Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: sterilization

39 Evaluation of the Sterilization Practice in Liberal Dental Surgeons at Sidi Bel Abbes- Algeria

Authors: A. Chenafa, S. Boulenouar, M. Zitouni, M. Boukouria

Abstract:

The sterilization of medical devices constitutes for all the medical professions, an inescapable obligation. It has for objective to prevent the infectious risk, both for the patient and for the medical team. The Dental surgeon as every healthcare professional has to master perfectly this subject and to train his staff to the various techniques of sterilization. It is the only way to assure the patients all the security for which they are entitled to wait when they undergo a dental care. It’s for it, that we undertook to lead an investigation aiming at estimating the sterilization practice at the dental surgeon of Sidi bel Abbes. The survey result showed a youth marked with the profession with a majority use of autoclave with cycle B and an almost total absence of the sterilization controls (test of Bowie and Dick). However, the majority of the dentists control and validate their sterilizers. Finally, our survey allowed us to describe some practices which must be improved regarding control, regarding qualification and regarding staff training. And suggestions were made in this sense.

Keywords: dental surgeon, medical devices, sterilization, survey

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38 Sterilization of Potato Explants for in vitro Propagation

Authors: D. R. Masvodza, G. Coetzer, E. van der Watt

Abstract:

Microorganisms usually have a prolific growth nature and may cause major problems on in-vitro cultures. For in vitro propagation to be successful explants need to be sterile. In order to determine the best sterilization method for potato explants cv. Amerthyst, five sterilization methods were applied separately to 24 shoots. The first sterilization method was the use of 20% sodium hypochlorite with 1 ml Tween 20 for 15 minutes. The second, third and fourth sterilization methods were the immersion of explants in 70% ethanol in a beaker for either 30 seconds, 1 minute or 2 minutes, followed by 1% sodium hypochlorite with 1 ml Tween 20 for 5 minutes. For the control treatment, no chemicals were used. Finally, all the explants were rinsed three times with autoclaved distilled water and trimmed to 1-2 cm. Explants were then cultured on MS medium with 0.01 mg L-1 NAA and 0.1 mg L-1 GA3 and supplemented with 2 mg L-1 D-calcium pentothenate. The trial was laid out as a complete randomized design, and each treatment combination was replicated 24 times. At 7, 14 and 21 days after culture, data on explant color, survival, and presence or absence of contamination was recorded. Best results were obtained when 20% sodium hypochlorite was used with 1 ml Tween 20 for 15 minutes which is sterilization method 1. Method 2 was comparable to method 1 when explants were cultured in glass vessels. Explants in glass vessels were significantly less contaminated than explants in polypropylene vessel. Therefore at times, ideal methods for sterilization should be coupled with ideal culture conditions such as good quality culture vessel, rather than the addition of more stringent sterilants.

Keywords: culture containers, explants, sodium hypochlororite, sterilization

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37 Surface Sterilization of Aquatic Plant, Cryptopcoryne affinis by Using Clorox and Mercury Chloride

Authors: Sridevi Devadas

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This study was aimed to examine the combination efficiency of Clorox (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite) and mercury chloride (HgCl2) as reagent for surface sterilization process of aquatic plant, Cryptocoryne affinis (C. affinis). The treatment applied 10% of the Clorox and 0.1 ppm of mercury chloride. The maximum exposure time for Clorox and mercury chloride was 10 min and 60 sec respectively. After exposed to the treatments protocols (T1-T15) the explants were transferred to culture room under control temperature at 25°C ± 2°C and subjected to 16 hours fluorescence light (2000 lumens) for 30 days. The both sterilizing agents were not applied on control specimens. Upon analysis, the result indicates all of the treatments protocols produced sterile explants at range of minimum 1.5 ± 0.7 (30%) to maximum 5.0 ± 0.0 (100%). Meanwhile, maximum 1.0 ± 0.7 numbers of leaves and 1.4 ± 0.6 numbers of roots have been produced. The optimized exposure time was 0 to 15 min for Clorox and 30 sec for HgCl2 whereby 90% to 100% sterilization was archived at this condition.

Keywords: Cryptocoryne affinis, surface sterilization, tissue culture, clorox, mercury chloride

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36 Surface Sterilization Of Aquatic Plant, Cryptocoryne affinis by Using Clorox and Mercury Chloride

Authors: Sridevi Devadas

Abstract:

This study was aimed to examine the combination efficiency of Clorox (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite) and mercury chloride (HgCl2) as a reagent for surface sterilization process of aquatic plant and cryptocoryne affinis (C. affinis). The treatment applied 10% of the Clorox and 0.1ppm of mercury chloride. The maximum exposure time for clorox and mercury chloride was 10min and 60sec respectively. After exposed to the treatments protocols (T1-T15) the explants were transferred to culture room under control temperature at 25°C ± 2°C and subjected to 16 hours fluorescence light (2000 lumens) for 30 days. The both sterilizing agents were not applied on control specimens. Upon analysis, The result indicates all of the treatments protocols produced sterile explants at range of minimum 1.5 ± 0.7 (30%) to maximum 5.0 ± 0.0 (100%). Meanwhile, maximum 1.0 ± 0.7 numbers of leaves and 1.4 ± 0.6 numbers of roots have been produced. The optimized exposure time was 0 to 15 min for Clorox and 30 sec for HgCl2 whereby 90% to 100% sterilization was archived at this condition.

Keywords: Cryptocoryne affinis, surface sterilization, tissue culture, clorox, mercury chloride

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35 Effect of Different Sterilization Processes on Drug Loaded Silicone-Hydrogel

Authors: Raquel Galante, Marina Braga, Daniela Ghisleni, Terezinha J. A. Pinto, Rogério Colaço, Ana Paula Serro

Abstract:

The sensitive nature of soft biomaterials, such as hydrogels, renders their sterilization a particularly challenging task for the biomedical industry. Widely used contact lenses are now studied as promising platforms for topical corneal drug delivery. However, to the best of the authors knowledge, the influence of sterilization methods on these systems has yet to be evaluated. The main goal of this study was to understand how different pairs drug-hydrogel would interact under an ozone-based sterilization method in comparison with two conventional processes (steam heat and gamma irradiation). For that, Si-Hy containing hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and [tris(trimethylsiloxy)silyl]propyl methacrylate (TRIS) was produced and soaked in different drug solutions, commonly used for the treatment of ocular diseases (levofloxacin, chlorhexidine, diclofenac and timolol maleate). The drug release profiles and main material properties were evaluated before and after the sterilization. Namely, swelling capacity was determined by water uptake studies, transparency was accessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, surface topography/morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical properties by performing tensile tests. The drug released was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effectiveness of the sterilization procedures was assured by performing sterility tests. Ozone gas method led to a significant reduction of drug released and to the formation of degradation products specially for diclofenac and levofloxacin. Gamma irradiation led to darkening of the loaded Si-Hys and to the complete degradation of levofloxacin. Steam heat led to smoother surfaces and to a decrease of the amount of drug released, however, with no formation of degradation products. This difference in the total drug released could be the related to drug/polymer interactions promoted by the sterilization conditions in presence of the drug. Our findings offer important insights that, in turn, could be a useful contribution to the safe development of actual products.

Keywords: drug delivery, silicone hydrogels, sterilization, gamma irradiation, steam heat, ozone gas

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34 Sterilization Effects of Low Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide Solution on 3D Printed Biodegradable Polyurethane Nanocomposite Scaffold for Heart Valve Regeneration

Authors: S. E. Mohmad-Saberi, W. Song, N. Oliver, M. Adrian, T.C. Hsu, A. Darbyshire

Abstract:

Biodegradable polyurethane (PU) has emerged as a potential material to promote repair and regeneration of damaged/diseased tissues in heart valve regeneration due to its excellent biomechanical profile. Understanding the effects of sterilization on their properties is vital since they are more sensitive and more critical of porous structures compared to bulk ones. In this study, the effects of low concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) solution sterilization has been investigated to determine whether the procedure would be efficient and non-destructive to porous three-dimensional (3D) elastomeric nanocomposite, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-terminated poly (ethylene-diethylene glycol succinate-sebacate) urea-urethane (POSS-EDSS-PU) scaffold. All the samples were tested for sterility following sterilization using phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as control and 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution. The samples were incubated in tryptic soy broth for the cultivation of microorganisms under agitation at 37˚C for 72 hours. The effects of the 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution sterilization were evaluated in terms of morphology, chemical and mechanical properties using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and tensile tester apparatus. Toxicity effects of the 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution decontamination were studied by in vitro cytotoxicity test, where the cellular responses of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) were examined. A clear, uncontaminated broth using 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution method indicated efficient sterilization after 3 days, while the non-sterilized control shows clouding broth indicated contamination. The morphology of 3D POSS-EDSS-PU scaffold appeared to have similar morphology after sterilization with 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution regarding of pore size and surface. FTIR results show that the sterilized samples and non-sterilized control share the same spectra pattern, confirming no significant alterations over the surface chemistry. For the mechanical properties of the H₂O₂ solution-treated scaffolds, the tensile strain was not significantly decreased, however, become significantly stiffer after the sterilization. No cytotoxic effects were observed after the 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution sterilization as confirmed by cell viability assessed by Alamar Blue assay. The results suggest that low concentration of 5 % v/v hydrogen peroxide solution can be used as an alternative method for sterilizing biodegradable 3D porous scaffold with micro/nano-architecture without structural deformation. This study provides the understanding of the sterilization effects on biomechanical profile and cell proliferation of 3D POSS-EDSS-PU scaffolds.

Keywords: biodegradable, hydrogen peroxide solution, POSS-EDSS-PU, sterilization

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33 Sterilization Incident Analysis by the Association of Litigation and Risk Management Method

Authors: Souhir Chelly, Asma Ben Cheikh, Hela Ghali, Salwa Khefacha, Lamine Dhidah, Mohamed Ben Rejeb, Houyem Said Latiri

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The hospital risk management department is firstly involved in the methodological analysis of grade zero sterilization incidents. The system is based on a subsequent analysis process in compliance with the ongoing requirements of the Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) for a reactive approach to risk, allowing to identify failures and start the appropriate preventive and corrective measures. The use of the association of litigation and risk management (ALARM) method makes easier the grade zero analysis and brings to light the team or institutional, organizational, temporal, individual factors representative of undesirable effects. Two main factors come out again from this analysis, pre-disinfection step of the emergency block unsupervised instrumentalist intern was poorly done since she did not remove the battery from micro air motor. At the sterilization unit, the worker who was not supervised by the nurse did the conditioning of the motor without having checked it if it still contained the battery. The main cause is that the management of human resources was inadequate at both levels, the instrumental trainee in the block who was not supervised by his supervisor and the worker of the sterilization unit who was not supervised by the responsible nurse. There is a lack of research help, advice, and collaboration. The difficulties encountered during this type of analysis are multiple. The first is based on its necessary acceptance by the various actors of care involved, which should not perceive it as a tool leading to individual punishment, but rather as a means to improve their practices.

Keywords: ALARM (Association of Litigation and Risk Management Method), incident, risk management, sterilization

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32 Conservativeness of Functional Proteins in Bovine Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Technology

Authors: Sulhee Lee, Geon Kim, Young-Seo Park

Abstract:

Unlike the traditional milk sterilization methods (LTLT, HTST, or UHT), pulsed electric field (PEF) technology is a non-thermal pasteurization process. This technology minimizes energy required for heat treatment in food processing, changes in sensory properties, and physical losses. In this study, structural changes of bovine milk proteins, the amount of immunoproteins such as IgG, and their storability by PEF treatment were examined. When the changes of protein content in PEF-treated milk were examined using HPLC, the amounts of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin were reduced over 40% each, whereas those of κ-casein and β-casein did not change. The amount of α-casein in HTST milk was reduced to 50%. When PEF was applied to milk at the energy level of 250 kJ, the amounts of IgG, IgA, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), lactoferrin, and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) decreased by 43, 41, 35, 63, and 45%, respectively. When milk was sterilized by LTLT process followed by PEF process at the level of 150 kJ, the concentrations of IgG, IgA, β-LG, lactoferrin, and α-LA were 56.6, 10.6, 554, 2.8 and 660.1 μg/mL, respectively. When the bovine milk was sterilized by LTLT process followed by PEF process at the energy level of 180 kJ, storability of immunoproteins of milk was the highest and the concentrations of IgG, IgA, and β-LG decreased by 79.5, 6.5, and 134.5 μg/mL, respectively, when compared with the initial concentrations of those proteins. When bovine milk was stored at 4℃ after sterilization through HTST sterilizer followed by PEF process at the energy level of 200 kJ, the amount of lactoferrin decreased 7.3% after 36 days of storage, whereas that of lactoferrin of raw milk decreased 16.4%. Our results showed that PEF treatment did not change the protein structure nor induce protein denaturation in milk significantly when compared with LTLT or HTST sterilization. Also, LTLT or HTST process in combination with PEF were more effective than LTLT only or HTST only process in the conservation of immunoproteins in bovine milk.

Keywords: pulsed electric field, bovine milk, immunoproteins, sterilization

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31 Impact of Autoclave Sterilization of Gelatin on Endotoxin Level and Physical Properties Compared to Surfactant Purified Gelatins

Authors: Jos Olijve

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Introduction and Purpose: Endotoxins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and have profound in vitro and in vivo responses. They can trigger strong immune responses and negatively affect various cellar activities particular cells expressing toll-like receptors. They are therefore unwanted contaminants of biomaterials sourced from natural raw materials, and their activity must be as low as possible. Collagen and gelatin are natural extracellular matrix components and have, due to their low allergenic potential, suitable biological properties, and tunable physical characteristics, high potential in biomedical applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of autoclave sterilization of gelatin on physical properties and endotoxin level compared to surfactant purified gelatin. Methods: Type A gelatin from Sigma-Aldrich (G1890) with endotoxin level of 35000 endotoxin units (EU) per gram gelatin and type A gelatins from Rousselot Gent with endotoxin activity of 30000 EU per gram were used. A 10 w/w% G1890 gelatin solution was autoclave sterilized during 30 minutes at 121°C and 1 bar over pressure. The physical properties and the endotoxin level of the sterilized G1890 gelatin were compared to a type A gelatin from Rousselot purified with Triton X100 surfactant. The Triton X100 was added to a concentration of 0.5 w/w% which is above the critical micellar concentration. The gelatin surfactant mixtures were kept for 30-45 minutes under constant stirring at 55-60°C. The Triton X100 was removed by active carbon filtration. The endotoxin levels of the gelatins were measured using the Endozyme recombinant factor C method from Hyglos GmbH (Germany). Results and Discussion: Autoclave sterilization significantly affect the physical properties of gelatin. Molecular weight of G1890 decreased from 140 to 50kDa, and gel strength decreased from 300 to 40g. The endotoxin level of the gelatin reduced after sterilization from 35000 EU/g to levels of 400-500 EU/g. These endotoxin levels are however still far above the upper endotoxin level of 0.05 EU/ml, which resembles 5 EU/g gelatin based on a 1% gelatin solution, to avoid cell proliferation alteration. Molecular weight and gel strength of Rousselot gelatin was not altered after Triton X100 purification and remained 150kDa and 300g respectively. The endotoxin levels of Triton X100 purified Rousselot gelatin was < 5EU/g gelatin. Conclusion: Autoclave sterilization of gelatin is, in comparison to Triton X100 purification, not efficient to inactivate endotoxin levels in gelatin to levels below the upper limit to avoid cell proliferation alteration. Autoclave sterilization gave a significant decrease in molecular weight and gel strength which makes autoclave sterilized gelatin, in comparison to Triton X100 purified gelatin, not suitable for 3D printing.

Keywords: endotoxin, gelatin, molecular weight, sterilization, Triton X100

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30 Fortification of Concentrated Milk Protein Beverages with Soy Proteins: Impact of Divalent Cations and Heating Treatment on the Physical Stability

Authors: Yichao Liang, Biye Chen, Xiang Li, Steven R. Dimler

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This study investigated the effects of adding calcium and magnesium chloride on heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate (8:2 respectively) mixtures containing 10% w/w total protein subjected to the in-container sterilization (115 °C x 15 min). The particle size does not change when emulsions are heated at pH between 6.7 and 7.3 irrespective of the mixed protein ratio. Increasing concentration of divalent cation salts resulted in an increase in protein particle size, dry sediment formation and sediment height and a decrease in pH, heat stability and hydration in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions on sterilization at 115°C. Fortification of divalent cation salts in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture solutions resulted in an accelerated protein sedimentation and two unique sediment regions during accelerated storage stability testing. Moreover, the heat stability decreased upon sterilization at 115°C, with addition of MgCl₂ causing a greater increase in sedimentation velocity and compressibility than CaCl₂. Increasing pH value of protein milk concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions from 6.7 to 7.2 resulted in an increase in viscosity following the heat treatment. The study demonstrated that the type and concentration of divalent cation salts used strongly impact heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture nutritional beverages.

Keywords: divalent cation salts, heat stability, milk protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, storage stability

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29 Stabilization of y-Sterilized Food, Packaging Materials by Synergistic Mixtures of Food-Contact Approval Stabilizers

Authors: Sameh A. S. Thabit Alariqi

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Food is widely packaged with plastic materials to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize the food-packaging materials. Sterilization by γ-radiation causes degradation for the plastic packaging materials such as embrittlement, stiffening, softening, discoloration, odour generation, and decrease in molecular weight. Many antioxidants can prevent γ-degradation but most of them are toxic. The migration of antioxidants to its environment gives rise to major concerns in case of food packaging plastics. In this attempt, we have aimed to utilize synergistic mixtures of stabilizers which are approved for food-contact applications. Ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) have been melt-mixed with hindered amine stabilizers (HAS), phenolic antioxidants and organo-phosphites (hydroperoxide decomposer). Results were discussed by comparing the stabilizing efficiency of mixtures with and without phenol system. Among phenol containing systems where we mostly observed discoloration due to the oxidation of hindered phenol, the combination of secondary HAS, tertiary HAS, organo-phosphite and hindered phenol exhibited improved stabilization efficiency than single or binary additive systems. The mixture of secondary HAS and tertiary HAS, has shown antagonistic effect of stabilization. However, the combination of organo-phosphite with secondary HAS, tertiary HAS and phenol antioxidants have been found to give synergistic even at higher doses of -sterilization. The effects have been explained through the interaction between the stabilizers. After γ-irradiation, the consumption of oligomeric stabilizer significantly depends on the components of stabilization mixture. The effect of the organo-phosphite antioxidant on the overall stability has been discussed.

Keywords: ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer, synergistic mixtures, gamma sterilization, gamma stabilization

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28 Investigating the Impact of the Laundry and Sterilization Process on the Performance of Reusable Surgical Gowns

Authors: N. Khomarloo, F. Mousazadegan, M. Latifi, N. Hemmatinejad

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Recently, the utilization of reusable surgical gowns in order to decrease costs, environmental protection and enhance surgeon’s comfort is considered. One of the concerns in applying this kind of medical protective clothing is reduction of their resistance to bacterial penetration especially in wet state, after repeated laundering and sterilizing process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the laundering and sterilizing process on the reusable surgical gown’s resistance against bacterial wet penetration. To this end, penetration of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in wet state after 70 washing and sterilizing cycles was evaluated on the two single-layer and three-layer reusable gowns. The outcomes reveal that up to 20 laundering and sterilizing cycles, protective property of samples improves due to fabric shrinkage, after that because of the fabric’s construction opening, the bacterial penetration increase. However, the three-layer gown presents higher protective performance comparing to the single-layer one.

Keywords: laundry, porosity, reusable surgical gown, sterilization, wet bacterial penetration

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27 Addition of Phosphates on Stability of Sterilized Goat Milk in Different Seasons

Authors: Mei-Jen Lin, Yuan-Yuan Yu

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Low heat stability of goat milk limited the application of ultra-high temperature (UHT) sterilization on producing sterilized goat milk in order to keep excess goat milk in summer for producing goat dairy products in winter in Taiwan. Therefore, this study aimed to add stabilizers in goat milk to increase the heat stability for producing UHT sterilized goat milk preserved for making goat dairy products in winter. The amounts of 0.05-0.11% blend of sodium phosphates (Na) and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates (Sp) were added in raw goat milk at different seasons a night before autoclaved sterilization at 135°C 4 sec. The coagulation, ion calcium concentration and ethanol stability of sterilized goat milk were analyzed. Results showed that there were seasonal differences on choosing the optimal stabilizers and the addition levels. Addition of 0.05% and 0.22% of both Na and Sp salts in Spring goat milk, 0.10-0.11% of both Na and Sp salts in Summer goat milk, and 0.05%Na Sp group in Autumn goat milk were coagulated after autoclaved, respectively. There was no coagulation found with the addition of 0.08-0.09% both Na and Sp salts in goat milk; furthermore, the ionic calcium concentration were lower than 2.00 mM and ethanol stability higher than 70% in both 0.08-0.09% Na and Sp salts added goat milk. Therefore, the optimal addition level of blend of sodium phosphates and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates were 0.08-0.09% for producing sterilized goat milk at different seasons in Taiwan.

Keywords: coagulation, goat milk, phosphates, stability

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26 The Organization of Multi-Field Hospital’s Work Environment in the Republic of Sakha, Yakutia

Authors: Inna Vinokurova, N. Savvina

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The goal of research: to study the organization of multi-field hospital’s work environment in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Autonomous public health care institution of Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) - Republican Hospital No. 1 - National Center of Medicine. Results: Autonomous public health care institution of Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) - Republican Hospital No. 1 - National Center of Medicine is a multidisciplinary, specialized hospital complex that provides specialized and high-tech medical care to children and adults in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) of the Russian Federation. There are 5 diagnostic and treatment centers (advisory and diagnostic, clinical, pediatric, perinatal, Republican cardiologic dispensary) with 45 clinical specialized departments with 727 cots, 5 resuscitation departments, 20 operating rooms and out-patient department with 905 visits in alternation in the National Center of Medicine. Annually more than 20,000 patients receive treatment in the hospital of the Republican Hospital of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), more than 70,000 patients visit out-patient sections, more than 2 million researches are done, more than 12,000 surgeries are performed, more than 2 thousand babies are delivered. National Center of Medicine has a great influence with such population’s health indicators as total mortality, birth rate, maternal, infant and perinatal mortality, circulatory system incidence. The work environment of the Republican Hospital of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is represented by the following structural departments: pharmacy, blood transfusion department, sterilization department, laundry, dietetic department, infant-feeding centre, material and technical supply. More than 200 employees work in this service. The main function of these services is to provide on-time and fail-safe supply with all necessary: wear parts, medical supplies, donated blood and its components, foodstuffs, hospital linen , sterile instruments, etc. Thus, the activity of medical organization depends on the work environment, including quality health care, so it is a main part of multi-field hospital activity.

Keywords: organization of multi-field hospital’s, work environment, quality health care, pharmacy, blood transfusion department, sterilization department

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25 Model for Remanufacture of Medical Equipment in Cross Border Collaboration

Authors: Kingsley Oturu, Winifred Ijomah, Wale Coker, Chibueze Achi

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With the impact of BREXIT and the need for cross-border collaboration, this international research investigated the use of a conceptual model for remanufacturing medical equipment (with a focus on anesthetic machines and baby incubators). Early findings of the research suggest that contextual factors need to be taken into consideration, as well as an emphasis on cleaning (e.g., sterilization) during the process of remanufacturing medical equipment. For example, copper tubings may be more important in the remanufacturing of anesthetic equipment in tropical climates than in cold climates.

Keywords: medical equipment remanufacture, sustainability, circular business models, remanufacture process model

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24 Study on Total Chlorine in Crude Palm Oil from Various Palm Oil Mill Operation Units

Authors: Norliza Saparin, Ahmadilfitri Noor, Mohd Suria Affandi Yusoff, Shawaluddin Tahiruddin

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A palm oil mill produces crude palm oil (CPO) and has many operation units that comprises of sterilization, stripping, digestion and pressing, clarification, purification, drying and storage. This study investigated the total chlorine in palm fruit and CPO after each operating units. The total chlorine were determined by Mitsubishi NSX-2100 H, Trace Elemental Analyzer. The trace elemental analyzer is a furnace system with a micro-coulometric detector that was used for measuring and detecting total chlorine whether in organic or inorganic form. This determination is important as the chlorine is a direct precursor for 3-MCPD ester.

Keywords: chlorine, micro-coulometric, palm oil, 3-MCPD

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23 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

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A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia, Optical Emission

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22 Virucidal, Bactericidal and Fungicidal Efficiency of Dry Microfine Steam on Innate Surfaces

Authors: C. Recchia, M. Bourel, B. Recchia

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Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi) are responsible for most communicable diseases, threatening human health. For domestic use, chemical agents are often criticized because of their potential dangerousness, and natural solutions are needed. Application of the “dry microfine steam” (DMS) technology was tested on a selection of common pathogens (SARS-CoV-2, enterovirus EV-71, human coronavirus 229E, E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans), on different innate surfaces, for 5 to 10 seconds. Quantification of the remaining pathogens was performed, and the reduction rates ranged from 99.8% (S. aureus on plastic) to over 99.999%. DMS showed high efficacy in the elimination of common microorganisms and could be seen as a natural alternative to chemical agents to improve domestic hygiene.

Keywords: steam, SARS-CoV-2, bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, sterilization

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21 Investigation of Solvent Effect on Viscosity of Lubricant in Disposable Medical Devices

Authors: Hamed Bagheri, Seyd Javid Shariati

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The effects of type and amount of solvent on lubricant which is used in disposable medical devices are investigated in this article. Two kinds of common solvent, n-Hexane and n-Heptane, are used. The mechanical behavior of syringe has shown that n-Heptane has better mixing ratio and also more effective spray process in the barrel of syringe than n-Hexane because of similar solubility parameter to silicon oil. The results revealed that movement of plunger in the barrel increases when pure silicone is used because non-uniform film is created on the surface of barrel, and also, it seems that the form of silicon is converted from oil to gel due to sterilization process. The results showed that the convenient mixing ratio of solvent/lubricant oil is 80/20.

Keywords: disposal medical devices, lubricant oil, solvent effect, solubility parameter

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20 Perspectives of Healthcare Workers on Healthcare-Associated Infections and Infection Control in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Esther Paul, Ibrahim A. M. Alzaydani, Al Hakami, Caryl Beynon

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Research Objectives and Goal: The main aim of the current study was to explore the perspectives of healthcare workers on Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and infection control measures in a tertiary care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia. As per our knowledge, this is perhaps the first qualitative study on HAI to be done in Saudi Arabia. The goal of the study was to understand the perspectives of the healthcare workers on the current protocol and guidelines for HAI and infections control measures in the hospital, the effectiveness of the current protocol for HAI and infection control measures and ways of reducing the incidence of HAI and improve infection control measures. Methods used: A qualitative research design was used to collect the data from 25 healthcare workers consisting of doctors and nurses, recruited by Snowball strategy via semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim immediately. An interview guide consisting of open-ended questions about the existing HAI and infection control practices in the healthcare facility, the awareness of the healthcare workers about HAI and the need for safe infection control measures were used to collect the data. The transcribed data were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. Results: Using thematic analysis four themes were identified.1.Knowledge of HAI and infection control 2. Infection control measures in practice 3. The gap in infection control measures and HAI 4. Required Implementations. The first theme covered the participants' knowledge on HAI, its definition, the types of HAI and the infection control measures.Most of the participants were aware of HAI and had some idea of the definition of HAI, its significance and the dangers posed by HAI, but few residents had no idea of the types of HAI. The second theme was focussed on the infection control measures in practice. Most of the participants were aware of the importance of infection control measures like hand hygiene, catheter care, and waste disposal. The nurses were responsible for most of the disinfection and sterilization measures and practiced it effectively. However, some doctors and residents had no inkling about these measures. The third theme emphasized that although most of the participants were aware of HAI and infection control measures and were in practice. There were some lacunae regarding their knowledge of the different types of HAI, Personal Protective Equipment practices, communication among the healthcare personnel and the hospital administrations and the means of waste disposal. The fourth and the final theme identified that most of the participants felt the need for implementations of changes regarding existing protocols, workshops/seminars, methods of waste disposal and sterilization and disinfection practices. Conclusion: The current qualitative study concluded that there is a need for better educational programs and hands-on training for all the healthcare personnel including the paramedical staff as well. The residents should have adequate knowledge of infection control practices to guide the nurses and should share the responsibility with the nurses in the practice of effective infection control measures

Keywords: healthcare-associated infections, infection control measures, perspectives, qualitative

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19 In Vitro Micropropagation of Rosa damascena Mill

Authors: Asghar Ebrahimzadeh, Sattar Malekian, Mohammad Ali Aazami, Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam

Abstract:

Roses are of main ornamental flowers worldwide. Rosa damascena Mill., besides being an ornamental plant, has major pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fragrance applications. Traditional propagation methods of the plant are using suckers, cutting and grafting. In the present experiment, we used the different explants (leaf section, petioles and nodal cutting) for the optimization of this high-valued ornamental from a native clonal plant. Diverse explants were acquired from mature plants during the growing season and were planted on MS medium supplemented with different hormonal combinations. 70% alcohol and sodium hypochloride were utilized for the surface sterilization. For proliferation, BAP and BA (1-5 mg L-1) and NAA (1-2 mg L-1) were tested. The highest proliferation rate was afforded from MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 BA and 5 mg L-1 BAP. Callogenesis from leaf samples and petioles was the best with 1/2 MS medium enriched with 1mg L-1 BAP and 4 mg L-1 2,4-D. Rooting was occurred with the highest frequency in a medium containing 0.1 mg L-1 IBA.

Keywords: Rosa damascene, micropropagation, petiole, IBA, BAP

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18 Biosurfactant-Mediated Nanoparticle Synthesis by Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Satya Eswari Jujjavarapu, Swasti Dhagat, Lata Upadhyay, Reecha Sahu

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles have a broad range of antimicrobial and antifungal properties ranging from soaps, pastes to sterilization and drug delivery systems. These can be synthesized by physical, chemical and biological methods; biological methods being the most popular owing to their non-toxic nature and reduced energy requirements. Microbial surfactants, produced on the microbial cell surface or excreted extracellularly are an alternative to synthetic surfactants for the production of silver nanoparticles. Hence, they are also called as green molecules. Microbial lipopeptide surfactants (biosurfactant) exhibit anti-tumor and anti-microbial properties and can be used as drug delivery agents. In this study, biosurfactant was synthesized by using a strain of acillus subtilis. The biosurfactant thus produced was analysed by emulsification assay, oil spilling test, and haemolytic test. Biosurfactant-mediated silver nanoparticles were synthesised by microwave irradiation of the culture supernatant and further characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy for a range of 400-600 nm. The UV–vis spectra showed a surface plasmon resonance vibration band at 410 nm corresponding to the peak of silver nanoparticles.

Keywords: biosurfactant, Bacillus subtilis, silver nano particle, lipopeptide

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17 Disagreement in Spousal Report of Current Contraceptive Use in India and Its Determinants

Authors: Dipti Govil, Nidhi Khosla

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Couple-level reports of contraception are important as wives and husbands may give different reports about contraceptive use. Using matched couple-data (N=62910), from India's NFHS–IV (2015-16), this paper examines concordance in spousal reports of current contraceptive use and its differentials. Reporting of contraceptive use was higher among wives (59%) than husbands (25%). Concordance was low; 16.5% of couples reported the use of the same method, while 21% reported the use of any method. There existed a huge denial from husbands on the use of female sterilization. Reconstruction of contraceptive use among men increased concordance by 10%. Multivariate analysis shows that concordance was low in urban and Southern India, among younger women and women with lower wealth-index. Men's control over household decision-making and negative attitudes towards contraception were associated with a lower concordance. Findings highlight the importance of using couple-level data to estimate contraceptive prevalence, the role of education programs to inculcate positive attitudes towards contraception, fostering gender equality, and involving men into family planning efforts. The results also raise the issue of data quality as the questions were asked differently from men and women, which might have contributed to wide discordance.

Keywords: concordance, contraceptive use, couple, female sterilisation, India

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16 Effect of Palm Oil Mill Effluent on Microbial Composition in Soil Samples in Isiala Mbano Lga

Authors: Eze Catherine Chinwe, J. D. Njoku

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Background: Palm oil mill effluent is the voluminous liquid waste that comes from the sterilization and clarification sections of the oil palm milling process. The raw effluent contains 90-95% water and includes residual oil, soil particles, and suspended solids. Palm oil mill effluent is a highly polluting material and much research has been dedicated to means of alleviating its threat to the environment. Objectives: 1. To compare Physico-chemical and microbiological analysis of soil samples from POME and non-POME sites. 2. To make recommendations on how best to handle POME in the study area. Methods: Quadrant approach was adopted for sampling POME (A) and Non POME (B) locations. Qualities were determined using standard analytical procedures. Conclusions: Results of the analysis were obtained in the following range; pH (3.940 –7.435), dissolved oxygen (DO) (1.582–6.234mg/l), biological oxygen demand (BOD) (50–5463mg/l etc. For the various locations, the population of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) ranged from 1.36x106–2.42x106 cfu/ml, the total heterotrophic fungi (THF) ranged from 1.22–3.05 x 104 cfu/ml. The frequency of occurrence revealed the microbial isolates Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus, as the most frequently occurring isolates. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in microbial populations among locations. The discharge of industrial effluents into the soil in Nigeria invariably results in the presence of high concentrations of pollutant in the soil environment.

Keywords: effluents, mirobial composition, soil samples, isiala mbano

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15 Influence of Aluminum Content on the Microstructural, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiAlN Coatings for Using in Dental and Surgical Instrumentation

Authors: Hernan D. Mejia, Gilberto B. Gaitan, Mauricio A. Franco

Abstract:

420 steel is normally used in the manufacture of dental and surgical instrumentation, as well as parts in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries, among others, where they must withstand heavy loads and often be in contact with corrosive environments, which leads to wear and deterioration of these steels in relatively short times. In the case of medical applications, the instruments made of this steel also suffer wear and corrosion during the repetitive sterilization processes due to the relatively low achievable hardness of just 50 HRC and its hardly acceptable resistance to corrosion. In order to improve the wear resistance of 420 steel, TiAlN coatings were deposited, increasing the aluminum content in the alloy by varying the power applied to the aluminum target of 900, 1100, and 1300 W. Evaluations using XRD, Micro Raman, XPS, AFM, SEM, and TEM showed a columnar growth crystal structure with an average thickness of 2 microns and consisting of the TiN and TiAlN phases, whose roughness and grain size decrease with a higher Al content. The AlN phase also appears in the sample deposited at 1300W. The hardness, determined by nanoindentation, initially increases with the aluminum content from 9.7 GPa to 17.1 GPa, but then decreases to 15.4 GPa for the sample with the highest aluminum content due to the appearance of hexagonal AlN and a decrease of harder TiN and TiAlN phases. It was observed that the wear coefficient had a contrary behavior, which took values of 2.7; 1.7 and 6.6x10⁻⁶ mm³/N.m, respectively. All the coated samples significantly improved the wear resistance of the uncoated 420 steel.

Keywords: hard coatings, magnetron sputtering, TiAlN coatings, surgical instruments, wear resistance

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14 Temporal Change in Bonding Strength and Antimicrobial Effect of a Zirconia after Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment

Authors: Chan Park, Sang-Won Park, Kwi-Dug Yun, Hyun-Pil Lim

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Purpose: Plasma treatment under various conditions has been studied to increase the bonding strength and surface sterilization of dental ceramic materials. We assessed the evolution of the shear bond strength (SBS) and antimicrobial effect of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) treatment over time. Methods: Presintered zirconia specimens were manufactured as discs (diameter: 15 mm, height: 2 mm) after final sintering. The specimens then received a 30-min treatment with argon gas (Ar², 99.999%; 10 L/min) using an NTAPP device. Five post-treatment intervals were evaluated: control (no treatment), P0 (within 1 h), P1 (24 h), P2 (48 h), and P3 (72 h). This study investigated the surface characteristics, SBS of two different resin cement (RelyXTM U200 self-adhesive resin cement, Panavia F2.0 methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based resin cement), and Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Results: The SBS of RelyXTM U200 increased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days following plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2). For Panavia F 2.0, a significant decrease (p < 0.05) was detected only in the group that had undergone cementation immediately after plasma treatment (P0). S. mutans adhesion decreased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days of plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2) compared to the control group. The P0 group displayed a lower biofilm thickness than the P1 and P2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: After NTAPP treatment of zirconia, the effects on bonding strength and antimicrobial growth persist for a limited duration. The effect of NTAPP treatment on bonding strength depends on the resin cement.

Keywords: NTAPP, SBS, antimicrobial effect, zirconia

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13 Surface Sterilization Retain Postharvest Quality and Shelf Life of Strawberry and Cherry Tomato during Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Authors: Ju Young Kim, Mohammad Zahirul Islam, Mahmuda Akter Mele, Su Jeong Han, Hyuk Sung Yoon, In-Lee Choi, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

Strawberry and tomato fruits were harvested at the red ripens maturity stage in the Republic of Korea. The fruits were dipped in fungi solution and afterwards were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas. Some fruits were dipped in 150μL/L NaOCl solution for 10 minutes, and others were treated with 5μL/L ClO2 gas for 12 hours and packed with 20,000 cc OTR (oxygen transmission rate) film, the rest were packed in 10,000 cc OTR film inserted with 5μL/L ClO2 gas. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed the lowest carbon dioxide and ethylene, and the highest oxygen concentration was on the final storage day (15th day) in both strawberry and tomato fruits. Tomato fruits showed the lowest fresh weight loss in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. The visual quality as well as shelf life showed the highest in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment of both strawberry and tomato fruits. In addition, the fungal incidence of strawberry and tomato fruits were the most suppressed in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed higher firmness and soluble solids in both strawberry and tomato fruits. So, 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment may be useful to prevent the fungal incidence as well as retaining the postharvest quality, and increase the shelf life of strawberry and tomato fruits for long term storage. This study was supported by Export Promotion Technology Development Program (314027-03), IPET, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Republic of Korea.

Keywords: chlorine dioxide, ethylene, fungi, sodium hypochlorite

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12 3-D Numerical Simulation of Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger with Helical Screw

Authors: Rabeb Triki, Hassene Djemel, Mounir Baccar

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Surface scraping is a passive heat transfer enhancement technique that is directly used in scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE). The scraping action prevents the accumulation of the product on the inner wall, which intensifies the heat transfer and avoids the formation of dead zones. SSHEs are widely used in industry for several applications such as crystallization, sterilization, freezing, gelatinization, and many other continuous processes. They are designed to deal with products that are viscous, sticky or that contain particulate matter. This research work presents a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the coupled thermal and hydrodynamic behavior within a SSHE which includes Archimedes’ screw instead of scraper blades. The finite volume Fluent 15.0 was used to solve continuity, momentum and energy equations using multiple reference frame formulation. The process fluid investigated under this study is the pure glycerin. Different geometrical parameters were studied in the case of steady, non-isothermal, laminar flow. In particular, attention is focused on the effect of the conicity of the rotor and the pitch of Archimedes’ screw on temperature and velocity distribution and heat transfer rate. Numerical investigations show that the increase of the number of turns in the screw from five to seven turns leads to amelioration of heat transfer coefficient, and the increase of the conicity of the rotor from 0.1 to 0.15 leads to an increase in the rate of heat transfer. Further studies should investigate the effect of different operating parameters (axial and rotational Reynolds number) on the hydrodynamic and thermal behavior of the SSHE.

Keywords: ANSYS-Fluent, hydrodynamic behavior, scraped surface heat exchange, thermal behavior

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11 Repeated Batch Cultivation: A Novel Empty and Fill Strategy for the Enhanced Production of a Biodegradable Polymer, Polyhydroxy Alkanoate by Alcaligenes latus

Authors: Geeta Gahlawat, Ashok Kumar Srivastava

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In the present study, a simple drain and fill protocol strategy of repeated batch was adopted for enhancement in polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production using alcaligenes latus DSM 1124. Repeated batch strategy helped in increasing the longevity of otherwise decaying culture in the bioreactor by supplementing fresh substrates during each cycle of repeated-batch. The main advantages of repeated batch are its ease of operation, enhancement of culture stability towards contamination, minimization of pre-culture effects and maintenance of organism at high growth rates. The cultivation of A. latus was carried out in 7 L bioreactor containing 4 L optimized nutrient medium and a comparison with the batch mode fermentation was done to evaluate the performance of repeated batch in terms of PHAs accumulation and productivity. The statistically optimized medium recipe consisted of: 25 g/L Sucrose, 2.8 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 3.25 g/L KH2PO4, 3.25 g/L Na2HPO4, 0.2 g/L MgSO4, 1.5 mL/L trace element solution. In this strategy, 20% (v/v) of the culture broth was removed from the reactor and supplemented with an equal volume of fresh medium when sucrose concentration inside the reactor decreased below 8 g/L. The fermenter was operated for three repeated batch cycles and fresh nutrient feeding was done at 27 h, 48 h, and 60 h. Repeated batch operation resulted in a total biomass of 27.89 g/L and PHAs concentration 20.55 g/L at the end of 69 h which was a marked improvement as compared to batch cultivation (8.71 g/L biomass and 6.24 g/L PHAs). This strategy demonstrated 3.3 fold and 1.8 fold increase in PHAs concentration and volumetric productivity, respectively as compared to batch cultivation. Repeated batch cultivation strategy had also the benefit of avoiding non-productive time period required for cleaning, refilling and sterilization of bioreactor, thereby increasing the overall volumetric productivity and making the entire process cost-effective too.

Keywords: alcaligenes, biodegradation, polyhydroxyalkanoates, repeated batch

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10 Rethinking the Smartness for Sustainable Development Through the Relationship between Public and Private Actors

Authors: Selin Tosun

Abstract:

The improvements in technology have started to transform the way we live, work, play, and commute in our cities. The emerging smart city understanding has been paving the way for more efficient, more useful, and more profitable cities. Smart sensors, smart lighting, smart waste, water and electricity management, smart transportation and communication systems are introduced to cities at a rapid pace. In today's world, innovation is often correlated with start-up companies and technological pioneers seeking broader economic objectives such as production and competitiveness. The government's position is primarily that of an enabler, with creativity mostly coming from the private sector. The paper argues that to achieve sustainable development, the ways in which smart and sustainable city approaches are being applied to cities need to be redefined. The research aims to address common discussions in the discourse of smart and sustainable cities criticizing the priority of lifestyle sterilization over human-centered sustainable interventions and social innovation strategies. The dichotomy between the fact that smart cities are mostly motivated by the competitive global market and the fact that the delocalization is, in fact, their biggest problem in the way of becoming authentic, sustainable cities is the main challenge that we face today. In other words, the key actors in smart cities have different and somewhat conflicting interests and demands. By reviewing the roles of the public and private actors in smart city making, the paper aspires to reconceptualize the understanding of “smartness” in achieving sustainable development in which the “smartness” is understood as a multi-layered complex phenomenon that can be channeled through different dynamics. The case cities around the world are explored and compared in terms of their technological innovations, governance and policy innovations, public-private stakeholder relationships, and the understanding of the public realm. The study aims to understand the current trends and general dynamics in the field, key issues that are being addressed, the scale that is preferred to reflect upon and the projects that are designed for the particular issues.

Keywords: smart city, sustainable development, technological innovation, social innovation

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