Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Kiri Trier

8 Diversity of Bird Species and Conservation of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Adamawa, Nigeria

Authors: D. l. David, J. A. Wahedi, U. Buba, R. Zakariya


Between January, 2004 to December, 2005, studies were carried out on the bird species diversity and relative abundance of two lakes, Kiri and Gyawana near Numan using the “Timed Species Count (TSC)” method. 163 species in 53 bird families and 160 species in 55 bird families were recorded at Kiri and Gyawana lakes respectively. There was no significant difference in species diversity within bird families between the two lakes (p > 0.05), whereas in Gyawana Lake, one of the sites qualified as Ramsar site, none strongly qualified as an Important Bird Area (IBA). The significance of these findingsare also discussed.

Keywords: conservation, diversity, lacustrine, wetlands

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7 Agile Manifesto Construct for the Film Industry

Authors: Kiri Trier, Theresa Treffers


In the course of continuous volatility like production stops due to the COVID-19 pandemic, video-on-demand player monopolizing the film industry, filmmakers are stuck in traditional, linear content development processes. The industry has to become more agile in order to react quickly and easily to changes. Since content development in agile project management is scientifically–empirically not at all recorded, and a lack beyond the software development in terms of agile methods consists, we examined if the agile manifesto values and principles from the software development can be adapted to the film industry to enable agility and digitalization of content development in the industry. We conducted an online questionnaire with 184 German filmmakers (producers, authors, directors, actors, film financiers) for a first cross-sectional assessment for adaptability of the agile manifesto from the software development to the film industry, factor analysis was used to validate the construct. Our results show that it is crucial to digitalize traditional content development to agile content development end-to-end, with tools, lean processes, new collaboration structures, and holacracy to prepare for any volatility. Overall, we examined the first construct for an agile manifesto for the film industry with four values related to nine own principles. Our findings help to get a better understanding of the agile manifesto beyond the software development as a guideline for implementing agility in the film industry.

Keywords: agile manifesto, agile project management, agility, film industry

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6 A Functional Correlate of the Two Polarities of Depressive Experience Model

Authors: Jaime R. Silva, Gabriel E. Reyes, Marianne Krause


Background: The two-polarity model of the depressive personality argues that experience is organized around two axes: interpersonal relatedness and self-definition. Differential emphasis on one of these poles defines three types of depressive experience: Anaclitic, Introjective or Mixed pattern. On the one hand, Anaclitic pattern has been conceptually related with exaggerated biological stress sensitivity. On the other hand, the Introjective pattern was linked with anhedonic symptomatology. The general aim of the study was to find empirical support for this relationship. Methods: 101 non-clinical individuals participated in two experimental sessions. During the first session, the biological stress reactivity (cortisol concentration in saliva) and the subjective stress perceived (self-reported) during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), were investigated. In the second session, a visual discrimination task with a specific reward system, to study the reinforcement sensitivity (anhedonia), was performed. Results: Results evidenced that participants with Introjective depressive symptoms showed a higher interpersonal sensitivity and a diminished sensitivity to reinforcement. In addition, results also indicated that such a group has a poor psychological detection of its exacerbated reactivity to stress, which is the opposite pattern evidenced amongst the Anaclitic group. Conclusions: In perspective, these results empirically support the two-polarity of the depressive personality model. Clinical implications are discussed.

Keywords: depression, interpersonal stress, personality, trier social stress test

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5 A Qualitative Exploration of the Sexual and Reproductive Health Practices of Adolescent Mothers from Indigenous Populations in Ratanak Kiri Province, Cambodia

Authors: Bridget J. Kenny, Elizabeth Hoban, Jo Williams


Adolescent pregnancy presents a significant public health challenge for Cambodia. Despite declines in the overall fertility rate, the adolescent fertility rate is increasing. Adolescent pregnancy is particularly problematic in the Northeast provinces of Ratanak Kiri and Mondul Kiri where 34 percent of girls aged between 15 and 19 have begun childbearing; this is almost three times Cambodia’s national average of 12 percent. Language, cultural and geographic barriers have restricted qualitative exploration of the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges that face indigenous adolescents in Northeast Cambodia. The current study sought to address this gap by exploring the SRH practices of adolescent mothers from indigenous populations in Ratanak Kiri Province. Twenty-two adolescent mothers, aged between 15 and 19, were recruited from seven indigenous villages in Ratanak Kiri Province and asked to participate in a combined body mapping exercise and semi-structured interview. Participants were given a large piece of paper (59.4 x 84.1 cm) with the outline of a female body and asked to draw the female reproductive organs onto the ‘body map’. Participants were encouraged to explain what they had drawn with the purpose of evoking conversation about their reproductive bodies. Adolescent mothers were then invited to participate in a semi-structured interview to further expand on topics of SRH. The qualitative approach offered an excellent avenue to explore the unique SRH challenges that face indigenous adolescents in rural Cambodia. In particular, the use of visual data collection methods reduced the language and cultural barriers that have previously restricted or prevented qualitative exploration of this population group. Thematic analysis yielded six major themes: (1) understanding of the female reproductive body, (2) contraceptive knowledge, (3) contraceptive use, (4) barriers to contraceptive use, (5) sexual practices, (6) contact with healthcare facilities. Participants could name several modern contraceptive methods and knew where they could access family planning services. However, adolescent mothers explained that they gained this knowledge during antenatal care visits and consequently participants had limited SRH knowledge, including contraceptive awareness, at the time of sexual initiation. Fear of the perceived side effects of modern contraception, including infertility, provided an additional barrier to contraceptive use for indigenous adolescents. Participants did not cite cost or geographic isolation as barriers to accessing SRH services. Child marriage and early sexual initiation were also identified as important factors contributing to the high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy in this population group. The findings support the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports' (MoEYS) recent introduction of SRH education into the primary and secondary school curriculum but suggest indigenous girls in rural Cambodia require additional sources of SRH information. Results indicate adolescent girls’ first point of contact with healthcare facilities occurs after they become pregnant. Promotion of an effective continuum of care by increasing access to healthcare services during the pre-pregnancy period is suggested as a means of providing adolescents girls with an additional avenue to acquire SRH information.

Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive use, family planning, sexual and reproductive health

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4 Impact of Transportation on Access to Reproductive and Maternal Health Services in Northeast Cambodia: A Policy Brief

Authors: Zaman Jawahar, Anne Rouve-Khiev, Elizabeth Hoban, Joanne Williams


Ensuring access to timely obstetric care is essential to prevent maternal deaths. Geographical barriers pose significant challenges for women accessing quality reproductive and maternal health services in rural Cambodia. This policy brief affirms the need to address the issue of transportation and cost (direct and indirect) as critical barriers to accessing reproductive and maternal health (RMH) services in four provinces in Northeast Cambodia (Kratie, Ratanak Kiri, Mondul Kiri, Stung Treng). A systemic search of the literature identified 1,116 articles, and only ten articles from low-and-middle-income countries met the inclusion criteria. The ten articles reported on transportation and cost related to accessing RMH services. In addition, research findings from Partnering to Save Lives (PSL) studies in the four provinces were included in the analysis. Thematic data analysis using the information in the ten articles and PSL research findings was conducted, and the findings are presented in this paper. The key findings are the critical barriers to accessing RMH services in the four provinces because women experience: 1) difficulties finding affordable transportation; 2) lack of available and accessible transportation; 3) greater distance and traveling time to services; 4) poor geographical terrain and; 5) higher opportunity costs. Distance and poverty pose a double burden for the women accessing RMH services making a facility-based delivery less feasible compared to home delivery. Furthermore, indirect and hidden costs associated with institutional delivery may have an impact on women’s decision to seek RMH care. Existing health financing schemes in Cambodia such as the Health Equity Fund (HEF) and the Voucher Scheme contributed to the solution but have also shown some limitations. These schemes contribute to improving access to RMH services for the poorest group, but the barrier of transportation costs remains. In conclusion, initiatives that are proven to be effective in the Cambodian context should continue or be expanded in conjunction with the HEF, and special consideration should be given to communities living in geographically remote regions and difficult to access areas. The following strategies are recommended: 1) maintain and further strengthen transportation support in the HEF scheme; 2) expand community-based initiatives such as Community Managed Health Equity Funds and Village Saving Loans Associations; 3) establish maternity waiting homes; and 4) include antenatal and postnatal care in the provision of integrated outreach services. This policy brief can be used to inform key policymakers and provide evidence that can assist them to develop strategies to increase poor women’s access to RMH services in low-income settings, taking into consideration the geographic distance and other indirect costs associated with a facility-based delivery.

Keywords: access, barriers, northeast Cambodia, reproductive and maternal health service, transportation and cost

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3 Evolution of Minangkabau ‘Induk’ House and its influence on the Architecture

Authors: Noor Hayati Binti Ismail, Mastor Bin Surat, Raja Nafida Binti Raja Shahminan, Shahrul Kamil Bin Yunus


This study is to look the changes, development and evolution taking place in the Minangkabau house. Minangkabau traditional house is a part of the assets of Indonesia's culture and history. In addition to custom house, traditional Minangkabau building also serves as a place to live within the context of human habitats but has slowly through the changes. Luhak Nan Tigo of Luhak Tanah Datar, Agam And Luhak 50 Kota are holding the Minangkabau. ‘Induk’ house is the sole home, Main house or an older home for a gathering place doing activities together. The 'Genius Loci' refers to the unique aspects of the history, the value of a place, culturally and socially. Main house has the aspect of Minangkabau is a house occupied by custom rules that practice matrilineal kinship system and tendency to move out from the community. The study involves several villages and traditional houses at Padang, Bukit Tinggi, Kampar Kiri in Indonesia and Rembau, kuala Pilah, tampin in Negeri Sembilan has been selected to serve as a research field. These factors were the occurrence of evolution Minangkabau house from the ‘induk’, kampar and Negeri Sembilan. In this regard, the identity and uniqueness of the house increasingly difficult to sustain as well as lack of clarity can be understood by the people of the present generation.

Keywords: evolution, Genius loci, ‘Induk’ house, matrilineal kinship

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2 The Breakthrough of Sexual Cinematic Freedom in Denmark in the 1960s and 1970s

Authors: Søren Birkvad


This paper traces the development of sexual cinematic freedom in the wake of an epoch-making event in Danish cultural history. As the first in the world, the Danes abolished all censorship for adults in 1969, making the tiny nation of Denmark the world’s largest exporter of pornography for several years. Drawing on the insights of social and cultural history and the focus point of the National Cinema direction of Cinema Studies, this study focuses on Danish film pornography in the 1960s and 1970s in its own right (e.g., its peculiar mix of sex, popular comedy and certain ‘feminist’ agendas). More importantly, however, it covers a broader pattern, namely the culturally deep-rooted tradition of freedom of speech and sexual liberalism in Denmark. Thus, the key concept of frisind (“free mind”) in Danish cultural history took on an increasingly partisan application in the 1960s and 1970s. It became a designation for all-is-permitted hippie excess but was also embraced by dissenting movements on the left, such as feminism, which questioned whether a free mind necessarily meant free love. In all of this, Danish cinema from the 1960s and 1970s offers a remarkable source of historical insight, simultaneously reminding us of a number of acute issues of contemporary society. These issues include gendered ideas of sexuality and freedom then and now and the equivalent clash of cultures between a liberal commercial industry and the accelerating political demands of the “sexual revolution.” Finally, these issues include certain tensions between, on the one hand, a purely materialistic idea of sexual freedom – incarnated by anything from pornography to many of the taboo-breaking youth films and avant-garde films in the wake of the 1968-rebellion – and, on the other hand, growing opposition to this anti-spiritual perception of human sexuality (represented by for instance the ‘closet conservatism’ of Danish art film star Lars von Trier of nowadays). All in all, this presentation offers a reflection on ideas of sexuality and gender rooted in a unique historical moment in cinematic history.

Keywords: Danish film history, cultural history, film pornography, history of sexuality, national cinema, sexual liberalism

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1 Developing a Methodology to Examine Psychophysiological Responses during Stress Exposure and Relaxation: An Experimental Paradigm

Authors: M. Velana, G. Rinkenauer


Nowadays, nurses are facing unprecedented amounts of pressure due to the ongoing global health demands. Work-related stress can cause a high physical and psychological workload, which can lead, in turn, to burnout. On the physiological level, stress triggers an initial activation of the sympathetic nervous and adrenomedullary systems resulting in increases in cardiac activity. Furthermore, activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis provokes endocrine and immune changes leading to the release of cortisol and cytokines in an effort to re-establish body balance. Based on the current state of the literature, it has been identified that resilience and mindfulness exercises among nurses can effectively decrease stress and improve mood. However, it is still unknown what relaxation techniques would be suitable for and to what extent would be effective to decrease psychophysiological arousal deriving from either a physiological or a psychological stressor. Moreover, although cardiac activity and cortisol are promising candidates to examine the effectiveness of relaxation to reduce stress, it still remains to shed light on the role of cytokines in this process so as to thoroughly understand the body’s response to stress and to relaxation. Therefore, the main aim of the present study is to develop a comprehensive experimental paradigm and assess different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation and a mindfulness exercise originating from cognitive therapy by means of biofeedback, under highly controlled laboratory conditions. An experimental between-subject design will be employed, where 120 participants will be randomized either to a physiological or a psychological stress-related experiment. Particularly, the cold pressor test refers to a procedure in which the participants have to immerse their non-dominant hands into ice water (2-3 °C) for 3 min. The participants are requested to keep their hands in the water throughout the whole duration. However, they can immediately terminate the test in case it would be barely tolerable. A pre-test anticipation phase and a post-stress period of 3 min, respectively, are planned. The Trier Social Stress Test will be employed to induce psychological stress. During this laboratory stressor, the participants are instructed to give a 5-min speech in front of a committee of communication specialists. Before the main task, there is a 10-min anticipation period. Subsequently, participants are requested to perform an unexpected arithmetic task. After stress exposure, the participants will perform one of the relaxation exercises (treatment condition) or watch a neutral video (control condition). Electrocardiography, salivary samples, and self-report will be collected at different time points. The preliminary results deriving from the pilot study showed that the aforementioned paradigm could effectively induce stress reactions and that relaxation might decrease the impact of stress exposure. It is of utmost importance to assess how the human body responds under different stressors and relaxation exercises so that an evidence-based intervention could be transferred in a clinical setting to improve nurses’ general health. Based on suggestive future laboratory findings, the research group plans to conduct a pilot-level randomized study to decrease stress and promote well-being among nurses who work in the stress-riddled environment of a hospital located in Northern Germany.

Keywords: nurses, psychophysiology, relaxation, stress

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