Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: glutamate

36 Investigation of the Excitotoxicity Pathways in Neuroblastoma Cells

Authors: Merve Colak, Gizem Donmez Yalcin


Glutamate has many neurological functions in the central nervous system and is found at high concentrations in the brain. Increased levels of glutamate in the neuronal space are toxic, causing neuron damage and death. This is called glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Excitotoxicity is among the causes of many neurological diseases such as trauma, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease. Since neuroblastoma cells are known to be excitotoxic, we propose that excitotoxicity can be studied in neuroblastoma cells. Excitotoxicity can be induced using kainic acid in neuroblastoma cells. Measuring the secretion of glutamate, excitotoxicity can be analyzed in neuroblastoma cells.

Keywords: glutamate, excitotoxicity, kainic acid, Sirt4

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35 Design and Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Glutamate Racemase (MurI) Inhibitors

Authors: Prasanthi Malapati, R. Reshma, Vijay Soni, Perumal Yogeeswari, Dharmarajan Sriram


In the present study, we attempted to develop Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) inhibitors by exploring the pharmaceutically underexploited enzyme targets which are majorly involved in cell wall biosynthesis of mycobacteria. For this purpose, glutamate racemase (coded by MurI gene) was selected. This enzyme racemize L-glutamate to D-glutamate required for the construction of peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall synthesis process. Furthermore this enzyme is neither expressed nor its product, D-glutamate is normally found in mammals, and hence designing inhibitors against this enzyme will not affect the host system as well act as potential antitubercular drugs. A library of BITS in house compounds were screened against Mtb MurI enzyme. Based on docking score, interactions and synthetic feasibility one hit lead was identified. Further optimization of lead was attempted and its derivatives were synthesized. Forty eight derivatives of 2-phenylbenzo[d]oxazole and 2-phenylbenzo[d]thiazole were synthesized and evaluated for Mtb MurI inhibition study, in vitro activities against Mtb, cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cell line. Chemical derivatization of the lead resulted in compounds NR-1213 AND NR-1124 as the potent M. tuberculosis glutamate racemase inhibitors with IC50 of 4-5µM which are remarkable and were found to be non-cytotoxic. Molecular dynamics, dormant models and cardiotoxicity studies of the most active molecules are in process.

Keywords: cell wall biosynthesis, dormancy, glutamate racemase, tuberculosis

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34 Inhibition of Glutamate Carboxypeptidase Activity Protects Retinal Ganglionic Cell Death Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion by Reducing the Astroglial Activation in Rat

Authors: Dugeree Otgongerel, Kyong Jin Cho, Yu-Han Kim, Sangmee Ahn Jo


Excessive activation of glutamate receptor is thought to be involved in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death after ischemia- reperfusion damage. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glutamate. Several studies showed that inhibition of GCPII prevents or reduces cellular damage in brain diseases. Thus, in this study, we examined the expression of GCPII in rat retina and the role of GCPII in acute high IOP ischemia-reperfusion damage of eye by using a GCPII inhibitor, 2-(phosphonomethyl) pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA). Animal model of ischemia-reperfusion was induced by raising the intraocular pressure for 60 min and followed by reperfusion for 3 days. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: either intra-vitreous injection of 2-PMPA (11 or 110 ng per eye) or PBS after ischemia-reperfusion, 2-PMPA treatment without ischemia-reperfusion and sham-operated normal control. GCPII immunoreactivity in normal rat retina was detected weakly in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and retinal ganglionic cell layer (RGL) and also inner plexiform layer (IPL) and outer plexiform layer (OPL) strongly where are co-stained with an anti-GFAP antibody, suggesting that GCPII is expressed mostly in Muller and astrocytes. Immunostaining with anti-BRN antibody showed that ischemia- reperfusion caused RGC death (31.5 %) and decreased retinal thickness in all layers of damaged retina, but the treatment of 2-PMPA twice at 0 and 48 hour after reperfusion blocked these retinal damages. GCPII level in RNFL layer was enhanced after ischemia-reperfusion but was blocked by PMPA treatment. This result was confirmed by western blot analysis showing that the level of GCPII protein after ischemia- reperfusion increased by 2.2- fold compared to control, but this increase was blocked almost completely by 110 ng PMPA treatment. Interestingly, GFAP immunoreactivity in the retina after ischemia- reperfusion followed by treatment with PMPA showed similar pattern to GCPII, increase after ischemia-reperfusion but reduction to the normal level by PMPA treatment. Our data demonstrate that increase of GCPII protein level after ischemia-reperfusion injury is likely to cause glial activation and/or retinal cell death which are mediated by glutamate, and GCPII inhibitors may be useful in treatment of retinal disorders in which glutamate excitotoxicity is pathogenic.

Keywords: glutamate carboxypepptidase II, glutamate excitotoxicity, ischemia-reperfusion, retinal ganglion cell

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33 Determination of the Phosphate Activated Glutaminase Localization in the Astrocyte Mitochondria Using Kinetic Approach

Authors: N. V. Kazmiruk, Y. R. Nartsissov


Phosphate activated glutaminase (GA, E.C. plays a key role in glutamine/glutamate homeostasis in mammalian brain, catalyzing the hydrolytic deamidation of glutamine to glutamate and ammonium ions. GA is mainly localized in mitochondria, where it has the catalytically active form on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and the other soluble form, which is supposed to be dormant. At present time, the exact localization of the membrane glutaminase active site remains a controversial and an unresolved issue. The first hypothesis called c-side localization suggests that the catalytic site of GA faces the inter-membrane space and products of the deamidation reaction have immediate access to cytosolic metabolism. According to the alternative m-side localization hypothesis, GA orients to the matrix, making glutamate and ammonium available for the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in mitochondria directly. In our study, we used a multi-compartment kinetic approach to simulate metabolism of glutamate and glutamine in the astrocytic cytosol and mitochondria. We used physiologically important ratio between the concentrations of glutamine inside the matrix of mitochondria [Glnₘᵢₜ] and glutamine in the cytosol [Glncyt] as a marker for precise functioning of the system. Since this ratio directly depends on the mitochondrial glutamine carrier (MGC) flow parameters, key observation was to investigate the dependence of the [Glnmit]/[Glncyt] ratio on the maximal velocity of MGC at different initial concentrations of mitochondrial glutamate. Another important task was to observe the similar dependence at different inhibition constants of the soluble GA. The simulation results confirmed the experimental c-side localization hypothesis, in which the glutaminase active site faces the outer surface of the IMM. Moreover, in the case of such localization of the enzyme, a 3-fold decrease in ammonium production was predicted.

Keywords: glutamate metabolism, glutaminase, kinetic approach, mitochondrial membrane, multi-compartment modeling

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32 Depressant Effects of 2-PMPA through Reduction of p-CREB (Ser133) and mGluR5 Level in Prefrontal Cortex of C57BL/6 Mice

Authors: Sang-Sun Yoon, Yea-Hyun Leem, Sangmee Ahn Jo


The N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic (NAAG) peptidase inhibitor 2-phosphonomethyl pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) has demonstrated to be neuroprotective against glutamate-mediated neuron degeneration and neurological disorders such as ischemia. Several studies have demonstrated impaired psychiatric function by altered glutamate carboxypeptidase II expression, although 2-PMPA has not yet been studied. Thus, we investigated effect of 2-PMPA on depressive-like phenotype using C57BL/6 mice. Treatment of 2-PMPA (10 mg/kg for 6 days/daily, ip injection) on C57BL/6 naïve mice showed depressive-like symptoms such as decreased social preference, but did not affect the immobility measured by tail suspension test. Reduction of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding (p-CREB) known as a representative marker of depressive-like behavior was observed in layer 1 and piriform cortex subregions of the prefrontal cortex of 2-PMPA-treated mice. The immunoreactivity of metabotropic glutamate receptors 5 (mGluR5) that mediate phosphorylation of CREB was also decreased in layer 1 and piriform cortex subregions of the prefrontal cortex of 2-PMPA injected mice. Thus, our results suggest that dysregulation of the GCPII or NAAG by 2-PMPA treatment is likely to be associated with pathogenesis of depression and further studies are needed to understand whether the reduced NAAG level or enhanced glutamate level in the brain is involved in this response.

Keywords: depression, GCPII, 2-PMPA, p-CREB, mGluR5

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31 Biochemical Changes in the Liver of Mice after Exposure to Different Doses of Diclofenac Sodium

Authors: Deepak Mohan, Sushma Sharma


Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are a group of widely used drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases and to relieve pain and inflammation due to their analgesic anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. The therapeutic and many of the toxic effects of NSAIDs result from reversible inhibition of enzymes in the cyclooxygenase (COX) group. In the present investigation the effect of the drug on the concentration of lipids, and on the activity of the enzymes i.e. acid and alkaline phosphatase, GOT, GPT and lipid peroxidase were studied. There was a significant enhancement in the activities of both acid and alkaline phosphatase after 21 days of treatment. Proportionate increase in the MDA contents was observed after different days of diclofenac treatment. Cellular damage in the liver resulted in decrease in the activity of both GOT (Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) and GPT (Glutamate pyruvate transaminase) in both low and high dose groups. Significant decrease in the liver contents was also observed in both dose groups.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, malondialdehyde

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30 Citrullinated Myelin Basic Protein Mediated Inflammation in Astrocytes

Authors: Lali Shanshiashvili, Marika Chikviladze, Nino Mamulashvili, Maia Sepashvili, Nana Narmania, David Mikeladze


Purpose: During demyelinating inflammatory diseases and after the damage of the myelin sheet, myelin-derived proteins, including myelin basic protein (MBP), are secreted into the extracellular space. MBP shows extensive post-translational modifications, including the deimination of arginine residues. Deiminated MBP is structurally less ordered, susceptible to proteolytic attack, and more immunogenic than the unmodified one. It is hypothesized that MBP could change the inflammatory response in astrocytes. Methods: MBP was isolated and purified from bovine brain white matter. Primary astrocyte cultures were prepared from whole brains of 2-day-old Wistar rats. For evaluation of glutamate uptake/release in astrocytes following treatment of cells with MBP charge isomers, Glutamate Assay Kit was used. The expression of EAAT-2 (excitatory amino acid transporters), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR- γ), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (IkB), and high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in astrocytes were assayed by Western Blot analysis. Results: This study investigated the action of deiminated isomer (C8) on the cultured primary astrocytes and compared its effects with the effects of unmodified C1 isomers. The study found that C8 and C1 MBP differently act on the uptake and release of glutamate in astrocytes: nonmodified C1 MBP increases the uptake of glutamate and does not change the release, whereas C8 decreases the release of glutamate but does not alter the uptake. Nevertheless, both isomers increased the expression of PPAR-γ and EAAT2 in the same intensity. However, immunostaining and Western Blots of cell lysates showed a decrease of IkB and increased expression of HMGB1 after the treatment of astrocytes by C8. Moreover, in the presence of C8, astrocytes release more nitric oxide than unmodified C1 isomers. Conclusion: These data suggest that the deiminated isomer of MBP evokes an inflammatory response and enhances the ability of astrocytes to release proinflammatory mediators through activation of NF-kB after the breakdown of myelin sheets. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the SRNSF Georgia RF17_534 grant.

Keywords: myelin basic protein, glutamate, deimination, astrocytes, inflammation

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29 Gonadotoxic and Cytotoxic Effect of Induced Obesity via Monosodium Glutamate on Mus musculus Testis Cytoarchitecture and Sperm Parameter

Authors: I. Nur Hilwani, R. Nasibah, S. Nurdiana, M. J. Norashirene


Impaired fertility may be the result of indirect consumption of anti-fertility agents through food. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been widely used as food additive, flavour enhancer and included in vaccines. This study focuses in determining the gonadotoxic and cytotoxic effect of MSG on selected sperm parameters such as sperm viability, sperm membrane integrity and testes cytoarchitecture of male mice via histological examination to determine its effect on spermatogenesis. Twenty-four Mus musculus were randomly divided into 4 groups and given intraperitoneal injections (IP) daily for 14 days of different MSG concentrations at 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg MSG to body weight to induce obesity. Saline was given to control group. Mice were sacrificed and analysis revealed abnormalities in values for sperm parameters and damages to testes cytoarchitecture of male mice. The results recorded decreased viability (p<0.05) and integrity of sperm membrane (p>0.05) with degenerative structures in seminiferous tubule of testes. The results indicated various implications of MSG on male mice reproductive system which has consequences in fertility potential.

Keywords: sperm parameter, testes histology, sperm viability, sperm membrane integrity

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28 Meticulous Doxorubicin Release from pH-Responsive Nanoparticles Entrapped within an Injectable Thermoresponsive Depot

Authors: Huayang Yu, Nicola Ingram, David C. Green, Paul D. Thornton


The dual stimuli-controlled release of doxorubicin from gel-embedded nanoparticles is reported. Non-cytotoxic polymer nanoparticles are formed from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(benzyl glutamate) that, uniquely, contain a central ester link. This connection renders the nanoparticles pH-responsive, enabling extensive doxorubicin release in acidic solutions (pH 6.5), but not in solutions of physiological pH (pH 7.4). Doxorubicin loaded nanoparticles were found to be stable for at least 31 days and lethal against the three breast cancer cell lines tested. Furthermore, doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles could be incorporated within a thermoresponsive poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) gel depot, which forms immediately upon injection of poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) into aqueous solution. The combination of the poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) gel and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(benzyl glutamate) nanoparticles yields an injectable doxorubicin delivery system that facilities near-complete drug release when maintained at elevated temperatures (37 °C) in acidic solution (pH 6.5). In contrast, negligible payload release occurs when the material is stored at room temperature in a non-acidic solution (pH 7.4). The system has great potential as a vehicle for the prolonged, site-specific release of chemotherapeutics.

Keywords: biodegradable, nanoparticle, polymer, thermoresponsive

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27 Imipramine Ameliorate Altered Biochemical Parameter and Oxidative Damage in Depression

Authors: D. S. Mohale, A.V. Chandewar


Study was undertaken to investigate the effect of imipramine on various biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers in short and long term depression on rats. Rats were subjected for short (21 days) and long term (84 days) social isolation for and checked for depression on force swim test and tail suspension method. Various markers of oxidative stress like lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), Supersoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and biochemical parameters like Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), Serum glutamate pyruate transaminase (SGPT), and blood glucose were determined in depressed, control, imipramine and Vitamin E treated group. The rats displayed an increase in depression on force swim test and tail suspension method relative to control. There was significant increase in the level of LPO and decrease in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT after short and long term depression. Increased oxidative stress in depression which may leads to alteration of biochemical parameters. Treatment with imipramine an tricyclic antidepressant significantly decreases in level of LPO, SGOT, SGPT and increase in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT in long term depression.

Keywords: depression, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione

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26 Electrophoretic Changes in Testis and Liver of Mice after Exposure to Diclofenac Sodium

Authors: Deepak Mohan, Sushma Sharma, Mohammad Asif


Diclofenac sodium being one of the most common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is normally used as painkiller and to reduce inflammation. The drug is known to alter the enzymatic activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminases. The drug also results in change in the concentration of proteins and lipids in the body. The present study is an attempt to study different biochemical changes electrophoretically due to administration of different doses of diclofenac (4mg/kg/body weight and 14mg/kg/body weight) on liver and testes of mice from 7-28 days of investigation. Homogenization of the tissue was done, supernatant separated was loaded in the gel and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted. Diclofenac administration resulted in alterations of all these biochemical parameters which were observed in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic studies. The severe degenerative changes as observed during later stages of the experiment showed correlation with increase or decrease in the activities of all the enzymes studied in the present investigation. Image analysis of gel in liver showed a decline of 7.4 and 5.3 % in low and high dose group after 7 days whereas a decline of 9.6 and 7.5% was registered after 28 days of investigation. Similar analysis for testis also showed an appreciable decline in the activity of alkaline phosphatase after 28 days. Gel analysis of serum was also performed to find a correlation in the enzymatic activities between the tissue and blood.

Keywords: diclofenac, inflammation, polyacrylamide, phosphatase

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25 Anticancer Effect of Isolated from the Methanolic Extract of Triticum Aestivum Straw in Mice

Authors: Savita Dixit


Rutin is the bioactive flavonoid isolated from the straw part of Triticum aestivum and possess various pharmacological applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of rutin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mice model system. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of rutin, it was orally administered at a concentration of (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) continued three times weekly for 16th weeks. The development of skin carcinogenesis was assessed by histopathological analysis. Reductions in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen due to rutin treatment. Average latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen-treated control. Rutin produced a significant decrease in the activity of serum enzyme serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin when compared with the control. They significantly increased the levels of enzyme involved in oxidative stress glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxidase in the control group was significantly inhibited by rutin administration. The results of the present study suggest the chemopreventive effect of rutin in DMBA and croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice and one of the probable reasons would be its antioxidant potential.

Keywords: chemoprevention, papilloma, rutin, skin carcinogenesis

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24 The Effect of Melatonin on Acute Liver Injury: Implication to Shift Work Related Sleep Deprivation

Authors: Bing-Fang Lee, Srinivasan Periasamy, Ming-Yie Liu


Shift work sleep disorder is a common problem in industrialized world. It is a type of circadian rhythmic sleep disorders characterized by insomnia and sleep deprivation. Lack of sleep in workers may lead to poor health conditions such as hepatic dysfunction. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland to alleviate insomnia. Moreover, it is a powerful antioxidant and may prevent acute liver injury. Therefore, workers take in melatonin to deal with sleep-related health is an important issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on an acute hepatic injury model sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with a single dose (500 mg/kg) of monocrotaline (MCT) to induce SOS. Melatonin (1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was injected 1 h before MCT treatment. After 24 h of MCT treatment, mice were sacrificed. The blood and liver were collected. Organ damage was evaluated by serum biochemistry, hematology analyzer, and histological examination. Low doses of melatonin (1 and 3 mg/kg) had no protective effect on SOS. However, high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg) exacerbated SOS. In addition, it not only increased serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and extended liver damage indicated by histological examination but also decreased platelet levels, lymphocyte ratio, and glutathione level; it had no effect on malondialdehyde and nitric oxide level in SOS mice. To conclude, melatonin may exacerbate MCT-induced SOS in mice. Furthermore, melatonin might have a synergistic action with SOS. Usage of melatonin for insomnia by people working in long shift must be cautioned; it might cause acute hepatic injury.

Keywords: acute liver injury, melatonin, shift work, sleep deprivation

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23 Improvement of Production of γ-Aminobutyric Acid by Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from Indigenous Fermented Durian (Tempoyak)

Authors: Yetti Marlida, Harnentis, Yuliaty Shafan Nur


Background: Tempoyak is a dish derived from fermented durian fruit. Tempoyak is a food consumed as a side dish when eating rice. Besides being eaten with rice, tempoyak can also be eaten directly. But this is rarely done because many cannot stand the sour taste and aroma of the tempoyak itself. In addition, tempoyak can also be used as a seasoning. The taste of tempoyak is acidic, this occurs because of the fermentation process in durian fruit meat which is the raw material. Tempoyak is already very well known in Indonesia, especially in Padang, Bengkulu, Palembang, Lampung, and Kalimantan. Besides that, this food is also famous in Malaysia. The purpose of this research is to improvement production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from indigenous fermented durian (tempoyak). Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) previously isolated from indigenous fermented durian (tempoyak) that have ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The study was started with identification of selected LAB by 16 S RNA, followed optimation of GABA production by culture condition using different initial pH, temperature, glutamate concentration, incubation time, carbon and nitrogen sources. Results: The result from indentification used polymerase chain reaction of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic analysis was Lactobacillus plantarum (coded as Y3) with a sequenced length of 1400bp. The improvement of Gaba production was found highest at pH: 6.0; temperature: 30 °C; glutamate concentration: 0.4%; incubation time: 60 h; glucose and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen sources. Conclusions: GABA can be produced with the optimum condition fermentation were 66.06 mM.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, γ-amino butyric acid, indigenous fermented durian, PCR

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22 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotection Assessment of Extracts of Coriandrum sativm L. on Wistar Rats

Authors: Hiba T. Allah ALtieb Gusm ALsied, Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Ikram Mohamed ELtayeb, Saad Mohamed Hussein Ayoub


This study was carried out to determine the hepatoactivity and the antioxidant activity of Coiradrum sativum L. aerial part and fruit extracts against CCL4 induced acute liver damages in Wistar rats. The aerial parts and fruits part of the plant were extracted 96% ethanol with soxhlet apparatus. Hepatic injury was achieved by subcutaneous injection of 3 ml/kg of CCL4 diluted with olive oil with ratio 1:1. The extracts were mixed together 1:1 ratio and given in different doses 100,200,400 mg/kg/day for 5 days under CCL4 induction at 3rd day. The significance of differences between means by using T-test was compared among the groups. The mixture of the two extracts didn’t show any significant result in protecting liver injury (antagonistic effects), it shows high level of liver enzyme like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). Serological studies further confirmed the results. The results obtained were compared with silymarin (70 mg/kg/day) orally, the standard drug for hepatoprotection which show recovery close to normalization almost like that of silymarin; therefore, further studies on this plant with different ratios especially in isolated tissue to spot more light on antagonistic effects of the two extracts. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH method. The results obtained show high anti-oxidant activity for fruits extract while slight or moderate antioxidant activity to aerial extracts.

Keywords: antioxidant, aerial part, Coriadrum sativum L., fruity, hepatoprotection, Silymarin, phytochemical screening

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21 Analysis of NMDA Receptor 2B Subunit Gene (GRIN2B) mRNA Expression in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

Authors: Ali̇ Bayram, Semih Dalkilic, Remzi Yigiter


N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a subtype of glutamate receptor and plays a pivotal role in learning, memory, neuronal plasticity, neurotoxicity and synaptic mechanisms. Animal experiments were suggested that glutamate-induced excitotoxic injuriy and NMDA receptor blockage lead to amnesia and other neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aim of this study is to investigate association between NMDA receptor coding gene GRIN2B expression level and Alzheimer disease. The study was approved by the local ethics committees, and it was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and guidelines for the Good Clinical Practice. Peripheral blood was collected 50 patients who diagnosed AD and 49 healthy control individuals. Total RNA was isolated with RNeasy midi kit (Qiagen) according to manufacturer’s instructions. After checked RNA quality and quantity with spectrophotometer, GRIN2B expression levels were detected by quantitative real time PCR (QRT-PCR). Statistical analyses were performed, variance between two groups were compared with Mann Whitney U test in GraphpadInstat algorithm with 95 % confidence interval and p < 0.05. After statistical analyses, we have determined that GRIN2B expression levels were down regulated in AD patients group with respect to control group. But expression level of this gene in each group was showed high variability. İn this study, we have determined that NMDA receptor coding gene GRIN2B expression level was down regulated in AD patients when compared with healthy control individuals. According to our results, we have speculated that GRIN2B expression level was associated with AD. But it is necessary to validate these results with bigger sample size.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, NR2B, GRIN2B, mRNA expression, RT-PCR

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20 Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidemic Activity of Cassia occidentalis Linn. Stem Bark Extract in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes

Authors: Manjusha Choudhary


Objective: Cassia occidentalis Linn. belongs to Family Caesalpiniaceae is a common weed scattered from the foothills of Himalayas to West Bengal, South India, Burma, and Sri Lanka. It is used widely in folklore medicine in India as laxative, expectorant, analgesic, anti-malarial, hepatoprotective, relaxant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis stem bark. Methods: Stem bark extract of Cassia occidentalis (SBCO) was administered orally at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses to normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced type-2 diabetic mice. Various parameters like fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), total protein, urea, creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) levels and physical parameters like change in body weight, food intake, water intake were performed for the evaluation of antidiabetic effects. Results: Both the doses of extract caused a marked decrease in FBG levels in STZ induced type 2 diabetic mice. Administration of SBCO led to the decrease in the blood glucose, food intake, water intake, organ weight, SGOT, SGPT levels with significant value and increased the levels of TG, HDL cholesterol, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein with a significant value (p < 0.05-0.01). The decrease in body weight induced by STZ was restored to normal with a significant value (p < 0.01) at both doses. Conclusion: Present study reveals that SBCO possess potent hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities and supports the folklore use of the stem bark of plant as antidiabetic agent.

Keywords: Cassia occidentalis, diabetes, folklore, herbs, hypoglycemia, streptozotocin

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19 Cognitive Decline in People Living with HIV in India and Correlation with Neurometabolites Using 3T Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS): A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Kartik Gupta, Virendra Kumar, Sanjeev Sinha, N. Jagannathan


Introduction: A significant number of patients having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection show a neurocognitive decline (NCD) ranging from minor cognitive impairment to severe dementia. The possible causes of NCD in HIV-infected patients include brain injury by HIV before cART, neurotoxic viral proteins and metabolic abnormalities. In the present study, we compared the level of NCD in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients with changes in brain metabolites measured by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: 43 HIV-positive patients (30 males and 13 females) coming to ART center of the hospital and HIV-seronegative healthy subjects were recruited for the study. All the participants completed MRI and MRS examination, detailed clinical assessments and a battery of neuropsychological tests. All the MR investigations were carried out at 3.0T MRI scanner (Ingenia/Achieva, Philips, Netherlands). MRI examination protocol included the acquisition of T2-weighted imaging in axial, coronal and sagittal planes, T1-weighted, FLAIR, and DWI images in the axial plane. Patients who showed any apparent lesion on MRI were excluded from the study. T2-weighted images in three orthogonal planes were used to localize the voxel in left frontal lobe white matter (FWM) and left basal ganglia (BG) for single voxel MRS. Single voxel MRS spectra were acquired with a point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) localization pulse sequence at an echo time (TE) of 35 ms and a repetition time (TR) of 2000 ms with 64 or 128 scans. Automated preprocessing and determination of absolute concentrations of metabolites were estimated using LCModel by water scaling method and the Cramer-Rao lower bounds for all metabolites analyzed in the study were below 15\%. Levels of total N-acetyl aspartate (tNAA), total choline (tCho), glutamate + glutamine (Glx), total creatine (tCr), were measured. Cognition was tested using a battery of tests validated for Indian population. The cognitive domains tested were the memory, attention-information processing, abstraction-executive, simple and complex perceptual motor skills. Z-scores normalized according to age, sex and education standard were used to calculate dysfunction in these individual domains. The NCD was defined as dysfunction with Z-score ≤ 2 in at least two domains. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the difference in brain metabolites between the patients and healthy subjects. Results: NCD was found in 23 (53%) patients. There was no significant difference in age, CD4 count and viral load between the two groups. Maximum impairment was found in the domains of memory and simple motor skills i.e., 19/43 (44%). The prevalence of deficit in attention-information processing, complex perceptual motor skills and abstraction-executive function was 37%, 35%, 33% respectively. Subjects with NCD had a higher level of Glutamate in the Frontal region (8.03 ± 2.30 v/s. 10.26 ± 5.24, p-value 0.001). Conclusion: Among newly diagnosed, ART-naïve retroviral disease patients from India, cognitive decline was found in 53\% patients using tests validated for this population. Those with neurocognitive decline had a significantly higher level of Glutamate in the left frontal region. There was no significant difference in age, CD4 count and viral load at initiation of ART between the two groups.

Keywords: HIV, neurocognitive decline, neurometabolites, magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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18 Stochastic Modeling of Secretion Dynamics in Inner Hair Cells of the Auditory Pathway

Authors: Jessica A. Soto-Bear, Virginia González-Vélez, Norma Castañeda-Villa, Amparo Gil


Glutamate release of the cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapse is a fundamental step in transferring sound information in the auditory pathway. Otoferlin is the calcium sensor in the IHC and its activity has been related to many auditory disorders. In order to simulate secretion dynamics occurring in the IHC in a few milliseconds timescale and with high spatial resolution, we proposed an active-zone model solved with Monte Carlo algorithms. We included models for calcium buffered diffusion, calcium-binding schemes for vesicle fusion, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Our results indicate that calcium influx and calcium binding is managing IHC secretion as a function of voltage depolarization, which in turn mean that IHC response depends on sound intensity.

Keywords: inner hair cells, Monte Carlo algorithm, Otoferlin, secretion

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17 The Possible Interaction between Bisphenol A, Caffeine and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Neurotoxicity Induced by Manganese in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Hebatalla I. Ahmed, Asmaa Abdelaty


Background: Manganese (Mn) is a naturally occurring element. Exposure to high levels of Mn causes neurotoxic effects and represents an environmental risk factor. Mn neurotoxicity is poorly understood but changing of AChE activity, monoamines and oxidative stress has been established. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics. There is considerable debate about whether its exposure represents an environmental risk. Caffeine is one of the major contributors to the dietary antioxidants which prevent oxidative damage and may reduce the risk of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is another major component of green tea and has known interactions with caffeine. It also has health-promoting effects in CNS. Objective: To evaluate the potential protective effects of Caffeine and/or EGCG against Mn-induced neurotoxicity either alone or in the presence of BPA in rats. Methods: Seven groups of rats were used and received daily for 5 weeks MnCl2.4H2O (10 mg/kg, IP) except the control group which received saline, corn oil and distilled H2O. Mn was injected either alone or in combination with each of the following: BPA (50 mg/kg, PO), caffeine (10 mg/kg, PO), EGCG (5 mg/kg, IP), caffeine + EGCG and BPA +caffeine +EGCG. All rats were examined in five behavioral tests (grid, bar, swimming, open field and Y- maze tests). Biochemical changes in monoamines, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, glutamate, acetyl cholinesterase and oxidative parameters, as well as histopathological changes in the brain, were also evaluated for all groups. Results: Mn significantly increased MDA and nitrite content as well as caspase-3, GSK-3B, PGE2 and glutamate levels while significantly decreased TAC and SOD as well as cholinesterase in the striatum. It also decreased DA, NE and 5-HT levels in the striatum and frontal cortex. BPA together with Mn enhanced oxidative stress generation induced by Mn while increased monoamine content that was decreased by Mn in rat striatum. BPA abolished neuronal degeneration induced by Mn in the hippocampus but not in the substantia nigra, striatum and cerebral cortex. Behavioral examinations showed that caffeine and EGCG co-administration had more pronounced protective effect against Mn-induced neurotoxicity than each one alone. EGCG alone or in combination with caffeine prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex induced by Mn while caffeine alone prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra and striatum but still showed some nuclear pyknosis in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The marked protection of caffeine and EGCG co-administration also confirmed by the significant increase in TAC, SOD, ACHE, DA, NE and 5-HT as well as the decrease in MDA, nitrite, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, the glutamic acid in the striatum. Conclusion: Neuronal degeneration induced by Mn showed some inhibition with BPA exposure despite the enhancement in oxidative stress generation. Co-administration of EGCG and caffeine can protect against neuronal degeneration induced by Mn and improve behavioral deficits associated with its neurotoxicity. The protective effect of EGCG was more pronounced than that of caffeine even with BPA co-exposure.

Keywords: manganese, bisphenol a, caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, neurotoxicity, behavioral tests, rats

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16 The Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism in Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Plant Exposed to Drought and Salt Stresses

Authors: Fazilet Özlem Çekiç, Seyda Yılmaz


Salinity and drought are important environmental problems in the world and have negative effects on plant metabolism. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), four-carbon non-protein amino acid, is a significant component of the free amino acid pool. GABA is widely distributed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Environmental stress factors increase GABA accumulation in plants. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on GABA metabolism system during drought and salt stress factors in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. GABA, Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, chlorophyll, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses were determined. According to our results we can suggest that GA play a role in GABA metabolism during salt and drought stresses in bean plants. Also GABA shunt is an important metabolic pathway and key signaling allowing to adapt to drought and salt stresses.

Keywords: gibberellic acid, GABA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., salinity, drought

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15 Controlled Release of Curcumin from a Thermoresponsive Polypeptide Hydrogel for Anti-Tumor Therapy

Authors: Chieh-Nan Chen, Ji-Yu Lin, I-Ming Chu


Polypeptide thermosensitive hydrogel is an excellent candidate as a smart device to deliver drugs and cells due to its remarkable biocompatibility, low gelation concentration, and respond to temperature stimuli, it can be easily injected as a polymer solution into the patient’s body where it undergoes gelation due to an elevation in temperature. Poly (ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether-poly (ethyl-l-glutamate) (mPEG-PELG) contains a hydrophobic side chain –C2H5 which is useful in encapsulating and stabilizing hydrophobic drugs. In this study, we plan to focus on the hydrophobic anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory drug curcumin, which due its insolubility in water, requires a proper carrier for delivery into the body. Our main concept is to use mPEG-PELG to stabilize curcumin, inject the curcumin-loaded hydrogel into the tumor site, and allow the enzymatically-sensitive hydrogel to be degraded by bodily fluids and release the drug. The polymers of interest have been successfully synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR, FT-IR, SEM, and CMC. Curcumin loading content and drug release were assayed using HPLC. Preliminary results show that these materials have potential as a delivery vehicle for poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: curcumin, drug release, hydrogel, polypeptide material

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14 Identifying Metabolic Pathways Associated with Neuroprotection Mediated by Tibolone in Human Astrocytes under an Induced Inflammatory Model

Authors: Daniel Osorio, Janneth Gonzalez, Andres Pinzon


In this work, proteins and metabolic pathways associated with the neuroprotective response mediated by the synthetic neurosteroid tibolone under a palmitate-induced inflammatory model were identified by flux balance analysis (FBA). Three different metabolic scenarios (‘healthy’, ‘inflamed’ and ‘medicated’) were modeled over a gene expression data-driven constructed tissue-specific metabolic reconstruction of mature astrocytes. Astrocyte reconstruction was built, validated and constrained using three open source software packages (‘minval’, ‘g2f’ and ‘exp2flux’) released through the Comprehensive R Archive Network repositories during the development of this work. From our analysis, we predict that tibolone executes their neuroprotective effects through a reduction of neurotoxicity mediated by L-glutamate in astrocytes, inducing the activation several metabolic pathways with neuroprotective actions associated such as taurine metabolism, gluconeogenesis, calcium and the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor signaling pathways. Also, we found a tibolone associated increase in growth rate probably in concordance with previously reported side effects of steroid compounds in other human cell types.

Keywords: astrocytes, flux balance analysis, genome scale metabolic reconstruction, inflammation, neuroprotection, tibolone

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13 Targeting Calcium Dysregulation for Treatment of Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Huafeng Wei


Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the number one cause of dementia internationally, without effective treatments. Increasing evidence suggest that disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis, primarily pathological elevation of cytosol and mitochondria but reduction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentrations, play critical upstream roles on multiple pathologies and associated neurodegeneration, impaired neurogenesis, synapse, and cognitive dysfunction in various AD preclinical studies. The last federal drug agency (FDA) approved drug for AD dementia treatment, memantine, exert its therapeutic effects by ameliorating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor overactivation and subsequent calcium dysregulation. More research works are needed to develop other drugs targeting calcium dysregulation at multiple pharmacological acting sites for future effective AD dementia treatment. Particularly, calcium channel blockers for the treatment of hypertension and dantrolene for the treatment of muscle spasm and malignant hyperthermia can be repurposed for this purpose. In our own research work, intranasal administration of dantrolene significantly increased its brain concentrations and durations, rendering it a more effective therapeutic drug with less side effects for chronic AD dementia treatment. This review summarizesthe progress of various studies repurposing drugs targeting calcium dysregulation for future effective AD dementia treatment as potentially disease-modifying drugs.

Keywords: alzheimer, calcium, cognitive dysfunction, dementia, neurodegeneration, neurogenesis

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12 Organic Substance Removal from Pla-Som Family Industrial Wastewater through APCW System

Authors: W. Wararam, K. Angchanpen, T. Pattamapitoon, K. Chunkao, O. Phewnil, M. Srichomphu, T. Jinjaruk


The research focused on the efficiency for treating high organic wastewater from pla-som production process by anaerobic tanks, oxidation ponds and constructed wetland treatment systems (APCW). The combined system consisted of 50-mm plastic screen, five 5.8 m3 oil-grease trap tanks (2-day hydraulic retention time; HRT), four 4.3 m3 anaerobic tanks (1-day HRT), 16.7 m3 oxidation pond no.1 (7-day HRT), 12.0 m3 oxidation pond no.2 (3-day HRT), and 8.2 m3 constructed wetland plot (1-day HRT). After washing fresh raw fishes, they were sliced in small pieces and were converted into ground fish meat by blender machine. The fish meat was rinsed for 8 rounds: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 by tap water and 4 and 8 by rice-wash-water, before mixing with salt, garlic, steamed rice and monosodium glutamate, followed by plastic wrapping for 72-hour of edibility. During pla-som production processing, the rinsed wastewater about 5 m3/day was fed to the treatment systems and fully stagnating storage in its components. The result found that, 1) percentage of treatment efficiency for BOD, COD, TDS and SS were 93, 95, 32 and 98 respectively, 2) the treatment was conducted with 500-kg raw fishes along with full equipment of high organic wastewater treatment systems, 3) the trend of the treatment efficiency and quantity in all indicators was similarly processed and 4) the small pieces of fish meat and fish blood were needed more than 3-day HRT in anaerobic digestion process.

Keywords: organic substance, Pla-Som family industry, wastewater, APCW system

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11 The Role of Glutamine-Rich Region of Candida Albicans Tec1p in Mediating Morphological Transition and Invasive Growth

Authors: W. Abu Rayyan, A. Singh, A. M. Al-Jaafreh, W. Abu Dayyih, M. Bustami, S. Salem, N. Seder, K. Schröppel


Hyphal growth and the transcriptional regulation to the host environment are key issues during the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Tec1p is the C. albicans homolog of a TEA transcription factor family, which share a conserved DNA-binding TEA domain in their N-terminal. In order to define a structure-function relationship of the C. albicans Tec1p protein, we constructed several mutations on the N terminal, C terminal or in the TEA binding domain itself by homologous recombination technology. The modifications in the open reading frame of TEC1 were tested for reconstitution of the morphogenetic development of the tec1/tec1 mutant strain CaAS12. Mutation in the TEA consensus sequence did not confer transition to hyphae whereas the reconstitution of the full-length Tec1p has reconstituted hyphal development. A deletion in one of glutamine-rich regions either in the Tec1p N-terminal or the C-terminal in regions of 53-212 or 637–744 aa, respectively, did not restore morphological development in mutant CaAS12 strain. Whereas, the reconstitution with Tec1p mutants other than the glutamate-rich region has restored the morphogenetic switch. Additionally, the deletion of the glutamine-rich region has attenuated the invasive growth and the heat shock resistance of C. albicans. In conclusion, we show that a glutamine-rich region of Tec1p is essential for the hyphal development and mediating adaptation to the host environment of C. albicans.

Keywords: Candida albicans, morphogenetic development, TEA domain, hyphal formation, TEC1

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10 Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Based Metabolomics and 13C Isotopic Ratio Evaluation to Differentiate Conventional and Organic Soy Sauce

Authors: Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Xiaohua Wang, Bin Yuan, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, Jie Wang, Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha, Xu Zhang, Maili Liu


Organic food products are becoming increasingly popular in recent years, as consumers have turned more health conscious and environmentally aware. A lot of consumers have understood that the organic foods are healthier than conventionally produced food stuffs. Price difference between conventional and organic foods is very high. So, it is very common to cheat the consumers by mislabeling and adulteration. Our study describes the 1H NMR based approach to characterize and differentiate soy sauce prepared from organically and conventionally grown raw materials (wheat and soybean). Commercial soy sauce samples fermented from organic and conventional raw materials were purchased from local markets. Principal component analysis showed clear separation among organic and conventional soy sauce samples. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed a significant (p < 0.01) separation among two types of soy sauce yielding leucine, isoleucine, ethanol, glutamate, lactate, acetate, β-glucose, sucrose, choline, valine, phenylalanine and tyrosine as important metabolites contributing towards this separation. Abundance ratio of 13C to 12C was also evaluated by 1H NMR spectroscopy which showed an increased ratio of 13C isotope in organic soy sauce samples indicating the organically grown wheat and soybean used for the preparation of organic soy sauce. Results of the study can be helpful to the end users to select the soy sauce of their choice. This information could also pave the way to further trace and authenticate the raw materials used in production of soy sauce.

Keywords: 1H NMR, multivariate analysis, organic, conventional, 13C isotopic ratio, soy sauce

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9 Evaluation of Serine and Branched Chain Amino Acid Levels in Depression and the Beneficial Effects of Exercise in Rats

Authors: V. A. Doss, R. Sowndarya, K. Juila Rose Mary


Objective: Amino acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. The objective of the present study was to identify the amino acids as possible metabolite biomarkers for depression using GCMS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) before and after exercise regimen in brain samples of depression induced animal models. Methods: Depression-like behaviour was induced by Chronic Unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Severity of depression was measured by forced swim test (FST) and sucrose consumption test (SCT). Swimming protocol was followed for 4 weeks of exercise treatment. Brain obtained from depressed and exercise treated rats were used for the metabolite analysis by GCMS. Subsequent statistical analysis obtained by ANOVA followed by post hoc test revealed significant metabolic changes. Results: Amino acids such as alanine, glycine, serine, glutamate, homocysteine, proline and branched chain aminoacids (BCAs) Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine were determined in brain samples of control, depressed and exercised groups. Among these amino acids, the levels of D-Serine and branched chain amino acids were found to be decreased in depression induced rats. After four weeks of swimming exercise regimen, there were improvements in the levels of serine and Branched chain amino acids. Conclusion: We suggest that Serine and BCAs may be investigated as potential metabolite markers using GCMS and their beneficial metabolic changes in Exercise.

Keywords: metabolomics, depression, forced swim test, exercise, amino acid metabolites, GCMS, biomarker

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8 Protective Effect of Levetiracetam on Aggravation of Memory Impairment in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy by Phenytoin

Authors: Asher John Mohan, Krishna K. L.


Objectives: (1) To assess the extent of memory impairment induced by Phenytoin (PHT) at normal and reduced dose on temporal lobe epileptic mice. (2) To evaluate the protective effect of Levetiracetam (LEV) on aggravation of memory impairment in temporal lobe epileptic mice by PHT. Materials and Methods: Albino mice of either sex (n=36) were used for the study for a period of 64 days. Convulsions were induced by intraperitoneal administration of pilocarpine 280 mg/kg on every 6th day. Radial arm maze (RAM) was employed to evaluate the memory impairment activity on every 7th day. The anticonvulsant and memory impairment activity were assessed in PHT normal and reduced doses both alone and in combination with LEV. RAM error scores and convulsive scores were the parameters considered for this study. Brain acetylcholine esterase and glutamate were determined along with histopathological studies of frontal cortex. Results: Administration of PHT for 64 days on mice has shown aggravation of memory impairment activity on temporal lobe epileptic mice. Although the reduction in PHT dose was found to decrease the degree of memory impairment the same decreased the anticonvulsant potency. The combination with LEV not only brought about the correction of impaired memory but also replaced the loss of potency due to the reduction of the dose of the antiepileptic drug employed. These findings were confirmed with enzyme and neurotransmitter levels in addition to histopathological studies. Conclusion: This study thus builds a foundation in combining a nootropic anticonvulsant with an antiepileptic drug to curb the adverse effect of memory impairment associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. However further extensive research is a must for the practical incorporation of this approach into disease therapy.

Keywords: anti-epileptic drug, Phenytoin, memory impairment, Pilocarpine

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7 Human Lens Metabolome: A Combined LC-MS and NMR Study

Authors: Vadim V. Yanshole, Lyudmila V. Yanshole, Alexey S. Kiryutin, Timofey D. Verkhovod, Yuri P. Tsentalovich


Cataract, or clouding of the eye lens, is the leading cause of vision impairment in the world. The lens tissue have very specific structure: It does not have vascular system, the lens proteins – crystallins – do not turnover throughout lifespan. The protection of lens proteins is provided by the metabolites which diffuse inside the lens from the aqueous humor or synthesized in the lens epithelial layer. Therefore, the study of changes in the metabolite composition of a cataractous lens as compared to a normal lens may elucidate the possible mechanisms of the cataract formation. Quantitative metabolomic profiles of normal and cataractous human lenses were obtained with the combined use of high-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass-spectrometric detection (LC-MS) methods. The quantitative content of more than fifty metabolites has been determined in this work for normal aged and cataractous human lenses. The most abundant metabolites in the normal lens are myo-inositol, lactate, creatine, glutathione, glutamate, and glucose. For the majority of metabolites, their levels in the lens cortex and nucleus are similar, with the few exceptions including antioxidants and UV filters: The concentrations of glutathione, ascorbate and NAD in the lens nucleus decrease as compared to the cortex, while the levels of the secondary UV filters formed from primary UV filters in redox processes increase. That confirms that the lens core is metabolically inert, and the metabolic activity in the lens nucleus is mostly restricted by protection from the oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation, UV filter spontaneous decomposition, or other factors. It was found that the metabolomic composition of normal and age-matched cataractous human lenses differ significantly. The content of the most important metabolites – antioxidants, UV filters, and osmolytes – in the cataractous nucleus is at least ten fold lower than in the normal nucleus. One may suppose that the majority of these metabolites are synthesized in the lens epithelial layer, and that age-related cataractogenesis might originate from the dysfunction of the lens epithelial cells. Comprehensive quantitative metabolic profiles of the human eye lens have been acquired for the first time. The obtained data can be used for the analysis of changes in the lens chemical composition occurring with age and with the cataract development.

Keywords: cataract, lens, NMR, LC-MS, metabolome

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