Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1556

Search results for: multi-layer thin film

1316 Production and Characterization of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

Authors: S. L. Iconaru, A. Costescu, D. Predoi, C. L Popa, C.S. Ciobanu, P. Chapon, P. Le Coustumer

Abstract:

In this paper, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films and their antimicrobial activity characterized is reported. The resultant Ag: HAp films coated on commercially pure Si disks substrates were systematically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy detector (X-EDS), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). GDOES measurements show that a substantial Ag content has been deposited in the films. The X-EDS and GDOES spectra revealed the presence of a material composed mainly of phosphate, calcium, oxygen, hydrogen and silver. The antimicrobial efficiency of Ag:HAp thin films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated. Ag:HAp thin films could lead to a decrease of infections especially in the case of bone and dental implants by surface modification of implantable medical devices.

Keywords: Thin Films, Silver, SEM, hydroxyapatite, GDOES, FTIR, antimicrobial effect

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1315 Improvement of Heat Dissipation Ability of Polyimide Composite Film

Authors: Haksoo Han, Jinyoung Kim, Jinuk Kwon

Abstract:

Polyimide is widely used in electronic industries, and heat dissipation of polyimide film is important for its application in electric devices for high-temperature resistance heat dissipation film. In this study, we demonstrated a new way to increase heat dissipating rate by adding carbon black as filler. This type of polyimide composite film was produced by pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 4,4’-oxydianiline (ODA). Carbon black (CB) is added in different loading, shows increasing heat dissipation rate for increase of Carbon black. The polyimide-carbon black composite film is synthesized with high dissipation rate to ~8W∙m−1K−1. Its high thermal decomposition temperature and glass transition temperature were maintained with carbon filler verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), the polyimidization reaction of polyi(amide-mide) was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The polyimide composite film with carbon black with high heat dissipating rate could be used in various applications such as computers, mobile phone industries, integrated circuits, coating materials, semiconductor etc.

Keywords: heat dissipation, polyimide, filler, electric device

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1314 Theoretical Study of Structural, Magnetic, and Magneto-Optical Properties of Ultrathin Films of Fe/Cu (001)

Authors: Mebarek Boukelkoul, Abdelhalim Haroun

Abstract:

By means of the first principle calculation, we have investigated the structural, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the ultra-thin films of Fen/Cu(001) with (n=1, 2, 3). We adopted a relativistic approach using DFT theorem with local spin density approximation (LSDA). The electronic structure is performed within the framework of the Spin-Polarized Relativistic (SPR) Linear Muffin-Tin Orbitals (LMTO) with the Atomic Sphere Approximation (ASA) method. During the variational principle, the crystal wave function is expressed as a linear combination of the Bloch sums of the so-called relativistic muffin-tin orbitals centered on the atomic sites. The crystalline structure is calculated after an atomic relaxation process using the optimization of the total energy with respect to the atomic interplane distance. A body-centered tetragonal (BCT) pseudomorphic crystalline structure with a tetragonality ratio c/a larger than unity is found. The magnetic behaviour is characterized by an enhanced magnetic moment and a ferromagnetic interplane coupling. The polar magneto-optical Kerr effect spectra are given over a photon energy range extended to 15eV and the microscopic origin of the most interesting features are interpreted by interband transitions. Unlike thin layers, the anisotropy in the ultra-thin films is characterized by a perpendicular magnetization which is perpendicular to the film plane.

Keywords: Magnetism, Magneto-Optics, ultrathin films, pseudomorphic structure

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1313 Nonlinear Response of Infinite Beams on a Multilayer Tensionless Extensible Geosynthetic – Reinforced Earth Bed under Moving Load

Authors: K. Karuppasamy

Abstract:

In this paper analysis of an infinite beam resting on multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic reinforced granular fill - poor soil system overlying soft soil strata under moving the load with constant velocity is presented. The beam is subjected to a concentrated load moving with constant velocity. The upper reinforced granular bed is modeled by a rough membrane embedded in Pasternak shear layer overlying a series of compressible nonlinear Winkler springs representing the underlying the very poor soil. The multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic layer has been assumed to deform such that at the interface the geosynthetic and the soil have some deformation. Nonlinear behavior of granular fill and the very poor soil has been considered in the analysis by means of hyperbolic constitutive relationships. Governing differential equations of the soil foundation system have been obtained and solved with the help of appropriate boundary conditions. The solution has been obtained by employing finite difference method by means of Gauss-Siedel iterative scheme. Detailed parametric study has been conducted to study the influence of various parameters on the response of soil – foundation system under consideration by means of deflection and bending moment in the beam and tension mobilized in the geosynthetic layer. These parameters include the magnitude of applied load, the velocity of the load, damping, the ultimate resistance of the poor soil and granular fill layer. The range of values of parameters has been considered as per Indian Railways conditions. This study clearly observed that the comparisons of multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic reinforcement with poor foundation soil and magnitude of applied load, relative compressibility of granular fill and ultimate resistance of poor soil has significant influence on the response of soil – foundation system. However, for the considered range of velocity, the response has been found to be insensitive towards velocity. The ultimate resistance of granular fill layer has also been found to have no significant influence on the response of the system.

Keywords: infinite beams, multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic, granular layer, moving load and nonlinear behavior of poor soil

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1312 A Low-Cost Memristor Based on Hybrid Structures of Metal-Oxide Quantum Dots and Thin Films

Authors: Amir Shariffar, Haider Salman, Tanveer Siddique, Omar Manasreh

Abstract:

According to the recent studies on metal-oxide memristors, researchers tend to improve the stability, endurance, and uniformity of resistive switching (RS) behavior in memristors. Specifically, the main challenge is to prevent abrupt ruptures in the memristor’s filament during the RS process. To address this problem, we are proposing a low-cost hybrid structure of metal oxide quantum dots (QDs) and thin films to control the formation of filaments in memristors. We aim to use metal oxide quantum dots because of their unique electronic properties and quantum confinement, which may improve the resistive switching behavior. QDs have discrete energy spectra due to electron confinement in three-dimensional space. Because of Coulomb repulsion between electrons, only a few free electrons are contained in a quantum dot. This fact might guide the growth direction for the conducting filaments in the metal oxide memristor. As a result, it is expected that QDs can improve the endurance and uniformity of RS behavior in memristors. Moreover, we use a hybrid structure of intrinsic n-type quantum dots and p-type thin films to introduce a potential barrier at the junction that can smooth the transition between high and low resistance states. A bottom-up approach is used for fabricating the proposed memristor using different types of metal-oxide QDs and thin films. We synthesize QDs including, zinc oxide, molybdenum trioxide, and nickel oxide combined with spin-coated thin films of titanium dioxide, copper oxide, and hafnium dioxide. We employ fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass as the substrate for deposition and bottom electrode. Then, the active layer composed of one type of quantum dots, and the opposite type of thin films is spin-coated onto the FTO. Lastly, circular gold electrodes are deposited with a shadow mask by using electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation at room temperature. The fabricated devices are characterized using a probe station with a semiconductor parameter analyzer. The current-voltage (I-V) characterization is analyzed for each device to determine the conduction mechanism. We evaluate the memristor’s performance in terms of stability, endurance, and retention time to identify the optimal memristive structure. Finally, we assess the proposed hypothesis before we proceed to the optimization process for fabricating the memristor.

Keywords: Quantum Dot, thin film, memristor, resistive switching

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1311 Philippine Film Industry and Cultural Policy: A Critical Analysis and Case Study

Authors: Michael Kho Lim

Abstract:

This paper examines the status of the film industry as an industry in the Philippines—where or how it is classified in the Philippine industrial classification system and how this positioning gives the film industry an identity (or not) and affects (film) policy development and impacts the larger national economy. It is important to look at how the national government recognises Philippine cinema officially, as this will have a direct and indirect impact on the industry in terms of its representation, conduct of business, international relations, and most especially its implications on policy development and implementation. Therefore, it is imperative that the ‘identity’ of Philippine cinema be clearly established and defined in the overall industrial landscape. Having a clear understanding of Philippine cinema’s industry status provides a better view of the bigger picture and helps us determine cinema’s position in the national agenda in terms of priority setting, future direction and how the state perceives and thereby values the film industry as an industry. This will then serve as a frame of reference that will anchor the succeeding discussion. Once the Philippine film industry status is identified, the paper will then clarify how cultural policy is defined, understood, and applied in the Philippines in relation to Philippine cinema by reviewing and analyzing existing policy documents and pending bills in the Philippine Congress and Senate. Lastly, the paper delves into the roles that (national) cultural institutions and industry organisations play as primary drivers or support mechanisms and how they become platforms (or not) for the upliftment of the independent film sector and towards the sustainability of the film industry. The paper concludes by arguing that the role of the government and how government officials perceive and treats culture is far more important than cultural policy itself, as these policies emanate from them.

Keywords: Cultural policy, Film Industry, cultural and creative industries, Philippine cinema

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1310 Photoelectrochemical Study of Nanostructured Acropora-Like Lead Sulfide Thin Films

Authors: S. Kaci, A. Keffous, O. Fellahi, I. Bozetine, H. Menari

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of Acropora-like lead sulfide nanostructured thin films using chemical bath deposition. The method has the strong points of low temperature and no surfactant, comparing with the other method. The preferential growth directions of the broad branches were indexed as along (200) directions. The photoelectrochemical property of the as-deposited thin films was also investigated. Photoelectrochemical characterization was performed in the aim to determine the flat band potential (Vfb) and to confirm the n-type character of PbS, elucidated from the J(V) curves both in the dark and under illumination. The apparition of the photocurrent Jph started at a potential VON of −0.41 V/ECS and increased towards the anodic direction, which is typical of n-type behavior. The near infrared absorbance spectrum displayed an absorbance edge at 1959 nm, showing blue shift comparing to bulk PbS (3020 nm). These nanostructured lead sulfide thin films may have potential application as dispersed photoelectrode capable of generating H2 under visible light.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Thin Films, lead sulfide, photo-conversion

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1309 Algorithm and Software Based on Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks for Estimating Channel Use in the Spectral Decision Stage in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Johana Hernández, Edwin Rivas

Abstract:

The use of the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) technique is presented to estimate the future state of use of a licensed channel by primary users (PUs); this will be useful at the spectral decision stage in cognitive radio networks (CRN) to determine approximately in which time instants of future may secondary users (SUs) opportunistically use the spectral bandwidth to send data through the primary wireless network. To validate the results, sequences of occupancy data of channel were generated by simulation. The results show that the prediction percentage is greater than 60% in some of the tests carried out.

Keywords: Neural Network, cognitive radio, prediction, primary user

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
1308 Bifurcations of a System of Rotor-Ball Bearings with Waviness and Squeeze Film Dampers

Authors: Sina Modares Ahmadi, Mohamad Reza Ghazavi, Mandana Sheikhzad

Abstract:

Squeeze film damper systems (SFD) are often used in machines with high rotational speed to reduce non-periodic behavior by creating external damping. These types of systems are frequently used in aircraft gas turbine engines. There are some structural parameters which are of great importance in designing these kinds of systems, such as oil film thickness, C, and outer race mass, mo. Moreover, there is a crucial parameter associated with manufacturing process, under the title of waviness. Geometric imperfections are often called waviness if its wavelength is much longer than Hertzian contact width which is a considerable source of vibration in ball bearings. In this paper, a system of a flexible rotor and two ball bearings with floating ring squeeze film dampers and consideration of waviness has been modeled and solved by a numerical integration method, namely Runge-Kutta method to investigate the dynamic response of the system. The results show that by increasing the number of wave lobes, which is due to inappropriate manufacturing, non- periodic and chaotic behavior increases. This result reveals the importance of manufacturing accuracy. Moreover, as long as C< 1.5×10-4 m, by increasing the oil film thickness, unwanted vibrations and non-periodic behavior of the system have been reduced, On the other hand, when C>1.5×10-4 m, increasing the outer oil film thickness results in the increasing chaotic and non-periodic responses. This result shows that although the presence of oil film results in reduction the non-periodic and chaotic behaviors, but the oil film has an optimal thickness. In addition, with increasing mo, the disc displacement amplitude increases. This result reveals the importance of utilizing light materials in manufacturing the squeeze film dampers.

Keywords: bifurcation, squeeze-film damper, waviness, ball bearing

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1307 The Effects of pH on the Electrochromism in Nickel Oxide Films

Authors: T. Taşköprü, M. Zor, E. Turan

Abstract:

The advantages of nickel oxide as an electrochromic material are its good contrast of transmittance and its suitable use as a secondary electrochromic film with WO3 for electrochromic devices. Electrochromic nickel oxide film was prepared by using a simple and inexpensive chemical deposition bath (CBD) technique onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from nickel nitrate solution. The films were ace centered cubic NiO with preferred orientation in the (2 0 0) direction. The electrochromic (EC) properties of the films were studied as a function of pH (8, 9, 10 and 11) in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte (0.3 M KOH) using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The EC cell was formed with the following configuration; FTO/nickel oxide film/0.3 M KOH/Pt The potential was cycled from 0.1 to 0.6V at diffferent potential sweep rates in the range 10- 50 mV/s. The films exhibit anodic electrochromism, changing colour from transparent to black.CV results of a nickel oxide film showed well-resolved anodic current peak at potential; 45 mV and cathodic peak at potential 28 mV. The structural, morphological, and optical changes in NiO film following the CV were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis- NIR spectrophotometry. No change was observed in XRD, besides surface morphology undergoes change due to the electrical discharge. The change in tansmittance between the bleached and colored state is 68% for the film deposited with pH=11 precursor.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, SEM, XRD, nickel oxide

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1306 Gas Sensor Based On a One-Dimensional Nano-Grating Au/ Co/ Au/ TiO2 Magneto-Plasmonic Structure

Authors: S. M. Hamidi, M. Afsharnia

Abstract:

Gas sensors based on magneto-plasmonic (MP) structures have attracted much attention due to the high signal to noise ratio in these type of sensors. In these sensors, both the plasmonic and the MO properties of the resulting MP structure become interrelated because the surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) of the metallic medium. This interconnection can be modified the sensor responses and enhanced the signal to noise ratio. So far the sensor features of multilayered structures made of noble and ferromagnetic metals as Au/Co/Au MP multilayer with TiO2 sensor layer have been extensively studied, but their SPR assisted sensor response need to the krestchmann configuration. Here, we present a systematic study on the new MP structure based on one-dimensional nano-grating Au/ Co/ Au/ TiO2 multilayer to utilize as an inexpensive and easy to use gas sensor.

Keywords: Gas Sensor, Magneto-plasmonic structures, nano-garting

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1305 ‘Undressed Star’, Sexual Scenes and Discourses in Mass Media: Exploring 1980s Taiwan Female Film Stars’ Onscreen Erotic Acting

Authors: Xinchen Zhu

Abstract:

In the history of Chinese-language film, female stars’ acting is connected with issues of national ideology, consumerism, and sexual politics. In the 1980s, Taiwan entered a period of ‘soft authoritarianism’ in which the economy prospered politics became more democratic, and mass culture became more diverse. Film censorship was more flexible and sexual scenes were increasingly shown on screen. Female stars’ bodies were eroticized and commercialized through sexual and nude scenes and, by challenging conservative film censorship and social taboos, became the focus of mass media. This article will explore how discourses in mass media constructed the erotic images of female stars and, conversely, impacted film censorship, filmmakers and film actresses in 1980s’ Taiwan. This article will regard the eroticized female film stars’ acting as a ‘field’ of internal interaction and continuous reproduction, where the ideology of male dominance and voices of female film stars conflict with each other. Based on textual analysis of female stars’ sexual acting and the debate in mass media, the argument is that the eroticized female bodies were gazed upon on and off the screen. In the discourses of mass media, the artistry of actresses’ erotic acting was not only ignored, devalued and delegitimized, these stars were also labelled as ‘undressed star’ or ‘nude star’ and construed as victims of the film industry. However, the female stars were able to speak through mass media platforms, emphasizing their efforts in erotic acting and highlighting modern female subjectivity.

Keywords: female subjectivity, sexual scenes, Taiwan female stars, erotic acting, discourses in mass media

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1304 Multilayer System of Thermosetting Polymers and Specific Confining, Application to the Walls of the Hospital Unit

Authors: C. Aribi, B. Bezzazi, M. Bouzid, A. Djadi, A. Irekti, F. Halouene

Abstract:

The nature of materials structuring our health institutions promote the development of germs. The sustainability of nosocomial infections remains significant (12% and 15%). One of the major factors is the portland cement which is brittle and porous. As part of a national plan to fight nosocomial infections, led by the University Hospital of Blida, we opted for a composite coating, application by multilayer model, composed of epoxy-polyester resin as a binder and calcium carbonate as mineral fillers. The application of composite materials reinforce the wall coating of hospital units and eliminates the hospital infectious areas. The resistance to impact, chemicals, raising temperature and to a biologically active environment gives satisfactory results.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Portland Cement, nosocomial infection, microbial load

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1303 Preparation of Novel Antimicrobial Meat Packaging Using Chitosan-Arginine

Authors: R. A. Lahmer, A. P. Williams, S. Townsend, S. Baker, D. L. Jones

Abstract:

Chitosan-arginine (Ch-arg) has been proposed as an anti-microbial agent to reduce the proliferation of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria within meat products destined for human consumption. In the current experiment its use as an antimicrobial packaging material was examined. Two different concentrations of chitosan-arginine (0.05 and 0.15 % w/w) were blended into a cellulose film (Ch-arg film). When placed in contact with chicken and beef juice inoculated with a lux-marked strain of E. coli O157, the film incorporating the highest Ch-arg concentration resulted in a small reduction of E. coli O157 in chicken juice; however, there was no effect of the Ch-arg film on E. coli O157 in beef juice. The lack of observed effect in the beef juice experiment we ascribe to insufficient surface-to-surface contact between the film and the bacteria in the beef juice and the greater presence of other Ch-arg reactive components in the juice (e.g. fats, blood cells). Results suggest that, in combination with other anti microbials, Ch-arg packaging may offers some potential for limiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria in foodstuffs; however, further research is needed to enhance their anti-microbial performance.

Keywords: Shelf Life, cross-contamination, foodborne pathogen, polymer film

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1302 Musicals in Film Adaptation in Bollywood with Special Reference to Basu Bhattacharya's Film Teesari Kasam

Authors: Gokul G. Kshirsagar

Abstract:

Native folk theatre and folk songs have a significant influence on the origin and development of Indian cinema. Therefore, the presence of songs and music has been an integral part and special characteristics of Indian cinema which is popularly known as Bollywood. An Indian cinema without songs, either in Hindi or other regional languages, is simply unimaginable. The present paper, in the first part, attempts to explain the use and need of musical songs and also the psychology of Indian audience in this respect with reference to some of the films which give primary importance to songs. In the second part, the paper tries to situate the present study in the context by referring to the Hindi language drama film Teesari Kasam directed by Basu Bhattacharys. The film is based on the Hindi novelist Phanishwarnath Renu’s short story Teesari Kasam (Mare Gaye Gulfam) in this adapted film, the director has made use of eight songs, but these songs are the extensive versions of the songs as used in the original story. Thus, the main aim of the paper is to underscore the fact that through artistic use of the musical, the director has succeeded in transforming the central feelings conveyed in the original story. Eventually, through the present study of the film adaptation, the relevance of songs in films will be illustrated and understood.

Keywords: Bollywood, folk theatre, folk songs, film adaptation

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1301 Heat and Mass Transfer Study of Supercooled Large Droplet Icing

Authors: Yang Xiaofeng, Gui Yewei, Du Yanxia, Stephan E. Bansmer, Xiao Guangming

Abstract:

The heat and mass transfer characteristics of icing coupled with film flow is studied and the coupled model of the thermal behavior with the flow simulation by single-step method is developed. The behavior of ice and water was analyzed. The results show that under supercooled large droplet (SLD) icing conditions, the film flow is an important phonomena in icing accretion process. The pressure gradient, gravity and shear stress are the main factors affecting the film flow on icing surface, which has important influence on the shape and rate of icing. To predict SLD ice accretion accurately, the heat and mass transfer of ice and film flow should be taken into account.

Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, Aircraft, SLD, icing

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1300 Experimental Studies of Sigma Thin-Walled Beams Strengthen by CFRP Tapes

Authors: Katarzyna Rzeszut, Ilona Szewczak

Abstract:

The review of selected methods of strengthening of steel structures with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tapes and the analysis of influence of composite materials on the steel thin-walled elements are performed in this paper. The study is also focused to the problem of applying fast and effective strengthening methods of the steel structures made of thin-walled profiles. It is worth noting that the issue of strengthening the thin-walled structures is a very complex, due to inability to perform welded joints in this type of elements and the limited ability to applying mechanical fasteners. Moreover, structures made of thin-walled cross-section demonstrate a high sensitivity to imperfections and tendency to interactive buckling, which may substantially contribute to the reduction of critical load capacity. Due to the lack of commonly used and recognized modern methods of strengthening of thin-walled steel structures, authors performed the experimental studies of thin-walled sigma profiles strengthened with CFRP tapes. The paper presents the experimental stand and the preliminary results of laboratory test concerning the analysis of the effectiveness of the strengthening steel beams made of thin-walled sigma profiles with CFRP tapes. The study includes six beams made of the cold-rolled sigma profiles with height of 140 mm, wall thickness of 2.5 mm, and a length of 3 m, subjected to the uniformly distributed load. Four beams have been strengthened with carbon fiber tape Sika CarboDur S, while the other two were tested without strengthening to obtain reference results. Based on the obtained results, the evaluation of the accuracy of applied composite materials for strengthening of thin-walled structures was performed.

Keywords: Strengthening, CFRP tapes, sigma profiles, steel thin-walled structures

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1299 Film, Globalization, Resistance: Emirati Film Production as a Medium of Localization

Authors: Chrysavgi Papagianni

Abstract:

The tension between global and local has been a usual topic in discussions regarding globalization. Instead of reproducing the usual ‘gloom and doom’ arguments surrounding many of these discussions, the present paper will focus on Emirati film production and more particularly on the work of the acclaimed director Nojoom Alghanem, in order to highlight how local culture can, in fact, become a force of resistance, or else a medium of localization. As a matter of fact, Alghanem’s films, especially Sounds of the Sea, Hamama and Nearby Sky are apt examples of a localizing force in action as they tap into the audience’s dormant memories of the pre-oil past, in a country that has been swept by unprecedented development and globalization in the last 60 years. What becomes evident is that the remediation of memories in Alghanem’s films makes them more ‘mobile’ and thus allows them to circulate better in today’s network society.

Keywords: Culture, Film, Identity, Globalization

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1298 Multi-Functional Metal Oxides as Gas Sensors, Photo-Catalysts and Bactericides

Authors: Koyar Rane

Abstract:

Nano- to submicron size particles of narrow particle size distribution of semi-conducting TiO₂, ZnO, NiO, CuO, Fe₂O₃ have been synthesized by novel hydrazine method and tested for their gas sensing, photocatalytic and bactericidal activities and the behavior found to be enhanced when the oxides in the thin film forms, that obtained in a specially built spray pyrolysis reactor. Hydrazine method is novel in the sense, say, the UV absorption edge of the white pigment grade wide band gap (~3.2eV) TiO₂ and ZnO shifted to the visible region turning into yellowish particles, indicating modification occurring the band structure. The absorption in the visible region makes these oxides visible light sensitive photocatalysis in degrading pollutants, especially the organic dyes which otherwise increase the chemical oxygen demand of the drinking water, enabling the process feasible not under the harsh energetic UV radiation regime. The electromagnetic radiations on irradiation produce electron-hole pairs Semiconductor + hν → e⁻ + h⁺ The electron-hole pairs thus produced form Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS, on the surface of the semiconductors, O₂(adsorbed)+e⁻ → O₂• - superoxide ion OH-(surface)+h⁺ →•OH - Hydroxyl radical The ROS attack the organic material and micro-organisms. Our antibacterial studies indicate the metal oxides control the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) of drinking water which had beyond the safe level normally found in the municipal supply. Metal oxides in the thin film form show overall enhanced properties and the films are reusable. The results of the photodegradation and antibactericidal studies are discussed. Gas sensing studies too have been done to find the versatility of the multifunctional metal oxides.

Keywords: hydrazine method, visible light sensitive, photo-degradation of dyes, water/airborne pollutant

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1297 Simultaneous Measurement of Pressure and Temperature Profile of Lubricating Oil-Film along Orthogonally Displaced Non-Circular Journal Bearing: An Experimental Study

Authors: Amit Chauhan, Amit Singla

Abstract:

The non-circular journal bearings provide better thermal stability and lesser oil-film temperature rise as compared to circular journal bearings. Experimentation on simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature of lubricated oil-film along the profile of the bearing will help the designer to design journal bearings. In this paper, pressure and temperature of oil-film along orthogonally displaced non-circular journal bearing have been measured on a designed journal bearing test rig. The orthogonal non-circular journal bearing has been fabricated by displacing two circular halves away from the centers in the orthogonal direction. The data acquisition for oil film pressure and temperature has been carried out at journal speed=3000 rpm and by increasing the static radial load from 500 N to 2000 N in steps of 500 N using three different grades of oil (ISOVG 32, 68, and 150) named as oil-1, oil-2, and oil-3 respectively. The results show that the oil-film pressure and temperature increases with increase in radial load and change of lubricating oil towards increasing viscosity. Further, two lobes in the pressure and temperature profiles have been obtained which accounts for better thermal stability as it reduces cavitation zone inside the bearing.

Keywords: cavitation, Thermal Stability, non-circular journal bearing, orthogonally displaced

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1296 Corrosion Behaviour of Hypereutectic Al-Si Automotive Alloy in Different pH Environment

Authors: M. S. Kaiser, M. Al Nur

Abstract:

Corrosion behaviour of hypereutectic Al-19Si automotive alloy in different pH=1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 environments was carried out using conventional gravimetric measurements and was complemented by resistivity, optical micrograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. Gravimetric analysis confirmed that the highest corrosion rate is shown at pH 13 followed by pH 1. Minimum corrosion occurs in the pH range of 3.0 to 11 due to establishment of passive layer on the surface. The highest corrosion rate at pH 13 is due to the presence of sodium hydroxide in the solution which dissolves the surface oxide film at a steady rate. At pH 1, it can be attributed that the presence of aggressive chloride ions serves to pick up the damage of the passive films at localized regions. With varying exposure periods by both, the environment complies with the normal corrosion rate profile that is an initial steep rise followed by a nearly constant value of corrosion rate. Resistivity increases in case of pH 1 solution for the higher pit formation and decreases at pH 13 due to formation of thin film. The SEM image of corroded samples immersed in pH 1 solution clearly shows pores on the surface and in pH 13 solution, and the corrosion layer seems more compact and homogenous and not porous.

Keywords: Corrosion, resistivity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), al-Si alloy

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1295 Hemocompatible Thin-Film Materials Recreating the Structure of the Cell Niches with High Potential for Endothelialization

Authors: Roman Major, Juergen Markus Lackner, Boguslaw Major, Klaudia Trembecka- Wojciga

Abstract:

The future and the development of science is therefore seen in interdisciplinary areas such as bio medical engineering. Self-assembled structures, similar to stem cell niches would inhibit fast division process and subsequently capture the stem cells from the blood flow. By means of surface topography and the stiffness as well as micro structure progenitor cells should be differentiated towards the formation of endothelial cells monolayer which effectively will inhibit activation of the coagulation cascade. The idea of the material surface development met the interest of the clinical institutions, which support the development of science in this area and are waiting for scientific solutions that could contribute to the development of heart assist systems. This would improve the efficiency of the treatment of patients with myocardial failure, supported with artificial heart assist systems. Innovative materials would enable the redesign, in the post project activity, construction of ventricular heart assist.

Keywords: Electron Microscopy, Bio-Inspired Materials, haemocompatibility, niche-like structures, thin coatings

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1294 Structural and Optical Study of Cu doped ZnS Thin Films Nanocrystalline by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

Authors: Hamid Merzouk, D. T. Talantikite, H. Haddad, Amel Tounsi

Abstract:

ZnS is an important II-VI binary compound with large band-gap energy at room temperature. We present in this work preparation and characterization of ZnS and Cu doped ZnS thin films. The depositions are performed by a simple chemical bath deposition route. Structural properties are carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical transmittance is investigated by the UV-visible spectroscopy at room temperature.

Keywords: Chemical, Films, Method, doped, ZnS, bath, thin

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1293 An Investigation on the Pulse Electrodeposition of Ni-TiO2/TiO2 Multilayer Structures

Authors: S. Mohajeri

Abstract:

Electrocodeposition of Ni-TiO2 nanocomposite single layers and Ni-TiO2/TiO2 multilayers from Watts bath containing TiO2 sol was carried out on copper substrate. Pulse plating and pulse reverse plating techniques were applied to facilitate higher incorporations of TiO2 nanoparticles in Ni-TiO2 nanocomposite single layers, and the results revealed that by prolongation of the current-off durations and the anodic cycles, deposits containing 11.58 wt.% and 13.16 wt.% TiO2 were produced, respectively. Multilayer coatings which consisted of Ni-TiO2 and TiO2-rich layers were deposited by pulse potential deposition through limiting the nickel deposition by diffusion control mechanism. The TiO2-rich layers thickness and accordingly, the content of TiO2 reinforcement reached 104 nm and 18.47 wt.%, respectively in the optimum condition. The phase structure and surface morphology of the nanocomposite coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cross sectional morphology and line scans of the layers were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was confirmed that the preferred orientations and the crystallite sizes of nickel matrix were influenced by the deposition technique parameters, and higher contents of codeposited TiO2 nanoparticles refined the microstructure. The corrosion behavior of the coatings in 1M NaCl and 0.5M H2SO4 electrolytes were compared by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Increase of corrosion resistance and the passivation tendency were favored by TiO2 incorporation, while the degree of passivation declined as embedded particles disturbed the continuity of passive layer. The role of TiO2 incorporation on the improvement of mechanical properties including hardness, elasticity, scratch resistance and friction coefficient was investigated by the means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hydrophilicity and wettability of the composite coatings were investigated under UV illumination, and the water contact angle of the multilayer was reduced to 7.23° after 1 hour of UV irradiation.

Keywords: Multilayer, electrodeposition, hydrophilicity, pulse-plating

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1292 Physical Characterization of SnO₂ Films Prepared by the Rheotaxial Growth and Thermal Oxidation (RGTO) Method

Authors: B. Boudjema, A. Kabir, D. Boulainine, I. Bouanane, N. Benslim, C. Sedrati

Abstract:

SnO₂ is an n-type semiconductor with a direct gap of about 3.6 eV. It is largely used in several domains such as nanocrystalline photovoltaic cells. Due to its interesting physic-chemical properties, this material was elaborated in thin film forms using different deposition techniques. It was found that SnO₂ properties were directly affected by the deposition method parameters. In this work, the RGTO method (Rheotaxial Growth and Thermal Oxidation) was used to deposit elaborate SnO₂ thin films. This technique consists on thermal oxidation of the Sn films deposited onto a substrate heated to a temperature close to Sn melting point (232°C). Such process allows the preparation of high porosity tin oxide films which are very suitable for the gas sensing. The films structural, morphological and optical properties pre and post thermal oxidation were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) respectively. XRD patterns showed a polycrystalline structure of the cassiterite phase of SnO₂. The grain growth was found affected by the oxidation temperature. This grain size evolution was confronted to existing grain growth models in order to understand the growth mechanism. From SEM images, the as deposited Sn film was formed of difference diameter spherical agglomerations. As a function of the oxidation temperature, these spherical agglomerations shape changed due to the introduction of oxygen ions. The deformed spheres started to interconnect by forming bridges between them. The volume porosity, determined from the UV-Visible reflexion spectra, Changes as a function of the oxidation temperature. The variation of the crystalline fraction, determined from FTIR spectra, correlated with the variation of both the grain size and the volume porosity.

Keywords: grain growth, tin oxide, RGTO, volume porosity, crystalline fraction

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1291 Characterization of Edible Film from Uwi Starch (Dioscorea alata L.)

Authors: Miksusanti, Herlina, Wiwin

Abstract:

The research about modification uwi starch (Dioscorea alata L) by using propylene oxide has been done. Concentration of propylene oxide were 6%(v/w), 8%(v/w), and 10%(v/w). The amilograf parameters after modification were characteristic breakdown viscosity 43 BU and setback viscosity 975 BU. The modification starch have edible properties according to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) which have degree of modification < 7%, degree of substitution < 0,1 and propylene oxide concentration < 10%(v/w). The best propylene oxide in making of edible film was 8 %( v/w). The starch control can be made into edible film with thickness 0,136 mm, tensile strength 20,4605 MPa and elongation 22%. Modification starch of uwi can be made into edible film with thickness 0,146 mm, tensile strength 25, 3521 Mpa, elongation 30% and water vapor transmission 7, 2651 g/m2/24 hours. FTIR characterization of uwi starch showed the occurrence of hydroxypropylation. The peak spectrum at 2900 cm-1 showed bonding of C-H from methyl group, which is characteristic for modification starch with hydroxypropyl. Characterization with scanning electron microscopy showed that modification of uwi starch has turned the granule of starch to be fully swallon.

Keywords: Modification, edible film, uwi starch, propylen oxide

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1290 Development of Biodegradable Wound Healing Patch of Curcumin

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Shally Toshkhani, Gyati Shilakari

Abstract:

The objective of the present research work is to develop a topical biodegradable dermal patch based formulation to aid accelerated wound healing. It is always better for patient compliance to be able to reduce the frequency of dressings with improved drug delivery and overall therapeutic efficacy. In present study optimized formulation using biodegradable components was obtained evaluating polymers and excipients (HPMC K4M, Ethylcellulose, Povidone, Polyethylene glycol and Gelatin) to impart significant folding endurance, elasticity, and strength. Molten gelatin was used to get a mixture using ethylene glycol. Chitosan dissolved in acidic medium was mixed with stirring to Gelatin mixture. With continued stirring to the mixture Curcumin was added with the aid of DCM and Methanol in an optimized ratio of 60:40 to get homogenous dispersion. Polymers were dispersed with stirring in the final formulation. The mixture was sonicated casted to get the film form. All steps were carried out under strict aseptic conditions. The final formulation was a thin uniformly smooth textured film with dark brown-yellow color. The film was found to have folding endurance was around 20 to 21 times without a crack in an optimized formulation at RT (23°C). The drug content was in range 96 to 102% and it passed the content uniform test. The final moisture content of the optimized formulation film was NMT 9.0%. The films passed stability study conducted at refrigerated conditions (4±0.2°C) and at room temperature (23 ± 2°C) for 30 days. Further, the drug content and texture remained undisturbed with stability study conducted at RT 23±2°C for 45 and 90 days. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and matched the biodegradation rate as tested in vivo with correlation factor R2>0.9. In in vivo study administration of one dose in equivalent quantity per 2 days was applied topically. The data demonstrated a significant improvement with percentage wound contraction in contrast to control and plain drug respectively in given period. The film based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and in vivo performance.

Keywords: Polymers, Wound Healing, biodegradable, patch

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1289 Design and Development of Mucoadhesive Buccal Film Bearing Itraconazole

Authors: KAMTA PRASAD NAMDEO, Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Surendra Bodhake

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate mucoadhesive films for buccal administration of itraconazole using film-forming and mucoashesive polymers. Buccal films of chitosan bearing Itraconazole were prepared by solvent casting technique. The films have been evaluated in terms of film weight, thickness, density, surface pH, FTIR, X-ray diffraction analysis, bioadhesion, swelling properties, and in vitro drug release studies. It was found that film formulations of 2 cm2 size having weight in the range of 204 ± 0.76 to 223 ± 2.09 mg and film thickness were in the range of 0.44 ± 0.11 to 0.57 ± 0.19 mm. Density of the films was found to be 0.102 to 0.126 g/ml. Drug content was found to be uniform in the range of 8.23 ± 0.07 to 8.73 ± 0.09 mg/cm2 for formulation A1 to A4. Maximum bioadhesion force was recorded for HPMC buccal films (A2) i.e. 0.57 ± 0.47 as compared to other films. In vitro residence time was in range of 1.7 ± 0.12 to 7.65 ± 0.15 h. The drug release studies show that formulations follow non-fickian diffusion. These mucoadhesive formulations could offer many advantages in comparison to traditional treatments.

Keywords: Mucoadhesion, itraconazole, biovariability, buccal patches

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1288 Determination of Optical Constants of Semiconductor Thin Films by Ellipsometry

Authors: Aïssa Manallah, Mohamed Bouafia

Abstract:

Ellipsometry is an optical method based on the study of the behavior of polarized light. The light reflected on a surface induces a change in the polarization state which depends on the characteristics of the material (complex refractive index and thickness of the different layers constituting the device). The purpose of this work is to determine the optical properties of semiconductor thin films by ellipsometry. This paper describes the experimental aspects concerning the semiconductor samples, the SE400 ellipsometer principle, and the results obtained by direct measurements of ellipsometric parameters and modelling using appropriate software.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Thin Films, optical constants, Ellipsometry

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1287 Finite Element Analysis of Oil-Lubricated Elliptical Journal Bearings

Authors: Marco Tulio C. Faria

Abstract:

Fixed-geometry hydrodynamic journal bearings are one of the best supporting systems for several applications of rotating machinery. Cylindrical journal bearings present excellent load-carrying capacity and low manufacturing costs, but they are subjected to the oil-film instability at high speeds. An attempt of overcoming this instability problem has been the development of non-circular journal bearings. This work deals with an analysis of oil-lubricated elliptical journal bearings using the finite element method. Steady-state and dynamic performance characteristics of elliptical bearings are rendered by zeroth- and first-order lubrication equations obtained through a linearized perturbation method applied on the classical Reynolds equation. Four-node isoparametric rectangular finite elements are employed to model the bearing thin film flow. Curves of elliptical bearing load capacity and dynamic force coefficients are rendered at several operating conditions. The results presented in this work demonstrate the influence of the bearing ellipticity on its performance at different loading conditions.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, elliptical journal bearings, non-circular journal bearings, hydrodynamic bearings

Procedia PDF Downloads 272