Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Theresa Treffers

24 Agile Manifesto Construct for the Film Industry

Authors: Kiri Trier, Theresa Treffers


In the course of continuous volatility like production stops due to the COVID-19 pandemic, video-on-demand player monopolizing the film industry, filmmakers are stuck in traditional, linear content development processes. The industry has to become more agile in order to react quickly and easily to changes. Since content development in agile project management is scientifically–empirically not at all recorded, and a lack beyond the software development in terms of agile methods consists, we examined if the agile manifesto values and principles from the software development can be adapted to the film industry to enable agility and digitalization of content development in the industry. We conducted an online questionnaire with 184 German filmmakers (producers, authors, directors, actors, film financiers) for a first cross-sectional assessment for adaptability of the agile manifesto from the software development to the film industry, factor analysis was used to validate the construct. Our results show that it is crucial to digitalize traditional content development to agile content development end-to-end, with tools, lean processes, new collaboration structures, and holacracy to prepare for any volatility. Overall, we examined the first construct for an agile manifesto for the film industry with four values related to nine own principles. Our findings help to get a better understanding of the agile manifesto beyond the software development as a guideline for implementing agility in the film industry.

Keywords: agile manifesto, agile project management, agility, film industry

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23 Findings from an Access Improvement Project for Antiretroviral Therapy Uptake through Traditional Birth Attendants at Mother Theresa Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Daniel Afolayan, Christina Olawepo, Francis Olowookanga, Nguhemen Tingir, Olawale Fadare, John Oko


In Nigeria, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can play an important role in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, their role in improving access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear. Catholic Caritas Foundation of Nigeria (Caritas Nigeria) is an implementing agency supporting increased access to HIV testing and treatment services in Lagos state through health facilities including Mother Theresa Hospital. Despite intra-facility testing and community outreaches, ART uptake at Mother Theresa Hospital, Lagos was low with 6 individuals on antiretroviral drugs 3 months post-activation. This study explored improving access to ART through linkages with TBAs for ART uptake at the facility. Plan-Do-Study-Act model was used. The goal was to improve uptake of ART from 6 to 80 in 5 months (end of project year). Scanning revealed a network of 15 TBAs with potential as satellites for HIV testing. Caritas Nigeria linked the facility with 15 TBAs who were provided with HIV test kits and trained on HIV testing services for provider-initiated testing and outreaches. Weekly reports and referrals of positives were received, tracked and feedback given on testing yield. These TBAs serve individuals of various age and gender at their trado-medical centres. At the end of 5 months, HIV testing increased by 10,575 (78% from TBAs) and HIV positives obtained improved by 77 (44.2% from TBAs). 55 new individuals were enrolled and commenced on ART (61.8% from TBAs). There was a successful linkage of all clients with escort services due to incentives. Total uptake of ART was 61 (76.3% of target). Structured partnerships between TBAs and HIV care and treatment centers should be strengthened to improve access to ART.

Keywords: access improvement, antiretroviral therapy, traditional birth attendants, uptake

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22 Educaton for Social Reconstruction: Impact of Social Terrorism on Women Education in Nigeria

Authors: Theresa Chinyere ONU


This paper examines the effect of social terrorism on education in Nigeria. The article looked into some prevailing conditions of international political unrest and insecurity. The fear and risk of these conditions to national security and the struggle for power establishment which has further intensified and taken the shape of terrorism has imposed devastating effects on the growth and prosperity of Nigeria; as traffic patterns get disturbed, hospitals and schools get dysfunctional. This has also affected the educational standard in Nigeria as parents are no longer comfortable in sending their children to schools in some states for the fear of terrorist attacks. The study emphasized the integrated the effort of the government management institutions.

Keywords: education, social terrorism, women, Nigeria

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21 Transform to Succeed: An Empirical Analysis of Digital Transformation in Firms

Authors: Sarah E. Stief, Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Markus Voeth


Despite all progress firms are facing the increasing need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies to transform their business activities in order to pursue business development. By using new digital technologies, firms can implement major business improvements in order to stay competitive and foster new growth potentials. The corresponding phenomenon of digital transformation has received some attention in previous literature in respect to industries such as media and publishing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of understanding of the concept and its organization within firms. With the help of twenty-three in-depth field interviews with German experts responsible for their company’s digital transformation, we examined what digital transformation encompasses, how it is organized and which opportunities and challenges arise within firms. Our results indicate that digital transformation is an inevitable task for all firms, as it bears the potential to comprehensively optimize and reshape established business activities and can thus be seen as a strategy of business development.

Keywords: business development, digitalization, digital strategies, digital transformation

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20 A Study of Small Business Failure: Impact of Leadership and the Leadership Process

Authors: Theresa Robinson Harris


Small businesses are important to the United States economy, yet the majority struggle to remain relevant and close before their fifth year. This qualitative study explored small business failure by comparing the experiences of small-business owners to understand their involvement with leadership during the early stages of the business, and the impact of this on the firms’ ability to survive. Participants’ experiences from two groups were compared to glean an understanding of the leadership process, how leadership differs between the groups, and to see what themes or constructs emerged that could help to explain the high failure rate. Leadership was perceived to be important when envisioning a path for the future and when providing a platform for employees to succeed. Those who embraced leadership as a skillset were more likely to get through the challenges of the early developmental years while those ignoring the importance of leadership were more likely to close prematurely. These findings suggest a disconnect with regards to the understanding, role, and benefits of leadership in small organizations, particularly young organizations in the early stages of development.

Keywords: leadership, small business, entrepreneurship, success, failure

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19 Drivers of Digital Product Innovation in Firms: An Empirical Study of Technological, Organizational, and Environmental Factors

Authors: Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Sarah E. Stief, Markus Voeth, Sarah Gundlach


With digitalization increasingly changing the rules of competition, firms face the need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies in order to remain competitive. Firms can choose from various possibilities to integrate digital technologies including the option to embed digital technologies aiming to innovate products or to develop digital products. However, the question of which specific factors influence a firm’s decision to pursue digital product innovation remains unanswered in research. By adopting the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE)-framework we have designed a qualitative exploratory study including eleven German practitioners to investigate relevant contingency factors. Our results indicate that the most critical factors for a company’s decision to pursue digital product innovation can be found in the technological and environmental dimensions, namely customers, competitive pressure, technological change, as well as digitalization fit. 

Keywords: digital innovation, digitalization, product innovation, TOE-framework

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18 Condom Attitudes and Self-Efficacy: Unwrapping Safer Sex Practices among Heterosexual Bahamian Men

Authors: Theresa Adderley


Background: Aside from abstinence, correct and consistent use of latex condoms is the best known effective method to reduce HIV transmission among sexually active heterosexual individuals. When condoms are correctly used, the risk of HIV transmission is reduced by approximately 85%, relative to risk when not protected during sexual intercourse. The literature provides evidence that heterosexual young adults continue to be the group among whom STI rates are highest and the group that engages in more sexual risk-taking behaviors such as inconsistent or no condom usage. This study examines condom attitudes, condom use self-efficacy and their contributions to safer sex behaviors among heterosexual men living in The Bahamas. Methods: Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, and a convenience sample of 185 heterosexual males (Mage= 31.95, SD = 11.35), three standardized instruments were used to assess behaviors that may not only place heterosexual males at risk for HIV infection but also their female partners. Results: The results of this study suggest that condom attitudes, and condom use self-efficacy are important in explaining 24% variance in safer sex behaviors among Bahamian men. Income (β= -.15, p < .01; condom attitudes, (β= .36, p < .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β= .1, p < .01) were significantly associated with safer sex behaviors. Conclusion: Rather than focusing only on the use of safer sex behaviors, an effective HIV prevention strategy must consider condom attitudes and condom use self-efficacy as specific variables that may contribute to perpetuating the transmission of HIV.

Keywords: condom attitudes, safer sex behaviors, HIV, condom self-efficacy

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17 Predictive Power of Achievement Motivation on Student Engagement and Collaborative Problem Solving Skills

Authors: Theresa Marie Miller, Ma. Nympha Joaquin


The aim of this study was to check the predictive power of social-oriented and individual-oriented achievement motivation on student engagement and collaborative problem-solving skills in mathematics. A sample of 277 fourth year high school students from the Philippines were selected. Surveys and videos of collaborative problem solving activity were used to collect data from respondents. The mathematics teachers of the participants were interviewed to provide qualitative support on the data. Systemaitc correlation and regression analysis were employed. Results of the study showed that achievement motivations−SOAM and IOAM− linearly predicted student engagement but was not significantly associated to the collaborative problem-solving skills in mathematics. Student engagement correlated positively with collaborative problem-solving skills in mathematics. The results contribute to theorizing about the predictive power of achievement motivations, SOAM and IOAM on the realm of academic behaviors and outcomes as well as extend the understanding of collaborative problem-solving skills of 21st century learners.

Keywords: achievement motivation, collaborative problem-solving skills, individual-oriented achievement motivation, social-oriented achievement motivation, student engagement

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16 The Socio-Religious, Economic, and Cultural Impacts of Aso-Ebi on South-East Nigeria

Authors: Nwaoga, Theresa Chinyere


The paper examines the impacts of Aso-Ebi, a Yoruba term for ‘uniform’ on the people of south-east Nigeria. Aso-Ebi is used to denote uniform wear which is typical of the people of south-west Nigeria. In the 1980s and 1990s, uniform wears were used only by immediate family members of a deceased person. This is for easy identification by visitors—to know those who are related to the deceased person. Aso-Ebi is now part of a culture that has existed in Nigeria from the Yoruba and transcended to other parts of Nigeria, precisely south-east Nigeria. The buying of Aso-Ebi and attending the occasions in the attire is the only way of showing solidarity and support to the celebrant. Aso-Ebi has led to creating a sense of belonging, opening of doors for marriage by those single, and fundraising. As part of the findings, it was discovered that Aso-Ebi has led to an increase in marital infidelity and divorce, robbery, prostitution, depression, and an increase in enmity between friends in south-east Nigeria. Data was generated through oral interviews, focus group discussion and participant observation. Secondary data were obtained from journals, textbooks, the internet and periodicals. The phenomenological method of research was used as the methodology. This method allows for an objective report and analysis of the research problem. Aso-Ebi has come to stay in Igbo culture, so there should be a proper re-orientation on the uses of Aso-Ebi during occasions like burial in Igbo land. The campaign can start from the church by discouraging people from using Aso-Ebi during burials and wedding ceremonies.

Keywords: Asho Ebi, uniformed women, burial ceremonies, August meetings

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15 Effects of Surface Roughness on a Unimorph Piezoelectric Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Vibrational Energy Harvester Using Finite Element Method Modeling

Authors: Jean Marriz M. Manzano, Marc D. Rosales, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Maria Theresa G. De Leon


This paper discusses the effects of surface roughness on a cantilever beam vibrational energy harvester. A silicon sample was fabricated using MEMS fabrication processes. When etching silicon using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) at large etch depths, rougher surfaces are observed as a result of increased response in process pressure, amount of coil power and increased helium backside cooling readings. To account for the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of the cantilever beam, finite element method (FEM) modeling was performed using actual roughness data from fabricated samples. It was found that when etching about 550um of silicon, root mean square roughness parameter, Sq, varies by 1 to 3 um (at 100um thick) across a 6-inch wafer. Given this Sq variation, FEM simulations predict an 8 to148 Hz shift in the resonant frequency while having no significant effect on the output power. The significant shift in the resonant frequency implies that careful consideration of surface roughness from fabrication processes must be done when designing energy harvesters.

Keywords: deep reactive ion etching, finite element method, microelectromechanical systems, multiphysics analysis, surface roughness, vibrational energy harvester

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14 Building Cardiovascular Fitness through Plyometric Training

Authors: Theresa N. Uzor


The word cardiovascular fitness is a topic of much interest to people of Nigeria, especially during this time, some heart diseases run in families. Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply-rich blood to the working muscle tissues. This type of fitness is a health-related component of physical fitness that is brought about by sustained physical activity such as plyometric training. Plyometric is a form of advanced fitness training that uses fast muscular contractions to improve power and speed in the sports performance by coaches and athletes. Plyometric training involves a rapid stretching of muscle (eccentric phase) immediately followed by a concentric or shortening action of the same muscle and connective tissue. However, the most basic example of true plyometric training is running and can be safe for a wide variety of populations. This paper focused on building cardiovascular health through Plyometric Training. The centre focus of the article is cardiovascular fitness and plyometric training with factors of cardiovascular fitness. Plyometric training at any age provides multiple benefits even beyond weight control and weight loss, decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other diseases, among other benefits of plyometric training to cardiovascular fitness. Participation in plyometric training will increase metabolism of an individual, thereby burning more calories even when at rest and reduces weight is also among the benefits of plyometric training. Some guidelines were recommended for planning plyometric training programme to minimise the chance of injury. With plyometric training in Nigeria, fortune can change for good, especially now that there has been an increase in cardiovascular diseases within the society for great savings would be saved.

Keywords: aerobic, cardiovascular, concentric, stretch-shortening cycle, plyometric

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13 Phytochemistry and Biological Activity of Extracts of the Red Raspberry Rubus rosifolius

Authors: Theresa Campbell, Camille Bowen-Forbes, William Aalbersberg


Differences in the sensory properties of two subtly distinct varieties of Rubus rosifolius lead to the examination of their anthocyanin, essential oil and polyphenol profiles. In both cases, notable differences were identified. Pelargonidin-3-rhutinoside (17.2 mg/100 g FW) and Cyanidin-3-glucoside (66.2 mg/100g FW) proved to be the dominant anthocyanins in the red and wine red varieties respectively. Linalool and terpineol were the major constituents of the essential oil from the red variety; however, those of the wine red variety are unidentified. In regard to phenolic compounds, caffeic acid and quercetin were in a higher concentration in the red variety (1.85 and 0.73 mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 1.22 and 0.34 mg/100g FW respectively in the wine red fruits); while ellagic acid and ferulic acid were of a higher concentration in the wine red variety (0.92 and 0.84mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 0.15 and 0.48 mg/100g FW respectively in the red variety). The methanol extract of both fruit varieties showed great antioxidant activity. Analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts against the growth of drug resistant pathogens revealed that they are active against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), rifampicin resistant S. aureus (RRSA), wild-type S. aureus (WTSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). Activity was also reported against several food-borne pathogens including two strains of E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Enterobacter aerogenes. The cytotoxicity of the various extracts was assessed and the essential oil extracts exhibited superior activity. The phenolic composition and biological activity of the fruits indicate that their consumption is beneficial to health and also that their incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals should be considered.

Keywords: phytochemicals, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, Rubus rosifolius

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12 Selection of Soil Quality Indicators of Rice Cropping Systems Using Minimum Data Set Influenced by Imbalanced Fertilization

Authors: Theresa K., Shanmugasundaram R., Kennedy J. S.


Nutrient supplements are indispensable for raising crops and to reap determining productivity. The nutrient imbalance between replenishment and crop uptake is attempted through the input of inorganic fertilizers. Excessive dumping of inorganic nutrients in soil cause stagnant and decline in yield. Imbalanced N-P-K ratio in the soil exacerbates and agitates the soil ecosystems. The study evaluated the fertilization practices of conventional (CFs), organic and Integrated Nutrient Management system (INM) on soil quality using key indicators and soil quality indices. Twelve rice farming fields of which, ten fields were having conventional cultivation practices, one field each was organic farming based and INM based cultivated under monocropping sequence in the Thondamuthur block of Coimbatore district were fixed and properties viz., physical, chemical and biological were studied for four cropping seasons to determine soil quality index (SQI). SQI was computed for conventional, organic and INM fields. Comparing conventional farming (CF) with organic and INM, CF was recorded with a lower soil quality index. While in organic and INM fields, the higher SQI value of 0.99 and 0.88 respectively were registered. CF₄ received with a super-optimal dose of N (250%) showed a lesser SQI value (0.573) as well as the yield (3.20 t ha⁻¹) and the CF6 which received 125 % N recorded the highest SQI (0.715) and yield (6.20 t ha⁻¹). Likewise, most of the CFs received higher N beyond the level of 125 % except CF₃ and CF₉, which recorded lower yields. CFs which received super-optimal P in the order of CF₆&CF₇>CF₁&CF₁₀ recorded lesser yields except for CF₆. Super-optimal K application also recorded lesser yield in CF₄, CF₇ and CF₉.

Keywords: rice cropping system, soil quality indicators, imbalanced fertilization, yield

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11 Effect of Climate Change on Nutritional Status of Women in Nigeria

Authors: Onu Theresa Chinyere


The study evaluates the perceived effect of climate change on nutritional status of women in Nigeria. Five research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a survey and experimental study research design. One thousand two hundred and fifty one (1,250) respondents were selected from different State in Nigeria using multistage sampling technique. The instruments used to collect data were questionnaire and personal interview on socio economic characteristics of respondents, while Anthropometric data (height and weight) were also used. The data was analyzed using t-test statistic, decided at 50% level of significance. The study found that most states in Nigeria experience high winds, warmer and frequent hot days and night over most land areas, droughts and tides during climate change events. The respondent unanimously agree that climate change causes reduction in food yields, decline in food availability/supply, negatively affecting soil quality, carbon fertilization, decreases flexibilities in technology choices to strengthen food production. The Anthropometric analysis shows that out of 1250 women sampled, 560 (44.8%) maintain normal weight, while 405 (32.40%) women were found to be underweight, since their body mass index is less that 18.5. There were few cases of obesity among the surveyed women since only 80 out of 1250 which represent 6.4% of the women were obese. Bases on the findings, the following recommendations were made-local fertilizer should be encouraged to boost foods yield especially during climate change: women should imbibe the culture of preservation or reservoir that will help in mitigating the effects of climate on food intake and nutritional status, especially during the crisis period, among others.

Keywords: climate change, nutrition anthropometric analysis, obesity culture, environment and women among others

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10 Telemedicine in Physician Assistant Education: A Partnership with Community Agency

Authors: Martina I. Reinhold, Theresa Bacon-Baguley


A core challenge of physician assistant education is preparing professionals for lifelong learning. While this conventionally has encompassed scientific advances, students must also embrace new care delivery models and technologies. Telemedicine, the provision of care via two-way audio and video, is an example of a technological advance reforming health care. During a three-semester sequence of Hospital Community Experiences, physician assistant students were assigned experiences with Answer Health on Demand, a telemedicine collaborative. Preceding the experiences, the agency lectured on the application of telemedicine. Students were then introduced to the technology and partnered with a provider. Prior to observing the patient-provider interaction, patient consent was obtained. Afterwards, students completed a reflection paper on lessons learned and the potential impact of telemedicine on their careers. Thematic analysis was completed on the students’ reflection papers (n=13). Preceding the lecture and experience, over 75% of students (10/13) were unaware of telemedicine. Several stated they were 'skeptical' about the effectiveness of 'impersonal' health care appointments. After the experience, all students remarked that telemedicine will play a large role in the future of healthcare and will provide benefits by improving access in rural areas, decreasing wait time, and saving cost. More importantly, 30% of students (4/13) commented that telemedicine is a technology they can see themselves using in their future practice. Initial results indicate that collaborative interaction between students and telemedicine providers enhanced student learning and exposed students to technological advances in the delivery of care. Further, results indicate that students perceived telemedicine more favorably as a viable delivery method after the experience.

Keywords: collaboration, physician assistant education, teaching innovative health care delivery method, telemedicine

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9 Impacting the Processes of Freight Logistics at Upper Austrian Companies by the Use of Mobility Management

Authors: Theresa Steiner, Markus Pajones, Christian Haider


Traffic is being induced by companies due to their economic behavior. Basically, two different types of traffic occur at company sites: freight traffic and commuting traffic. Due to the fact that these traffic types are connected to each other in different kinds, an integrated approach to manage them is useful. Mobility management is a proved method for companies, to handle the traffic processes caused by their business activities. According to recent trend analysis in Austria, the freight traffic as well as the individual traffic, as part of the commuting traffic, will continue to increase. More traffic jams, as well as negative environmental impacts, are expected impacts for the future. Mobility management is a tool to control the traffic behavior with the scope to reduce emissions and other negative effects which are caused by traffic. Until now, mobility management is mainly used for optimizing commuting traffic without taking the freight logistics processes into consideration. However, the method of mobility management can be used to improve the freight traffic area of a company as well. The focus of this paper will be particularly laid on analyzing to what extent companies are already using mobility management to influence not only the commuting traffic they produce but also their processes of freight logistics. A further objective is to acquire knowledge about the motivating factors which persuade companies to introduce and apply mobility management. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of this tool will be defined as well as limitations and factors of success, with a special focus on freight logistics, will be depicted. The first step of this paper is to conduct a literature review on the issue of mobility management with a special focus on freight logistics processes. To compare the theoretical findings with the practice, interviews, following a structured interview guidline, with mobility managers of different companies in Upper Austria will be undertaken. A qualitative analysis of these surveys will in a first step show the motivation behind using mobility management to improve traffic processes and how far this approach is already being used to especially influence the freight traffic of the companies. An evaluation to what extent the method of mobility management is already being approached at Upper Austrian companies to regulate freight logistics processes will be one outcome of this publication. Furthermore, the results of the theoretical and practical analysis will reveal not only the possibilities but also the limitations of using mobility management to influence the processes of freight logistics.

Keywords: freight logistics processes, freight traffic, mobility management, passenger traffic

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8 Automatic Processing of Trauma-Related Visual Stimuli in Female Patients Suffering From Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Interpersonal Traumatization

Authors: Theresa Slump, Paula Neumeister, Katharina Feldker, Carina Y. Heitmann, Thomas Straube


A characteristic feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the automatic processing of disorder-specific stimuli that expresses itself in intrusive symptoms such as intense physical and psychological reactions to trauma-associated stimuli. That automatic processing plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of symptoms. The aim of our study was, therefore, to investigate the behavioral and neural correlates of automatic processing of trauma-related stimuli in PTSD. Although interpersonal traumatization is a form of traumatization that often occurs, it has not yet been sufficiently studied. That is why, in our study, we focused on patients suffering from interpersonal traumatization. While previous imaging studies on PTSD mainly used faces, words, or generally negative visual stimuli, our study presented complex trauma-related and neutral visual scenes. We examined 19 female subjects suffering from PTSD and examined 19 healthy women as a control group. All subjects did a geometric comparison task while lying in a functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging (fMRI) scanner. Trauma-related scenes and neutral visual scenes that were not relevant to the task were presented while the subjects were doing the task. Regarding the behavioral level, there were not any significant differences between the task performance of the two groups. Regarding the neural level, the PTSD patients showed significant hyperactivation of the hippocampus for task-irrelevant trauma-related stimuli versus neutral stimuli when compared with healthy control subjects. Connectivity analyses revealed altered connectivity between the hippocampus and other anxiety-related areas in PTSD patients, too. Overall, those findings suggest that fear-related areas are involved in PTSD patients' processing of trauma-related stimuli even if the stimuli that were used in the study were task-irrelevant.

Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, automatic processing, hippocampus, functional magnetic resonance imaging

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7 Systematic Analysis of Logistics Location Search Methods under Aspects of Sustainability

Authors: Markus Pajones, Theresa Steiner, Matthias Neubauer


Selecting a logistics location is vital for logistics providers, food retailing and other trading companies since the selection poses an essential factor for economic success. Therefore various location search methods like cost-benefit analysis and others are well known and under usage. The development of a logistics location can be related to considerable negative effects for the eco system such as sealing the surface, wrecking of biodiversity or CO2 and noise emissions generated by freight and commuting traffic. The increasing importance of sustainability demands for taking an informed decision when selecting a logistics location for the future. Sustainability considers economic, ecologic and social aspects which should be equally integrated in the process of location search. Objectives of this paper are to define various methods which support the selection of sustainable logistics locations and to generate knowledge about the suitability, assets and limitations of the methods within the selection process. This paper investigates the role of economical, ecological and social aspects when searching for new logistics locations. Thereby, related work targeted towards location search is analyzed with respect to encoded sustainability aspects. In addition, this research aims to gain knowledge on how to include aspects of sustainability and take an informed decision when searching for a logistics location. As a result, a decomposition of the various location search methods in there components leads to a comparative analysis in form of a matrix. The comparison within a matrix enables a transparent overview about the mentioned assets and limitations of the methods and their suitability for selecting sustainable logistics locations. A further result is to generate knowledge on how to combine the separate methods to a new method for a more efficient selection of logistics locations in the context of sustainability. Future work will especially investigate the above mentioned combination of various location search methods. The objective is to develop an innovative instrument, which supports the search for logistics locations with a focus on a balanced sustainability (economy, ecology, social). Because of an ideal selection of logistics locations, induced traffic should be reduced and a mode shift to rail and public transport should be facilitated.

Keywords: commuting traffic, freight traffic, logistics location search, location search method

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6 Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment: Full Scale Trial Results Conducted at a South African Wastewater Works

Authors: Priyanka Govender, S. Mtshali, Theresa Moonsamy, Zanele Mkwanazi, L. Mthembu


Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) can be used at wastewater works to improve the quality of the final effluent discharge, provided that the plant has spare anaerobic digestion capacity. CEPT can transfer part of the organic load to the digesters thereby effectively relieving the hydraulic loading on the plant and in this way can allow the plant to continue operating long after the hydraulic capacity of the plant has been exceeded. This can allow a plant to continue operating well beyond its original design capacity, requiring only fairly simple and inexpensive modifications to the primary settling tanks as well as additional chemical costs, thereby delaying or even avoiding the need for expensive capital upgrades. CEPT can also be effective at plants where high organic loadings prevent the wastewater discharge from meeting discharge standards, especially in the case of COD, phosphates and suspended solids. By increasing removals of these pollutants in the primary settling tanks, CEPT can enable the plant to conform to specifications without the need for costly upgrades. Laboratory trials were carried out recently at the Umbilo WWTW in Durban and these were followed by a baseline assessment of the current plant performance and a subsequent full scale trial on the Conventional plant i.e. West Plant. The operating conditions of the plant are described and the improvements obtained in COD, phosphate and suspended solids, are discussed. The PST and plant overall suspended solids removal efficiency increased by approximately 6% during the trial. Details regarding the effect that CEPT had on sludge production and the digesters are also provided. The cost implications of CEPT are discussed in terms of capital costs as well as operation and maintenance costs and the impact of Ferric chloride on the infrastructure was also studied and found to be minimal. It was concluded that CEPT improves the final quality of the discharge effluent, thereby improving the compliance of this effluent with the discharge license. It could also allow for a delay in upgrades to the plant, allowing the plant to operate above its design capacity. This will be elaborated further upon presentation.

Keywords: chemically enhanced, ferric, wastewater, primary

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5 Engagement as a Predictor of Student Flourishing in the Online Classroom

Authors: Theresa Veach, Erin Crisp


It has been shown that traditional students flourish as a function of several factors including level of academic challenge, student/faculty interactions, active/collaborative learning, enriching educational experiences, and supportive campus environment. With the increase in demand for remote or online courses, factors that result in academic flourishing in the virtual classroom have become more crucial to understand than ever before. This study seeks to give insight into those factors that impact student learning, overall student wellbeing, and flourishing among college students enrolled in an online program. 4160 unique students participated in the completion of End of Course Survey (EOC) before final grades were released. Quantitative results from the survey are used by program directors as a measure of student satisfaction with both the curriculum and the faculty. In addition, students also submitted narrative comments in an open comment field. No prompts were given for the comment field on the survey. The purpose of this analysis was to report on the qualitative data available with the goal of gaining insight into what matters to students. Survey results from July 1st, 2016 to December 1st, 2016 were compiled into spreadsheet data sets. The analysis approach used involved both key word and phrase searches and reading results to identify patterns in responses and to tally the frequency of those patterns. In total, just over 25,000 comments were included in the analysis. Preliminary results indicate that it is the professor-student relationship, frequency of feedback and overall engagement of both instructors and students that are indicators of flourishing in college programs offered in an online format. This qualitative study supports the notion that college students flourish with regard to 1) education, 2) overall student well-being and 3) program satisfaction when overall engagement of both the instructor and the student is high. Ways to increase engagement in the online college environment were also explored. These include 1) increasing student participation by providing more project-based assignments, 2) interacting with students in meaningful ways that are both high in frequency and in personal content, and 3) allowing students to apply newly acquired knowledge in ways that are meaningful to current life circumstances and future goals.

Keywords: college, engagement, flourishing, online

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4 Utilization of a Telepresence Evaluation Tool for the Implementation of a Distant Education Program

Authors: Theresa Bacon-Baguley, Martina Reinhold


Introduction: Evaluation and analysis are the cornerstones of any successful program in higher education. When developing a program at a distant campus, it is essential that the process of evaluation and analysis be orchestrated in a timely manner with tools that can identify both the positive and negative components of distant education. We describe the utilization of a newly developed tool used to evaluate and analyze the successful expansion to a distant campus using Telepresence Technology. Like interactive television, Telepresence allows live interactive delivery but utilizes broadband cable. The tool developed is adaptable to any distant campus as the framework for the tool was derived from a systematic review of the literature. Methodology: Because Telepresence is a relatively new delivery system, the evaluation tool was developed based on a systematic review of literature in the area of distant education and ITV. The literature review identified four potential areas of concern: 1) technology, 2) confidence in the system, 3) faculty delivery of the content and, 4) resources at each site. Each of the four areas included multiple sub-components. Benchmark values were determined to be 80% or greater positive responses to each of the four areas and the individual sub-components. The tool was administered each semester during the didactic phase of the curriculum. Results: Data obtained identified site-specific issues (i.e., technology access, student engagement, laboratory access, and resources), as well as issues common at both sites (i.e., projection screen size). More specifically, students at the parent location did not have adequate access to printers or laboratory space, and students at the distant campus did not have adequate access to library resources. The evaluation tool identified that both sites requested larger screens for visualization of the faculty. The deficiencies were addressed by replacing printers, including additional orientation for students on library resources and increasing the screen size of the Telepresence system. When analyzed over time, the issues identified in the tool as deficiencies were resolved. Conclusions: Utilizing the tool allowed adjustments of the Telepresence delivery system in a timely manner resulting in successful implementation of an entire curriculum at a distant campus.

Keywords: physician assistant, telepresence technology, distant education, assessment

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3 Getting It Right Before Implementation: Using Simulation to Optimize Recommendations and Interventions After Adverse Event Review

Authors: Melissa Langevin, Natalie Ward, Colleen Fitzgibbons, Christa Ramsey, Melanie Hogue, Anna Theresa Lobos


Description: Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is used by health care teams to examine adverse events (AEs) to identify causes which then leads to recommendations for prevention Despite widespread use, RCA has limitations. Best practices have not been established for implementing recommendations or tracking the impact of interventions after AEs. During phase 1 of this study, we used simulation to analyze two fictionalized AEs that occurred in hospitalized paediatric patients to identify and understand how the errors occurred and generated recommendations to mitigate and prevent recurrences. Scenario A involved an error of commission (inpatient drug error), and Scenario B involved detecting an error that already occurred (critical care drug infusion error). Recommendations generated were: improved drug labeling, specialized drug kids, alert signs and clinical checklists. Aim: Use simulation to optimize interventions recommended post critical event analysis prior to implementation in the clinical environment. Methods: Suggested interventions from Phase 1 were designed and tested through scenario simulation in the clinical environment (medicine ward or pediatric intensive care unit). Each scenario was simulated 8 times. Recommendations were tested using different, voluntary teams and each scenario was debriefed to understand why the error was repeated despite interventions and how interventions could be improved. Interventions were modified with subsequent simulations until recommendations were felt to have an optimal effect and data saturation was achieved. Along with concrete suggestions for design and process change, qualitative data pertaining to employee communication and hospital standard work was collected and analyzed. Results: Each scenario had a total of three interventions to test. In, scenario 1, the error was reproduced in the initial two iterations and mitigated following key intervention changes. In scenario 2, the error was identified immediately in all cases where the intervention checklist was utilized properly. Independently of intervention changes and improvements, the simulation was beneficial to identify which of these should be prioritized for implementation and highlighted that even the potential solutions most frequently suggested by participants did not always translate into error prevention in the clinical environment. Conclusion: We conclude that interventions that help to change process (epinephrine kit or mandatory checklist) were more successful at preventing errors than passive interventions (signage, change in memory aids). Given that even the most successful interventions needed modifications and subsequent re-testing, simulation is key to optimizing suggested changes. Simulation is a safe, practice changing modality for institutions to use prior to implementing recommendations from RCA following AE reviews.

Keywords: adverse events, patient safety, pediatrics, root cause analysis, simulation

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2 Implementation of a Distant Learning Physician Assistant Program in Northern Michigan to Address Health Care Provider Shortage: Importance of Evaluation

Authors: Theresa Bacon-Baguley, Martina Reinhold


Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of both formative and summative evaluation of a Physician Assistant (PA) program with a distant campus delivered through Interactive Television (ITV) to assure equity of educational experiences. Methodology: A needs assessment utilizing a case-control design determined the need and interest in expanding the existing PA program to northern Michigan. A federal grant was written and funded, which supported the hiring of two full-time faculty members and support staff at the distant site. The strengths and weaknesses of delivering a program through ITV were evaluated using weekly formative evaluation, and bi-semester summative evaluation. Formative evaluation involved discussion of lecture content to be delivered, special ITV needs, orientation of new lecturers to the system, student concerns, support staff updates, and scheduling of student/faculty traveling between the two campuses. The summative evaluation, designed from a literature review of barriers to ITV, included 19 statements designed to evaluate the following items: quality of technology (audio, video, etc.), confidence in the ITV system, quality of instruction and instructor interaction between the two locations, and availability of resources at each location. In addition, students were given the opportunity to write qualitative remarks for each course delivered between the two locations. This summative evaluation was given to all students at mid-semester and at the end of the semester. The goal of the summative evaluation was to have 80% or greater of the students respond favorably (‘Very Good’ or ‘Good’) to each of the 19 statements. Results: Prior to the start of the first cohort at the distant campus, the technology was tested. During this time period, the formative evaluations identified key components needing modification, which were rapidly addressed: ability to record lectures, lighting, sound, and content delivery. When the mid-semester summative survey was given to the first cohort of students, 18 of the 19 statements in the summative evaluation met the goal of 80% or greater in the favorable category. When the summative evaluation statements were stratified by the two cohorts, the summative evaluation identified that students at the home location responded that they did not have adequate access to printers, and students at the expansion location responded that they did not have adequate access to library resources. These results allowed the program to address the deficiencies through contacting informational technology for additional printers, and to provide students with knowledge on how to access library resources. Conclusion: Successful expansion of programs to a distant site utilizing ITV technology requires extensive monitoring using both formative and summative evaluation. The formative evaluation allowed for quick identification of issues that could immediately be addressed, both at the planning and developing stage, as well as during implementation. Through use of the summative evaluation the program is able to monitor the success/ effectiveness of the expansion and identify specific needs of students at each location.

Keywords: assessment, distance learning, formative feedback, interactive television (ITV), student experience, summative feedback, support

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1 Integration of an Evidence-Based Medicine Curriculum into Physician Assistant Education: Teaching for Today and the Future

Authors: Martina I. Reinhold, Theresa Bacon-Baguley


Background: Medical knowledge continuously evolves and to help health care providers to stay up-to-date, evidence-based medicine (EBM) has emerged as a model. The practice of EBM requires new skills of the health care provider, including directed literature searches, the critical evaluation of research studies, and the direct application of the findings to patient care. This paper describes the integration and evaluation of an evidence-based medicine course sequence into a Physician Assistant curriculum. This course sequence teaches students to manage and use the best clinical research evidence to competently practice medicine. A survey was developed to assess the outcomes of the EBM course sequence. Methodology: The cornerstone of the three-semester sequence of EBM are interactive small group discussions that are designed to introduce students to the most clinically applicable skills to identify, manage and use the best clinical research evidence to improve the health of their patients. During the three-semester sequence, the students are assigned each semester to participate in small group discussions that are facilitated by faculty with varying background and expertise. Prior to the start of the first EBM course in the winter semester, PA students complete a knowledge-based survey that was developed by the authors to assess the effectiveness of the course series. The survey consists of 53 Likert scale questions that address the nine objectives for the course series. At the end of the three semester course series, the same survey was given to all students in the program and the results from before, and after the sequence of EBM courses are compared. Specific attention is paid to overall performance of students in the nine course objectives. Results: We find that students from the Class of 2016 and 2017 consistently improve (as measured by percent correct responses on the survey tool) after the EBM course series (Class of 2016: Pre- 62% Post- 75%; Class of 2017: Pre- 61 % Post-70%). The biggest increase in knowledge was observed in the areas of finding and evaluating the evidence, with asking concise clinical questions (Class of 2016: Pre- 61% Post- 81%; Class of 2017: Pre- 61 % Post-75%) and searching the medical database (Class of 2016: Pre- 24% Post- 65%; Class of 2017: Pre- 35 % Post-66 %). Questions requiring students to analyze, evaluate and report on the available clinical evidence regarding diagnosis showed improvement, but to a lesser extend (Class of 2016: Pre- 56% Post- 77%; Class of 2017: Pre- 56 % Post-61%). Conclusions: Outcomes identified that students did gain skills which will allow them to apply EBM principles. In addition, the outcomes of the knowledge-based survey allowed the faculty to focus on areas needing improvement, specifically the translation of best evidence into patient care. To address this area, the clinical faculty developed case scenarios that were incorporated into the lecture and discussion sessions, allowing students to better connect the research studies with patient care. Students commented that ‘class discussion and case examples’ contributed most to their learning and that ‘it was helpful to learn how to develop research questions and how to analyze studies and their significance to a potential client’. As evident by the outcomes, the EBM courses achieved the goals of the course and were well received by the students. 

Keywords: evidence-based medicine, clinical education, assessment tool, physician assistant

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