-keto-ribose, which is intermediate in biosynthetic pathway of arabinose. Latter, DprE2 converts keto-ribose into decaprenylphosphoryl-D-arabinose. We had a selection of 23 compounds from azaindole series for computational study, and they were drawn using marvisketch. Ligands were prepared using Maestro molecular modeling interface, Schrodinger, v10.5. Common pharmacophore hypotheses were developed by applying dataset thresholds to yield active and inactive set of compounds. There were 326 hypotheses were developed. On the basis of survival score, ADRRR (Survival Score: 5.453) was selected. Selected pharmacophore hypotheses were subjected to virtual screening results into 1000 hits. Hits were prepared and docked with protein 4KW5 (oxydoreductase inhibitor) was downloaded in .pdb format from RCSB Protein Data Bank. Protein was prepared using protein preparation wizard. Protein was preprocessed, the workspace was analyzed using force field OPLS 2005. Glide grid was generated by picking single atom in molecule. Prepared ligands were docked with prepared protein 4KW5 using Glide docking. After docking, on the basis of glide score top-five compounds were selected, (5223, 5812, 0661, 0662, and 2945) and the glide docking score (-8.928, -8.534, -8.412, -8.411, -8.351) respectively. There were interactions of ligand and protein, specifically HIS 132, LYS 418, TRY 230, ASN 385. Pi-pi stacking was observed in few compounds with basic Imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine ring. We had basic azaindole ring in parent compounds, but after glide docking, we received compounds with Imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine as a basic ring. That might be the new lead in the process of drug discovery.

Keywords: DprE1 inhibitors, in silico drug designing, imidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine, lead, tuberculosis

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4321 Determination of Biomolecular Interactions Using Microscale Thermophoresis

Authors: Lynn Lehmann, Dinorah Leyva, Ana Lazic, Stefan Duhr, Philipp Baaske


Characterization of biomolecular interactions, such as protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid or protein-small molecule, provides critical insights into cellular processes and is essential for the development of drug diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we present a novel, label-free, and tether-free technology to analyze picomolar to millimolar affinities of biomolecular interactions by Microscale Thermophoresis (MST). The entropy of the hydration shell surrounding molecules determines thermophoretic movement. MST exploits this principle by measuring interactions using optically generated temperature gradients. MST detects changes in the size, charge and hydration shell of molecules and measures biomolecule interactions under close-to-native conditions: immobilization-free and in bioliquids of choice, including cell lysates and blood serum. Thus, MST measures interactions under close-to-native conditions, and without laborious sample purification. We demonstrate how MST determines the picomolar affinities of antibody::antigen interactions, and protein::protein interactions measured from directly from cell lysates. MST assays are highly adaptable to fit to the diverse requirements of different and complex biomolecules. NanoTemper´s unique technology is ideal for studies requiring flexibility and sensitivity at the experimental scale, making MST suitable for basic research investigations and pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: biochemistry, biophysics, molecular interactions, quantitative techniques

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4320 Encapsulation and Protection of Bioactive Nutrients Based on Ligand-Binding Property of Milk Proteins

Authors: Hao Cheng, Yingzhou Ni, Amr M. Bakry, Li Liang


Functional foods containing bioactive nutrients offer benefits beyond basic nutrition and hence the possibility of delaying and preventing chronic diseases. However, many bioactive nutrients degrade rapidly under food processing and storage conditions. Encapsulation can be used to overcome these limitations. Food proteins have been widely used as carrier materials for the preparation of nano/micro-particles because of their ability to form gels and emulsions and to interact with polysaccharides. The mechanisms of interaction between bioactive nutrients and proteins must be understood in order to develop protein-based lipid-free delivery systems. Beta-lactoglobulin, a small globular protein in milk whey, exhibits an affinity to a wide range of compounds. Alfa-tocopherol, resveratrol and folic acid were respectively bound to the central cavity, the outer surface near Trp19–Arg124 and the hydrophobic pocket in the groove between the alfa-helix and the beta-barrel of the protein. Beta-lactoglobulin could thus bind the three bioactive nutrients simultaneously to form protein-multi-ligand complexes. Beta-casein, an intrinsically unstructured but major milk protein, could also interact with resveratrol and folic acid to form complexes. These results suggest the potential to develop milk-protein-based complex carrier systems for encapsulation of multiple bioactive nutrients for functional food application and also pharmaceutical and medical uses.

Keywords: milk protein, bioactive nutrient, interaction, protection

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4319 Physicochemical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate (SPI): Starch Conjugates Treated by Sonication

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Hao Feng


In recent years there is growing interested in using soy protein because of several advantages compared to other protein sources, such as high nutritional value, steady supply, and low cost. Soy protein isolate (SPI) is the most refined soy protein product. It contains 90% protein in a moisture-free form and has some desirable functionalities. Creating a protein-polysaccharide conjugate to be the emulsifying agent rather than the protein alone can markedly enhance its stability. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of ultrasound treatments on the physicochemical properties of SPI-starch conjugates. The soy protein isolate (SPI, Pro-Fam® 955) samples were obtained from the Archer Daniels Midland Company. Protein concentrations were analyzed by the Bardford method using BSA as the standard. The volume-weighted mean diameters D [4,3] of protein–polysaccharide conjugates were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Surface hydrophobicity of the conjugates was measured by using 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). Increasing the pH from 2 to 12 resulted in increased protein solubility. The highest solubility was 69.2% for the sample treated with ultrasonication at pH 12, while the lowest (9.13%) was observed in the Control. For the other pH conditions, the protein solubility values ranged from 40.53 to 49.65%. The ultrasound treatment significantly decreased the particle sizes of the SPI-modified starch conjugates. While the D [4,3] for the Control was 731.6 nm, it was 293.7 nm for the samples treated by sonication at pH 12. The surface hydrophobicity (H0) of SPI-starch at all pH conditions were significantly higher than those in the Control. Ultrasonication was proven to be effective in improving the solubility and emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate-starch conjugates.

Keywords: particle size, solubility, soy protein isolate, ultrasonication

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4318 Fortification of Concentrated Milk Protein Beverages with Soy Proteins: Impact of Divalent Cations and Heating Treatment on the Physical Stability

Authors: Yichao Liang, Biye Chen, Xiang Li, Steven R. Dimler


This study investigated the effects of adding calcium and magnesium chloride on heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate (8:2 respectively) mixtures containing 10% w/w total protein subjected to the in-container sterilization (115 °C x 15 min). The particle size does not change when emulsions are heated at pH between 6.7 and 7.3 irrespective of the mixed protein ratio. Increasing concentration of divalent cation salts resulted in an increase in protein particle size, dry sediment formation and sediment height and a decrease in pH, heat stability and hydration in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions on sterilization at 115°C. Fortification of divalent cation salts in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture solutions resulted in an accelerated protein sedimentation and two unique sediment regions during accelerated storage stability testing. Moreover, the heat stability decreased upon sterilization at 115°C, with addition of MgCl₂ causing a greater increase in sedimentation velocity and compressibility than CaCl₂. Increasing pH value of protein milk concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions from 6.7 to 7.2 resulted in an increase in viscosity following the heat treatment. The study demonstrated that the type and concentration of divalent cation salts used strongly impact heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture nutritional beverages.

Keywords: divalent cation salts, heat stability, milk protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, storage stability

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4317 The Relation Between Protein-Protein and Polysaccharide-Protein Interaction on Aroma Release from Brined Cheese Model

Authors: Mehrnaz Aminifar


The relation between textural parameters and casein network on release of aromatic compounds was investigated over 90-days of ripening. Low DE maltodextrin and WPI were used to modify the textural properties of low fat brined cheese. Hardness, brittleness and compaction of casein network were affected by addition of maltodextrin and WPI. Textural properties and aroma release from cheese texture were affected by interaction of WPI protein-cheese protein and maltodexterin-cheese protein.

Keywords: aroma release, brined cheese, maltodexterin, WPI

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4316 Amino Acid Profile, Protein Digestibility, Antioxidant and Functional Properties of Protein Concentrate of Local Varieties (Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila) of Rice Brands from Nigeria

Authors: C. E. Chinma, S. O. Azeez, J. C. Anuonye, O. B. Ocheme, C. M. Yakubu, S. James, E. U. Ohuoba, I. A. Baba


There is growing interest in the use of rice bran protein in food formulation due to its hypoallergenic protein, high nutritional value and health promoting potentials. For the first time, the amino acid profile, protein digestibility, antioxidant, and functional properties of protein concentrate from some local varieties of rice bran from Nigeria were studied for possible food applications. Protein concentrates were prepared from rice bran and analysed using standard methods. Results showed that protein content of Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 69.24%, 69.97%, 68.73%, and 71.62%, respectively while total essential amino acid were 52.71, 53.03, 51.86, and 55.75g/100g protein, respectively. In vitro protein digestibility of protein concentrate from Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep and Jamila were 90.70%, 91.39%, 90.57% and 91.63% respectively. DPPH radical inhibition of protein from Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 48.15%, 48.90%, 47.56%, and 53.29%, respectively while ferric reducing ability power were 0.52, 0.55, 0.47 and 0.67mmol TE per gram, respectively. Protein concentrate from Jamila had higher onset (92.57oC) and denaturation temperature (102.13oC), and enthalpy (0.72J/g) than Jeep (91.46oC, 101.76oC, and 0.68J/g, respectively), Kwandala (90.32oC, 100.54oC and 0.57J/g, respectively), and Yardass (88.94oC, 99.45oC, and 0.51J/g, respectively). In vitro digestibility of protein from Kwandala, Yardas, Jeep, and Jamila were 90.70%, 91.39%, 90.57% and 91.63% respectively. Oil absorption capacity of Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 3.61, 3.73, 3.40, and 4.23g oil/g sample respectively, while water absorption capacity were 4.19, 4.32, 3.55 and 4.48g water/g sample, respectively. Protein concentrates had low bulk density (0.37-0.43g/ml). Protein concentrate from Jamila rice bran had the highest foam capacity (37.25%), followed by Yardass (34.20%), Kwandala (30.14%) and Jeep (28.90%). Protein concentrates showed low emulsifying and gelling capacities. In conclusion, protein concentrate prepared from these local rice bran varieties could serve as functional ingredients in food formulations and for enriching low protein foods.

Keywords: rice bran protein, amino acid profile, protein digestibility, antioxidant and functional properties

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4315 Marker Assisted Breeding for Grain Quality Improvement in Durum Wheat

Authors: Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Begüm Terzi, Ahmet Yıldırım, Leyla Gündüz


Durum wheat quality is defined as its suitability for pasta processing, that is pasta making quality. Another factor that determines the quality of durum wheat is the nutritional value of wheat or its final products. Wheat is a basic source of calories, proteins and minerals for humans in many countries of the world. For this reason, improvement of wheat nutritional value is of great importance. In recent years, deficiencies in protein and micronutrients, particularly in iron and zinc, have seriously increased. Therefore, basic foods such as wheat must be improved for micronutrient content. The effects of some major genes for grain quality established. Gpc-B1 locus is one of the genes increased protein and micronutrients content, and used in improvement studies of durum wheat nutritional value. The aim of this study was to increase the protein content and the micronutrient (Fe, Zn ve Mn) contents of an advanced durum wheat line (TMB 1) that was previously improved for its protein quality. For this purpose, TMB1 advanced durum wheat line were used as the recurrent parent and also, UC1113-Gpc-B1 line containing the Gpc-B1 gene was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region were selected by marker assisted selection (MAS). BC4F1 plants MAS method was employed in combination with embryo culture and rapid plant growth in a controlled greenhouse conditions in order to shorten the duration of the transition between generations in backcross breeding. The Gpc-B1 gene was selected specific molecular markers. Since Yr-36 gene associated with Gpc-B1 allele, it was also transferred to the Gpc-B1 transferred lines. Thus, the backcrossed plants selected by MAS are resistance to yellow rust disease. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (112T910).

Keywords: Durum wheat, Gpc-B1, MAS, Triticum durum, Yr-36

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4314 Analysis of Formyl Peptide Receptor 1 Protein Value as an Indicator of Neutrophil Chemotaxis Dysfunction in Aggressive Periodontitis

Authors: Prajna Metta, Yanti Rusyanti, Nunung Rusminah, Bremmy Laksono


The decrease of neutrophil chemotaxis function may cause increased susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis (AP). Neutrophil chemotaxis is affected by formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1), which when activated will respond to bacterial chemotactic peptide formyl methionyl leusyl phenylalanine (FMLP). FPR1 protein value is decreased in response to a wide number of inflammatory stimuli in AP patients. This study was aimed to assess the alteration of FPR1 protein value in AP patients and if FPR1 protein value could be used as an indicator of neutrophil chemotaxis dysfunction in AP. This is a case control study with 20 AP patients and 20 control subjects. Three milliliters of peripheral blood were drawn and analyzed for FPR1 protein value with ELISA. The data were statistically analyzed with Mann-Whitney test (p>0,05). Results showed that the mean value of FPR1 protein value in AP group is 0,353 pg/mL (0,11 to 1,18 pg/mL) and the mean value of FPR1 protein value in control group is 0,296 pg/mL (0,05 to 0,88 pg/mL). P value 0,787 > 0,05 suggested that there is no significant difference of FPR1 protein value in both groups. The present study suggests that FPR1 protein value has no significance alteration in AP patients and could not be used as an indicator of neutrophil chemotaxis dysfunction.

Keywords: aggressive periodontitis, chemotaxis dysfunction, FPR1 protein value, neutrophil

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4313 Selection of Pichia kudriavzevii Strain for the Production of Single-Cell Protein from Cassava Processing Waste

Authors: Phakamas Rachamontree, Theerawut Phusantisampan, Natthakorn Woravutthikul, Peerapong Pornwongthong, Malinee Sriariyanun


A total of 115 yeast strains isolated from local cassava processing wastes were measured for crude protein content. Among these strains, the strain MSY-2 possessed the highest protein concentration (>3.5 mg protein/mL). By using molecular identification tools, it was identified to be a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii based on similarity of D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA region. In this study, to optimize the protein production by MSY-2 strain, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied. The tested parameters were the carbon content, nitrogen content, and incubation time. Here, the value of regression coefficient (R2) = 0.7194 could be explained by the model, which is high to support the significance of the model. Under the optimal condition, the protein content was produced up to 3.77 g per L of the culture and MSY-2 strain contain 66.8 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight. These results revealed the plausibility of applying the novel strain of yeast in single-cell protein production.

Keywords: single cell protein, response surface methodology, yeast, cassava processing waste

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4312 Effect of Different Irrigation Intervals on Protein and Gel Production of Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis M.) in Iran

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Hosein Al Omrani Nejad, Ali Rezvani Aghdam


This study was done in order to evaluation different irrigation intervals on amount of protein, and gel production in Aloe vera, a traditional medicinal plant. Plants was plnted in Greenhouse and irrigated according to Accumulative Pan Evaporation(APE). The treatments were included 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 mm APE which has been showed W1,W2, W3, W4, W5, W6, W7, W8,W9 and W10 respectively.The amount of protein and gel production was measured seperately. Results showed that highest protein and fresh weight of gel obtained plants which irrigated W6 and W7 respectively. According to these results can recomend which if plant irrigatedwhen APE reached 120 and 140 mm by Class A Evaporation Pan method gel production and protein would besuitable in north of khozestan province in limited irrigation conditions.

Keywords: irrigation, protein, gel, aloe vera, Iran

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4311 Bio-Functional Polymeric Protein Based Materials Utilized for Soft Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Er-Yuan Chuang


Bio-mimetic matters have biological functionalities. This might be valuable in the development of versatile biomaterials. At biological fields, protein-based materials might be components to form a 3D network of extracellular biomolecules, containing growth factors. Also, the protein-based biomaterial provides biochemical and structural assistance of adjacent cells. In this study, we try to prepare protein based biomaterial, which was harvested from living animal. We analyzed it’s chemical, physical and biological property in vitro. Besides, in vivo bio-interaction of the prepared biomimetic matrix was tested in an animal model. The protein-based biomaterial has degradability and biocompatibility. This development could be used for tissue regenerations and be served as platform technologies.

Keywords: protein based, in vitro study, in vivo study, biomaterials

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4310 Combining in vitro Protein Expression with AlphaLISA Technology to Study Protein-Protein Interaction

Authors: Shayli Varasteh Moradi, Wayne A. Johnston, Dejan Gagoski, Kirill Alexandrov


The demand for a rapid and more efficient technique to identify protein-protein interaction particularly in the areas of therapeutics and diagnostics development is growing. The method described here is a rapid in vitro protein-protein interaction analysis approach based on AlphaLISA technology combined with Leishmania tarentolae cell-free protein production (LTE) system. Cell-free protein synthesis allows the rapid production of recombinant proteins in a multiplexed format. Among available in vitro expression systems, LTE offers several advantages over other eukaryotic cell-free systems. It is based on a fast growing fermentable organism that is inexpensive in cultivation and lysate production. High integrity of proteins produced in this system and the ability to co-express multiple proteins makes it a desirable method for screening protein interactions. Following the translation of protein pairs in LTE system, the physical interaction between proteins of interests is analysed by AlphaLISA assay. The assay is performed using unpurified in vitro translation reaction and therefore can be readily multiplexed. This approach can be used in various research applications such as epitope mapping, antigen-antibody analysis and protein interaction network mapping. The intra-viral protein interaction network of Zika virus was studied using the developed technique. The viral proteins were co-expressed pair-wise in LTE and all possible interactions among viral proteins were tested using AlphaLISA. The assay resulted to the identification of 54 intra-viral protein-protein interactions from which 19 binary interactions were found to be novel. The presented technique provides a powerful tool for rapid analysis of protein-protein interaction with high sensitivity and throughput.

Keywords: AlphaLISA technology, cell-free protein expression, epitope mapping, Leishmania tarentolae, protein-protein interaction

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4309 Extraction of Rice Bran Protein Using Enzymes and Polysaccharide Precipitation

Authors: Sudarat Jiamyangyuen, Tipawan Thongsook, Riantong Singanusong, Chanida Saengtubtim


Rice is a staple food as well as exported commodity of Thailand. Rice bran, a 10.5% constituent of rice grain, is a by-product of rice milling process. Rice bran is normally used as a raw material for rice bran oil production or sold as feed with a low price. Therefore, this study aimed to increase value of defatted rice bran as obtained after extracting of rice bran oil. Conventionally, the protein in defatted rice bran was extracted using alkaline extraction and acid precipitation, which results in reduction of nutritious components in rice bran. Rice bran protein concentrate is suitable for those who are allergenic of protein from other sources eg. milk, wheat. In addition to its hypoallergenic property, rice bran protein also contains good quantity of lysine. Thus it may act as a suitable ingredient for infant food formulations while adding variety to the restricted diets of children with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to compare properties of rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) extracted from defatted rice bran using enzymes together with precipitation step using polysaccharides (alginate and carrageenan) to those of a control sample extracted using a conventional method. The results showed that extraction of protein from rice bran using enzymes exhibited the higher protein recovery compared to that extraction with alkaline. The extraction conditions using alcalase 2% (v/w) at 50 C, pH 9.5 gave the highest protein (2.44%) and yield (32.09%) in extracted solution compared to other enzymes. Rice bran protein concentrate powder prepared by a precipitation step using alginate (protein in solution: alginate 1:0.006) exhibited the highest protein (27.55%) and yield (6.62%). Precipitation using alginate was better than that of acid. RBPC extracted with alkaline (ALK) or enzyme alcalase (ALC), then precipitated with alginate (AL) (samples RBP-ALK-AL and RBP-ALC-AL) yielded the precipitation rate of 75% and 91.30%, respectively. Therefore, protein precipitation using alginate was then selected. Amino acid profile of control sample, and sample precipitated with alginate, as compared to casein and soy protein isolated, showed that control sample showed the highest content among all sample. Functional property study of RBP showed that the highest nitrogen solubility occurred in pH 8-10. There was no statically significant between emulsion capacity and emulsion stability of control and sample precipitated by alginate. However, control sample showed a higher of foaming and lower foam stability compared to those of sample precipitated with alginate. The finding was successful in terms of minimizing chemicals used in extraction and precipitation steps in preparation of rice bran protein concentrate. This research involves in a production of value-added product in which the double amount of protein (28%) compared to original amount (14%) contained in rice bran could be beneficial in terms of adding to food products eg. healthy drink with high protein and fiber. In addition, the basic knowledge of functional property of rice bran protein concentrate was obtained, which can be used to appropriately select the application of this value-added product from rice bran.

Keywords: alginate, carrageenan, rice bran, rice bran protein

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4308 An Efficient Algorithm for Global Alignment of Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

Authors: Duc Dong Do, Ngoc Ha Tran, Thanh Hai Dang, Cao Cuong Dang, Xuan Huan Hoang


Global aligning two protein-protein interaction networks is an essentially important task in bioinformatics/computational biology field of study. It is a challenging and widely studied research topic in recent years. Accurately aligned networks allow us to identify functional modules of proteins and/ororthologous proteins from which unknown functions of a protein can be inferred. We here introduce a novel efficient heuristic global network alignment algorithm called FASTAn, including two phases: the first to construct an initial alignment and the second to improve such alignment by exerting a local optimization repeated procedure. The experimental results demonstrated that FASTAn outperformed the state-of-the-art global network alignment algorithm namely SPINAL in terms of both commonly used objective scores and the run-time.

Keywords: FASTAn, Heuristic algorithm, biological network alignment, protein-protein interaction networks

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4307 DNpro: A Deep Learning Network Approach to Predicting Protein Stability Changes Induced by Single-Site Mutations

Authors: Xiao Zhou, Jianlin Cheng


A single amino acid mutation can have a significant impact on the stability of protein structure. Thus, the prediction of protein stability change induced by single site mutations is critical and useful for studying protein function and structure. Here, we presented a deep learning network with the dropout technique for predicting protein stability changes upon single amino acid substitution. While using only protein sequence as input, the overall prediction accuracy of the method on a standard benchmark is >85%, which is higher than existing sequence-based methods and is comparable to the methods that use not only protein sequence but also tertiary structure, pH value and temperature. The results demonstrate that deep learning is a promising technique for protein stability prediction. The good performance of this sequence-based method makes it a valuable tool for predicting the impact of mutations on most proteins whose experimental structures are not available. Both the downloadable software package and the user-friendly web server (DNpro) that implement the method for predicting protein stability changes induced by amino acid mutations are freely available for the community to use.

Keywords: bioinformatics, deep learning, protein stability prediction, biological data mining

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4306 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Protein C Purification

Authors: Duygu Çimen, Nilay Bereli, Adil Denizli


In this study is to synthesis magnetic nanoparticles for purify protein C. For this aim, N-Methacryloyl-(L)-histidine methyl ester (MAH) containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by using micro-emulsion polymerization technique for templating protein C via metal chelation. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta-size analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. After that, they were used for protein C purification from aqueous solution to evaluate/optimize the adsorption condition. Hereby, the effecting factors such as concentration, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and reusability were evaluated. As the last step, protein C was determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Keywords: immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), magnetic nanoparticle, protein C, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

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4305 A Novel Protein Elicitor Extracted From Lecanicillium lecanii Induced Resistance Against Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in Cotton

Authors: Yusuf Ali Abdulle, Azhar Uddin Keerio


Background: Protein elicitors play a key role in signaling or displaying plant defense mechanisms and emerging as vital tools for bio-control of insects. This study was aimed at the characterization of the novel protein elicitor isolated from entomopathogenic fungi Lecanicillium lecanii (V3) strain and its activity against Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in cotton. The sequence of purified elicitor protein showed 100% similarity with hypothetical protein LEL_00878 [Cordyceps confragosa RCEF 1005], GenBank no (OAA81333.1). This novel protein elicitor has 253 amino acid residues and 762bp with a molecular mass of 29 kDa. The protein recombinant was expressed in Escherichia coli using pET‐28a (+) plasmid. Effects of purified novel protein elicitor on Bemisia tabaci were determined at three concentrations of protein (i.e., 58.32, 41.22, 35.41 μg mL⁻¹) on cotton plants and were exposed to newly molted adult B.tabaci. Bioassay results showed a significant effect of the exogenous application of novel protein elicitor on B. tabaci in cotton. In addition, the gene expression analysis found a significant up-regulation of the major genes associated with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) linked plant defense pathways in elicitor protein-treated plants. Our results suggested the potential application of a novel protein elicitor derived from Lecanicillium lecanii as a future bio-intensive controlling approach against the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

Keywords: resistance, Lecanicillium lecanii, secondary metabolites, whitefly

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4304 Computational Identification of Signalling Pathways in Protein Interaction Networks

Authors: Angela U. Makolo, Temitayo A. Olagunju


The knowledge of signaling pathways is central to understanding the biological mechanisms of organisms since it has been identified that in eukaryotic organisms, the number of signaling pathways determines the number of ways the organism will react to external stimuli. Signaling pathways are studied using protein interaction networks constructed from protein-protein interaction data obtained using high throughput experimental procedures. However, these high throughput methods are known to produce very high rates of false positive and negative interactions. In order to construct a useful protein interaction network from this noisy data, computational methods are applied to validate the protein-protein interactions. In this study, a computational technique to identify signaling pathways from a protein interaction network constructed using validated protein-protein interaction data was designed. A weighted interaction graph of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s Yeast) organism using the proteins as the nodes and interactions between them as edges was constructed. The weights were obtained using Bayesian probabilistic network to estimate the posterior probability of interaction between two proteins given the gene expression measurement as biological evidence. Only interactions above a threshold were accepted for the network model. A pathway was formalized as a simple path in the interaction network from a starting protein and an ending protein of interest. We were able to identify some pathway segments, one of which is a segment of the pathway that signals the start of the process of meiosis in S. cerevisiae.

Keywords: Bayesian networks, protein interaction networks, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, signalling pathways

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4303 Inheritance of Protein Content and Grain Yield in Half Diallel Maize (Zea mays L.) Populations

Authors: Gül Ebru Orhun


A half diallel crossing design was carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons under Çanakkale-Turkey ecological conditions. In this research, 20 F1 maize hybrids obtained by 6x6 half diallel crossing were used. Gene action for protein content and grain yield traits were explored in half set involving six elite inbred lines. According to the results diallel analysis dominance and additive gene variances were determined for protein content. Variance/Co-variance graphs revealed for grain yield and protein content traits. In this study, inheritance of grain yield and protein content demonstrated over-dominance type of gene action.

Keywords: protein, maize, inheritance, gene action

Procedia PDF Downloads 443