Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 116

Search results for: the theatre of the absurd

116 An Ontological Approach to Existentialist Theatre and Theatre of the Absurd in the Works of Jean-Paul Sartre and Samuel Beckett

Authors: Gülten Silindir Keretli

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyse the works of playwrights within the framework of existential philosophy. It is to observe the ontological existence in the plays of No Exit and Endgame. Literary works will be discussed separately in each section of this study. The despair of post-war generation of Europe problematized the ‘human condition’ in every field of literature which is the very product of social upheaval. With this concern in his mind, Sartre’s creative works portrayed man as a lonely being, burdened with terrifying freedom to choose and create his own meaning in an apparently meaningless world. The traces of the existential thought are to be found throughout the history of philosophy and literature. On the other hand, the theatre of the absurd is a form of drama showing the absurdity of the human condition and it is heavily influenced by the existential philosophy. Beckett is the most influential playwright of the theatre of the absurd. The themes and thoughts in his plays share many tenets of the existential philosophy. The existential philosophy posits the meaninglessness of existence and it regards man as being thrown into the universe and into desolate isolation. To overcome loneliness and isolation, the human ego needs recognition from the other people. Sartre calls this need of recognition as the need for ‘the Look’ (Le regard) from the Other. In this paper, existentialist philosophy and existentialist angst will be elaborated and then the works of existentialist theatre and theatre of absurd will be discussed within the framework of existential philosophy.

Keywords: consciousness, existentialism, the notion of the absurd, the other

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115 Not so Street Theatre: Politics in Theatre of Roots

Authors: Dani Karmakar

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In India, the journey of street theatre was started with Indian peoples Theatre Association (IPTA) as a tool for anti-establishment that was categorized as by the people and for the people. It has expressed common people’s feelings, problems, day to day life. It has brought a social change that is downtrodden. By its nature, it is based on communist ideology. Street theatre is a theatre of protest. In India, many folk theatres translate directly ‘Street Theatre’, those are Veedhi Natakam in Andhra Pradesh and Therukoothu in Tamil Nadu. But they do not covey to common definition of street theatre. There are different folk theatres of different regions in India. All folk theatres have individual characteristic, criteria, taste and flavor that can render distinctive each others. In festivals or special occasions, whole communities come together to enjoy collectively and express their feelings. The Veedhi Natakam means 'street theatre'. Theru koothu is a traditional street theatre in the northern districts of Tamilnadu. Folk theatre has potential to deliver strong messages. It has a socially significant role. At Veedhi Natakam, Vidhushaka takes part for social criticism. Gambhira is also a socio-political folk drama presentation in West Bengal.

Keywords: folk theatre, Gambhira, politics, street theatre

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114 A Contemplative Concept of Existence in Existentialism and in the Notion of the Absurd

Authors: Mohammad Motiee

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The present study aims at presenting Samuel Beckett's attempts to pierce the world of knowledge and understanding with a hope to approach it though he knew it is unattainable. To know about Beckett more and to get the idea about the notion of the absurd, we found it necessary to find the real meaning of existence both in the notion of the absurd and in Existentialism. Among many philosophers, as is evident in this paper, who worked on the concept of existence, Beckett reveals a very peculiar path by which some labelled him a mere absurdist. In this study, we tried to show that unlike this label and also unlike many philosophers' premise, Beckett did not assign his contemplation on the boundaries of existence but to find a way to retreat from it. This is the only way for him to find the real meaning of Self. While Existentialism advocates primary existence, Beckett's Absurdity appreciates a reliable being in a realm out of limits of the world. The Absurd person has no tendency to put himself in the barriers of time and language. Time imprisons one in the frame of days and nights, the solid dimensions in which the Self cannot be evidenced. Beckett shows sadly how the boundaries and dimensions blind the being and how the absurd meaning of existence arises from such a limit in the mundane realm.

Keywords: existence, absurdity, existentialism, self, alienation, being

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113 Performing a Chamber Theatre Adaptation of Nick Joaquin's 'the Summer Solstice'

Authors: Allen B. Baylosis

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Chamber Theatre has been one of the least articulated staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies. This creative exploratory-descriptive study responds to this gap by employing the staging technique in a Chamber Theatre production based on Nick Joaquin’s The Summer Solstice. Specifically, this study opts to understand three processes involved in the Chamber Theatre creative thesis production of The Summer Solstice as performance: performance of the theatre-maker, performance of the spect-actors, and performance of the spectators. For this purpose, the theatre-maker describes the creative process of transforming The Summer Solstice text to a Chamber Theatre production—from text to staging. The theatre-maker also analyzes the performers’ experiences and the spectators’ responses as they participate in a Chamber Theatre performance. In doing so, the theatre-maker collects qualitative data from seventeen (17) performers and qualitative feedback from twenty (20) spectators. For the mode of data analysis, this study employed Ranciere’s concept on the Emancipated Spectator (2008) and Schechner’s Performance Theory (1988). The study’s findings examine how the theatre-maker, the performers, and the spectators become distant viewers of their respective restored behavior performances. Through these viewed performances, this study implies that it is possible to ascertain a reasonable definition of purpose for Chamber Theatre. Hence, despite the existence of other modern staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies, this study concludes that Chamber Theatre remains to be a relevant staging technique.

Keywords: adaptation of text, chamber theatre, experimental theater, oral interpretation

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112 Trauma Informed Applied Theatre: The Use of Performance to Connect With Mental Dysfunction Using Physical Embodiment

Authors: Stephanie Elizabeth Talder

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Applied theatre programs provide a unique opportunity to engage with people using theatre with the intention of helping them with a variety of other ailments. Applied theatre within a medical setting allows for there to be other arts focused interventions that would allow for a creative and enjoyable way to connect with those who experience the same impairments as you. These programs have the potential to aid in health benefits as well as engage with theatre. This study will focus on those who have cognitive dysfunction and mental health advocacy. Due to the severe need for mental health initiatives, providing a community of those who are experiencing similar symptoms and connecting with playwrights such as Shakespeare will be meaningful. This study will partner with mental health and wellness professionals within the medical field to work with memory retention and increase mental wellness.

Keywords: applied theatre, trauma-informed, mental wellness advocacy, cognitive dysfunction

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111 The Stage as Pulpit; Contemporary Practice of Theatre for Religion in Kenya

Authors: Shikuku Emmanuel Tsikhungu

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Theatre and religion have enjoyed a symbiotic relationship from time immemorial, each transforming in different epochs and into different forms of practice but gaining from each other’s growth. Despite the fact that religion has more or less looked at the theatre and its dramatic rituals with distaste, the two human engagements have had dynamic and reciprocal relationships. In Kenya, there is an emerging innovation and transformation of theatre for religion in which churches and sects are consciously developing a youth wing that is vibrant in theatre practice. The imagination that youth and children derive pleasure and vibrancy in theatre has led to a lively competition among churches that is now creating a new form of theatre in Kenya. This has given rise to a practice in which art engages the religious not at the spiritual level but at the social-cultural level. Thus theatre is finding itself in sanctums that it had been banished; not for its own sake but as a tool for keeping the youth nearer the church if not the church This article analyses findings of a study carried out in December of 2017 among theatre festivals for the Catholic Church held in Kitui School, KituiCounty, and the Methodist Church of Kenya festival held in Ntemwene Church, Nkubu, Meru County, Kenya. One of the findings of interest was that while they were not theatres of religion nor religious theatres since they did not fuse the religious rituals with the dramatic rituals, the festivals never the less qualify as theatres for religion for they link the former to the latter. Secondly, while they claimed to be youth or children theatre festivals, they lacked youth-centredness nor child-centredness associated with such. Thirdly and most importantly the style of dramatic execution ranged from bibliodramatic to secular drama with Christian messages. Fourthly, by this stroke of acceptance in formerly forbidden sanctums, theatre is re-inventing itself back to its ‘old’ nature and function. It may be argued conclusively that this sprouting movement of theatre for religion may be comparable to the Jesuit Theatre fronted by Ignatius Loyola but clothed in modern African theatre practice.

Keywords: theatre, religion, theatre for religion, social constructs, socio-cultural

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110 Links and Blocks: the Role of Language in Samuel Beckett’s Selected Plays

Authors: Su-Lien Liao

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This article explores the language in the four plays of Samuel Beckett–Waiting for Godot, Endgame, Krapp’s Last Tape, and Footfalls. It considers the way in which Beckett uses language, especially through fragmentation utterances, repetitions, monologues, contradictions, and silence. It discusses the function of language in modern society, in the theater of the absurd, and in the plays. Paradoxically enough, his plays attempts to communicate the incommunicability of language.

Keywords: language, Samuel Beckett, theater of the absurd, foreign language teaching

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109 Research Analysis in Eclectic Theory (Kaboudan and Sfandiar)

Authors: Farideh Alizadeh, Mohd Nasir Hashi

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Present research investigates eclecticism in Iranian theatre on the basis of eclectic theory. Eclectic theatre is a new theory in postmodernism. The theory appeared during 60th – 70th century in some theatres such as “Conference of the Birds”. Special theatrical forms have been developed in many geographical- cultural areas of the world and are indigenous to that area. These forms, as compared with original forms, are considered to be traditional while being comprehensive, the form is considered to be national. Kaboudan and Sfandiar theatre has been influenced by elements of traditional form of Iran.

Keywords: eclectic theatre, theatrical forms, tradition, play

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108 Revitalization of Sign Language through Deaf Theatre: A Linguistic Analysis of an Art Form Which Combines Physical Theatre, Poetry, and Sign Language

Authors: Gal Belsitzman, Rose Stamp, Atay Citron, Wendy Sandler

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Sign languages are considered endangered. The vitality of sign languages is compromised by its unique sociolinguistic situation, in which hearing parents that give birth to deaf children usually decide to cochlear implant their child. Therefore, these children don’t acquire their natural language – Sign Language. Despite this, many sign languages, such as Israeli Sign Language (ISL) are thriving. The continued survival of similar languages under threat has been associated with the remarkable resilience of the language community. In particular, deaf literary traditions are central in reminding the community of the importance of the language. One example of a deaf literary tradition which has received increased popularity in recent years is deaf theatre. The Ebisu Sign Language Theatre Laboratory, developed as part of the multidisciplinary Grammar of the Body Research Project, is the first deaf theatre company in Israel. Ebisu Theatre combines physical theatre and sign language research, to allow for a natural laboratory to analyze the creative use of the body. In this presentation, we focus on the recent theatre production called ‘Their language’ which tells of the struggle faced by the deaf community to use their own natural language in the education system. A thorough analysis unravels how linguistic properties are integrated with the use of poetic devices and physical theatre techniques in this performance, enabling wider access by both deaf and hearing audiences, without interpretation. Interviews with the audience illustrate the significance of this art form which serves a dual purpose, both as empowering for the deaf community and educational for the hearing and deaf audiences, by raising awareness of community-related issues.

Keywords: deaf theatre, empowerment, language revitalization, sign language

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107 Modern Literary Authors and Samuel Beckett's Trace of Lost Self in Modernity

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri, Mohammad Motiee Lahromi

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In a depression after world wars, Beckett's plays presented a picture of the world fragmented and disrupted. Among other modern literary works, Beckett's path-breakingly innovative literature presented the parodies of pointlessness of human actions and thoughts in the world. This new dramatic style catapulted Beckett to the centre stage of modern drama, though it should be mentioned that he may not have been influenced in this without the prevailing climate of ideas. The prevailing literary attitude of Modernism indicates that the modern world is irrational and incoherent. The present study explores Samuel Beckett's literary approach to modern drama and shows how the author could create the characters stuck in a lifelong suspicious about the Self.

Keywords: modern drama, absurdity, the theatre of the absurd, existentialism, self searching

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106 'Utopian Performatives' for Peace: A Radical Approach to Evaluating the Value of Documentary Theatre in Northern Ireland

Authors: Harry Mccallum

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In the last decade, there has been an upsurge in documentary theatre projects that seek to address issues arising from ‘the Troubles’ by theatre and community organisations such as The Playhouse, Kabosh, and The Verbal Arts Centre. This movement has been supported by a variety of funding agencies who have identified the importance of the instrumental use of theatre for generating societal development. However, with this upsurge in interest comes complications surrounding the subjectivity of evaluations and an understanding of their empirical impact on society. This largely theoretical led-discussion promotes the engagement of Jill Dolan’s ‘utopian performatives’ (2005) within the remit of documentary theatre for peacebuilding practices in Northern Ireland.‘Utopian Performatives’ are described as being profound moments in a theatre production that transforms audience members into a state of ‘hopeful feeling’.As a concept, they are situated within the discourse surrounding audience reception and the ‘affective turn’ (Brennan, 2004; Clough and Halley, 2007; Ahmed, 2014), which indicates its persistence on a short-term ephemeral outlook. It is therefore important to understand how this short-term ‘affect’ can expand into a longer-term ‘effect.’ Through this interdisciplinary study between ‘peace’ and ‘theatre’ studies, I am proposinga theoretical framework that examines how these individual ‘utopian performatives’ at the personal level can lead to a change at the societal level. The framework understands that ‘utopian performatives’ have the capacity to generate discussion and empower audience members to actively strive for a ‘positive peace’; something which is evidently absent in a contemporary Northern Ireland.

Keywords: theatre, peacebuilding, conflict transformation, northern Ireland

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105 Planning and Strategies for Risks Prevention, Mitigating, and Recovery of Ancient Theatres Heritage: Investigation and Recommendations

Authors: Naif A. Haddad

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Greek, Hellenistic and Roman theatre heritage are exposed to multiple risks at varied times or simultaneously. There is no single reason why a theatre building becomes ‘at risk’, as each case has different circumstances which have led to the theatre building decay. There are complicated processes of destruction and distress that show divergence in theatre building materials' decay. Theatre modern use for cultural performances causes much of the risks concerning the physical structure and authenticity of theatre sites. In addition, there are some deterioration and deformations due to previous poor quality restorations and interventions through related excavation and conservation programmes as also risks to authenticity due to new additions. For preventive conservation, theatre natural and anthropogenic risks management can provide a framework for decision making. These risks to ancient theatre heritage may stem from exposure to one or more risk or synergy of many factors. We, therefore, need to link the theatre natural risks to the risks that come from anthropogenic factors associated with social and economic development. However, this requires a holistic approach, and systematic methodology for understanding these risks from various sources while incorporating specific actions, planning and strategies for each specific risk. Elaborating on recent relevant studies, and ERATO and ATHENA EU projects for ancient theaters and odea and general surveys, this paper attempts to discuss the main aspects of the ancient Greek, Hellenistic and Roman theatres risk related issues. Relevant case studies shall also be discussed and investigated to examine frameworks for risk mitigation, and related guidelines and recommendations that provide a systematic approach for sustainable management and planning in relation mainly to ‘compatible use’ of theatre sites.

Keywords: cultural heritage management, European ancient theatres projects, Anthropogenic risks mitigation, sustainable management and planning, preventive conservation, modern use, compatible use

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104 Analyzing Use of Figurativeness, Visual Elements, Allegory, Scenic Imagery as Support System in Punjabi Contemporary Theatre for Escaping Censorship

Authors: Shazia Anwer

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This paper has discussed the unusual form of resistance in theatre against censorship board in Pakistan. The atypical approach of dramaturgy created massive space for performers and audiences to integrate and communicate. The social and religious absolutes creates suffocation in Pakistani society, strict control over all Fine and Performing Art has made art political, contemporary dramatics has started an amalgamated theatre to avoid censorship. Contemporary Punjabi theatre techniques are directly dependent on human cognition. The idea of indirect thought processing is not unique but dependent on spectators. The paper has provided an account of these techniques and their specific use for conveying specific messages across the audiences. For the Dramaturge of today, theatre space is an expression representing a linguistic formulation that includes qualities of experimental and non-traditional use of classical theatrical space in the context of fulfilling the concept of open theatre. Paper has explained the transformation of the theatrical experience into an event where the actor and the audience are co-existing and co-experiencing the dramatical experience. The denial of the existence of the 4th -Wall made two-way communication possible. This paper has elaborated that the previously marginalized genres such as naach, jugat, miras, are extensively included to counter the censorship board. Figurativeness, visual elements, allegory, scenic imagery are basic support system for contemporary Punjabi theatre. The body of the actor is used as a source for non-verbal communication, and for an escape from traditional theatrical space which by every means has every element that could be controlled and reprimanded by the controlling authority.

Keywords: communication, Punjabi theatre, figurativeness, censorship

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103 Management of Theatre with Social and Culture

Authors: Chitsuphang Ungsvanonda

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Objective of this research is to study the government’s theater management system regarding planning and operation. Also studying how the management associate with the change of an environment. This is to gather an appropriate model to develop a theater management system especially regarding all show performance. The research will be done by a Qualitative Research with an interview of 35 person by specify and unexpectedly group.

Keywords: management, theatre, social, culture

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102 Educational Theatre Making Project: Prior Conditions

Authors: Larisa Akhmylovskaia, Andriana Barysh

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The present paper is introducing the translation score developing methodology and methods in the cross-cultural communication. The ideas and examples presented by the authors illustrate the universal character of translation score developing methods under analysis. Personal experience in the international theatre-making projects, opera laboratories, cross-cultural master-classes give more opportunities to single out the conditions, forms, means and principles of translation score developing as well as the translator/interpreter’s functions as cultural liaison for multiethnic collaboration.

Keywords: methodology of translation score developing, pre-production, analysis, production, post-production, ethnic scene theory, theatre anthropology, laboratory, master-class, educational project, academic project, participant observation, super-objective

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101 The Use of Technology in Theatrical Performances as a Tool of Audience’S Engagement

Authors: Chrysoula Bousiouta

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Throughout the history of theatre, technology has played an important role both in influencing the relationship between performance and audience and offering different kinds of experiences. The use of technology dates back in ancient times, when the introduction of artifacts, such as “Deus ex machine” in ancient Greek theatre, started. Taking into account the key techniques and experiences used throughout history, this paper investigates how technology, through new media, influences contemporary theatre. In the context of this research, technology is defined as projections, audio environments, video-projections, sensors, tele-connections, all alongside with the performance, challenging audience’s participation. The theoretical framework of the research covers, except for the history of theatre, the theory of “experience economy” that took over the service and goods economy. The research is based on the qualitative and comparative analysis of two case studies, Contact Theatre in Manchester (United Kingdom) and Bios in Athens (Greece). The data selection includes desk research and is complemented with semi structured interviews. Building on the results of the research one could claim that the intended experience of modern/contemporary theatre is that of engagement. In this context, technology -as defined above- plays a leading role in creating it. This experience passes through and exists in the middle of the realms of entertainment, education, estheticism and escapism. Furthermore, it is observed that nowadays, theatre is not only about acting but also about performing; it is that one where the performances are unfinished without the participation of the audience. Both case studies try to achieve the experience of engagement through practices that promote the attraction of attention, the increase of imagination, the interaction, the intimacy and the true activity. These practices are achieved through the script, the scenery, the language and the environment of a performance. Contact and Bios consider technology as an intimate tool in order to accomplish the above, and they make an extended use of it. The research completes a notable record of technological techniques that modern theatres use. The use of technology, inside or outside the limits of film technique’s, helps to rivet the attention of the audience, to make performances enjoyable, to give the sense of the “unfinished” or to be used for things that take place around the spectators and force them to take action, being spect-actors. The advantage of technology is that it can be used as a hook for interaction in all stages of a performance. Further research on the field could involve exploring alternative ways of binding technology and theatre or analyzing how the performance is perceived through the use of technological artifacts.

Keywords: experience of engagement, interactive theatre, modern theatre, performance, technology

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100 The Play Translator’s Score Developing: Methodology for Intercultural Communication

Authors: Akhmylovskaia Larisa, Barysh Andriana

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The present paper is introducing the translation score developing methodology and methods in the cross-cultural communication. The ideas and examples presented by the authors illustrate the universal character of translation score developing methods under analysis. Personal experience in the international theatre-making projects, opera laboratories, cross-cultural master-classes, movie and theatre festivals give more opportunities to single out the conditions, forms, means and principles of translation score developing as well as the translator/interpreter’s functions as cultural liaison for multiethnic collaboration.

Keywords: methodology of translation score developing, pre-production, analysis, production, post-production, ethnic scene theory, theatre anthropology, laboratory, master-class, educational project, academic project, Stanislavski terminology meta-language, super-objective, participant observation

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99 A Survey and Theory of the Effects of Various Hamlet Videos on Viewers’ Brains

Authors: Mark Pizzato

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How do ideas, images, and emotions in stage-plays and videos affect us? Do they evoke a greater awareness (or cognitive reappraisal of emotions) through possible shifts between left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical networks? To address these questions, this presentation summarizes the research of various neuroscientists, especially Bernard Baars and others involved in Global Workspace Theory, Matthew Lieberman in social neuroscience, Iain McGilchrist on left and right cortical functions, and Jaak Panksepp on the subcortical circuits of primal emotions. Through such research, this presentation offers an ‘inner theatre’ model of the brain, regarding major hubs of neural networks and our animal ancestry. It also considers recent experiments, by Mario Beauregard, on the cognitive reappraisal of sad, erotic, and aversive film clips. Finally, it applies the inner-theatre model and related research to survey results of theatre students who read and then watched the ‘To be or not to be’ speech in 8 different video versions (from stage and screen productions) of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Findings show that students become aware of left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical brain functions—and shifts between them—through staging and movie-making choices in each of the different videos.

Keywords: cognitive reappraisal, Hamlet, neuroscience, Shakespeare, theatre

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98 Utilising Reuse and Recycling Strategies for Costume Design in Kuwait Theatre

Authors: Ali Dashti

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Recycling materials within the realms of theatrical costume design and production is important. When a Kuwaiti play finishes its run, costumes are thrown away and new ones are designed when necessary. This practice indicates a lack of awareness of recycling strategies. This is a serious matter; tons of textile materials are being wasted rather than recycled. The current process of producing costumes for Kuwait theatre productions involves the conception and sketching of costumes, the purchase of new fabrics, and the employment of tailors for production. Since tailoring is outsourced, there is a shortage of designers who can make costumes autonomously. The current process does not incorporate any methods for recycling costumes. This combined with high levels of textile waste, results in significant ecological issues that demand immediate attention. However, data collected for this research paper, from a series of semi-structured interviews, have indicated that a lack of recycling facilities and increased textile waste do not present an area of concern within the Kuwaiti theatrical costume industry. This paper will review the findings of this research project and investigate the production processes used by costume designers in Kuwait. It will indicate how their behaviors, coupled with their lack of knowledge with using recycling strategies to create costumes, had increased textile waste and negatively affected Kuwait theatre costume design industry.

Keywords: costume, recycle, reuse, theatre

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97 Actor Training in Social Work Education: A Pilot Study of Theatre Workshops to Enhance Clinical Empathy

Authors: Amanda Coleman, Estefanía Gonzalez

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Empathy is considered an essential skill for engaging with social work clients. Drawing from developments in medical education, researchers will conduct and evaluate a three-part pilot theatre workshop with master level social work students (n ≈ 30) to evaluate the workshop's ability to enhance empathy among participants. Outcomes will be measured using semi-structured post-intervention interviews with a subset of participants (n ≈ 10) as well post-intervention written reflections and pre-and-post intervention quantitative evaluation of empathy using King and Holosko’s 2011 Empathy Scale for Social Workers. The content of the workshop will differ from traditional role plays, which are common in social work education, in that it will draw from role theory and research on creative empathy to emphasize role reversal with clients. Workshops will be held February and March of 2017 with preliminary findings available by April.

Keywords: education, empathy, social work, theatre

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96 The Crossroad of Identities in Wajdi Mouawad's 'Littoral': A Rhizomatic Approach of Identity Reconstruction through Theatre and Performance

Authors: Mai Hussein

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'Littoral' is an original voice in Québécois theatre, spanning the cultural gaps that can exist between the playwrights’ native Lebanon, North America, Quebec, and Europe. Littoral is a 'crossroad' of cultures and themes, a 'bridge' connecting cultures and languages. It represents a new form of theatrical writing that combines the verbal, the vocal and the pantomimic, calling upon the stage to question the real, to engage characters in a quest, in a journey of mourning, of reconstructing identity and a collective memory despite ruins and wars. A theatre of witness, a theatre denouncing irrationality of racism and war, a theatre 'performing' the symptoms of the stress disorders of characters passing from resistance and anger to reconciliation and giving voice to the silenced victims, these are some of the pillars that this play has to offer. In this corrida between life and death, the identity seems like a work-in-progress that is shaped in the presence of the Self and the Other. This trajectory will lead to re-open widely the door to questions, interrogations, and reflections to show how this play is at the nexus of contemporary preoccupations of the 21st century: the importance of memory, the search for meaning, the pursuit of the infinite. It also shows how a play can create bridges between languages, cultures, societies, and movements. To what extent does it mediate between the words and the silence, and how does it burn the bridges or the gaps between the textual and the performative while investigating the power of intermediality to confront racism and segregation. It also underlines the centrality of confrontation between cultures, languages, writing and representation techniques to challenge the characters in their quest to restructure their shattered, but yet intertwined identities. The goal of this theatre would then be to invite everyone involved in the process of a journey of self-discovery away from their comfort zone. Everyone will have to explore the liminal space, to read in between the lines of the written text as well as in between the text and the performance to explore the gaps and the tensions that exist between what is said, and what is played, between the 'parole' and the performative body.

Keywords: identity, memory, performance, testimony, trauma

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95 The Shared Breath Project: Inhabiting Each Other’s Words and Being

Authors: Beverly Redman

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With the Theatre Season of 2020-2021 cancelled due to COVID-19 at Purdue University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA, faculty directors found themselves scrambling to create theatre production opportunities for their students in the Department of Theatre. Redman, Chair of the Department, found her community to be suffering from anxieties brought on by a confluence of issues: the global-scale Covid-19 Pandemic, the United States’ Black Lives Matter protests erupting in cities all across the country and the coming Presidential election, arguably the most important and most contentious in the country’s history. Redman wanted to give her students the opportunity to speak not only on these issues but also to be able to record who they were at this time in their personal lives, as well as in this broad socio-political context. She also wanted to invite them into an experience of feeling empathy, too, at a time when empathy in this world seems to be sorely lacking. Returning to a mode of Devising Theatre she had used with community groups in the past, in which storytelling and re-enactment of participants’ life events combined with oral history documentation practices, Redman planned The Shared Breath Project. The process involved three months of workshops, in which participants alternated between theatre exercises and oral history collection and documentation activities as a way of generating original material for a theatre production. The goal of the first half of the project was for each participant to produce a solo piece in the form of a monologue after many generations of potential material born out of gammes, improvisations, interviews and the like. Along the way, many film and audio clips recorded the process of each person’s written documentation—documentation prepared by the subject him or herself but also by others in the group assigned to listen, watch and record. Then, in the second half of the project—and only once each participant had taken their own contributions from raw improvisatory self-presentations and through the stages of composition and performative polish, participants then exchanged their pieces. The second half of the project involved taking on each other’s words, mannerisms, gestures, melodic and rhythmic speech patterns and inhabiting them through the rehearsal process as their own, thus the title, The Shared Breath Project. Here, in stage two the acting challenges evolved to be those of capturing the other and becoming the other through accurate mimicry that embraces Denis Diderot’s concept of the Paradox of Acting, in that the actor is both seeming and being simultaneous. This paper shares the carefully documented process of making the live-streamed theatre production that resulted from these workshops, writing processes and rehearsals, and forming, The Shared Breath Project, which ultimately took the students’ Realist, life-based pieces and edited them into a single unified theatre production. The paper also utilizes research on the Paradox of Acting, putting a Post-Structuralist spin on Diderot’s theory. Here, the paper suggests the limitations of inhabiting the other by allowing that the other is always already a thing impenetrable but nevertheless worthy of unceasing empathetic, striving and delving in an epoch in which slow, careful attention to our fellows is in short supply.

Keywords: otherness, paradox of acting, oral history theatre, devised theatre, political theatre, community-based theatre, peoples’ theatre

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94 The Development, Composition, and Implementation of Vocalises as a Method of Technical Training for the Adult Musical Theatre Singer

Authors: Casey Keenan Joiner, Shayna Tayloe

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Classical voice training for the novice singer has long relied on the guidance and instruction of vocalise collections, such as those written and compiled by Marchesi, Lütgen, Vaccai, and Lamperti. These vocalise collections purport to encourage healthy vocal habits and instill technical longevity in both aspiring and established singers, though their scope has long been somewhat confined to the classical idiom. For pedagogues and students specializing in other vocal genres, such as musical theatre and CCM (contemporary commercial music,) low-impact and pertinent vocal training aids are in short supply, and much of the suggested literature derives from classical methodology. While the tenants of healthy vocal production remain ubiquitous, specific stylistic needs and technical emphases differ from genre to genre and may require a specified extension of vocal acuity. As musical theatre continues to grow in popularity at both the professional and collegiate levels, the need for specialized training grows as well. Pedagogical literature geared specifically towards musical theatre (MT) singing and vocal production, while relatively uncommon, is readily accessible to the contemporary educator. Practitioners such as Norman Spivey, Mary Saunders Barton, Claudia Friedlander, Wendy Leborgne, and Marci Rosenberg continue to publish relevant research in the field of musical theatre voice pedagogy and have successfully identified many common MT vocal faults, their subsequent diagnoses, and their eventual corrections. Where classical methodology would suggest specific vocalises or training exercises to maintain corrected vocal posture following successful fault diagnosis, musical theatre finds itself without a relevant body of work towards which to transition. By analyzing the existing vocalise literature by means of a specialized set of parameters, including but not limited to melodic variation, rhythmic complexity, vowel utilization, and technical targeting, we have composed a set of vocalises meant specifically to address the training and conditioning of adult musical theatre voices. These vocalises target many pedagogical tenants in the musical theatre genre, including but not limited to thyroarytenoid-dominant production, twang resonance, lateral vowel formation, and “belt-mix.” By implementing these vocalises in the musical theatre voice studio, pedagogues can efficiently communicate proper musical theatre vocal posture and kinesthetic connection to their students, regardless of age or level of experience. The composition of these vocalises serves MT pedagogues on both a technical level as well as a sociological one. MT is a relative newcomer on the collegiate stage and the academization of musical theatre methodologies has been a slow and arduous process. The conflation of classical and MT techniques and training methods has long plagued the world of voice pedagogy and teachers often find themselves in positions of “cross-training,” that is, teaching students of both genres in one combined voice studio. As MT continues to establish itself on academic platforms worldwide, genre-specific literature and focused studies are both rare and invaluable. To ensure that modern students receive exacting and definitive training in their chosen fields, it becomes increasingly necessary for genres such as musical theatre to boast specified literature and a collection of musical theatre-specific vocalises only aids in this effort. This collection of musical theatre vocalises is the first of its kind and provides genre-specific studios with a basis upon which to grow healthy, balanced voices built for the harsh conditions of the modern theatre stage.

Keywords: voice pedagogy, targeted methodology, musical theatre, singing

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93 Using a Character’s Inner Monologue for Song Analysis

Authors: Robert Roznowski

Abstract:

The thought process of the character is never more evident than when singing alone onstage. The composer scores the emotional state and the lyricist voices the inner conflict as the character shares with an audience her or his deepest feelings. It is at these moments that a character may be thought of as voicing her or his inner monologue. Using examples from several musical theatre songs, this presentation will look at a codified approach to analyze a song from a more psychological perspective. Using the clues from the score, traditional character analysis and a psychological-based scoring method an actor may explore more fully inhabit and express the sung and unsung thoughts of the character. The approach yields a richer and more complex approach to acting the song.

Keywords: acting, analysis, musical theatre, psychology

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92 Factors That Influence Willingness to Pay for Theatre Performances: The Case of Lithuanian National Drama Theatre

Authors: Rusne Kregzdaite

Abstract:

The value of the cultural sector stems from the symbolic exploration that differentiates cultural organisations from other product or service organisations. As a result, the cultural sector has a dual impact on the socio-economic system: the economic value (expressed in terms of market relations) created influences the dynamics of the country's financial indicators, while the cultural (non-market) value indirectly contributes to the welfare of the state through changes in societal values, creativity transformations and cultural needs of the country. Measurement of indirect (cultural value) impacts is difficult, but in the case of the cultural sector (especially when it comes to economically inefficient state-funded culture), it helps to reveal the essential characteristics of the sector. The study aims to analyze the value of cultural organisations that are invisible in market processes and to base it on quantified calculations. This was be done by analyzing the usefulness of the consumer, incorporating not only the price paid but also the social and cultural decision-making factors that determine the spectator's choice (time dedicated for a visit, additional costs, content, previous experiences, corporate image). This may reflect the consumer's real choice to consume (all the costs he incurs may be considered the financial equivalent of his experience with the cultural establishment). The research methodology was tested by analyzing the performing arts sector and applying methods to the Lithuanian national drama theatre case. The empirical research consisted of a survey (more than 800 participants) of Lithuanian national drama theatre visitors to different performances. The willingness to pay and travel costs methods were used. Analysis of different performances lets identifies the factor that increases willingness to pay for the performance and affects theatre attendance. The research stresses the importance of cultural value and social perspective of the cultural sector and relates it to the discussions of public funding of culture.

Keywords: cultural economics, performing arts, willingness to pay, travel cost analysis, performing arts management

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91 Interpreting Possibilities: Teaching Without Borders

Authors: Mira Kadric

Abstract:

The proposed paper deals with a new developed approach for interpreting teaching, combining traditional didactics with a new element. The fundamental principle of the approach is taken from the theatre pedagogy (Augusto Boal`s Theatre of the Oppressed) and includes the discussion on social power relations. From the point of view of education sociology this implies strengthening students’ individual potential for self-determination on a number of levels, especially in view of the present increase in social responsibility. This knowledge constitutes a starting point and basis for the process of self-determined action. This takes place in the context of a creative didactic policy which identifies didactic goals, provides clear sequences of content, specifies interdisciplinary methods and examines their practical adequacy and ultimately serves not only individual translators and interpreters, but all parties involved. The goal of the presented didactic model is to promote independent work and problem-solving strategies; this helps to develop creative potential and self-confident behaviour. It also conveys realistic knowledge of professional reality and thus also of the real socio-political and professional parameters involved. As well as providing a discussion of fundamental questions relevant to Translation and Interpreting Studies, this also serves to improve this interdisciplinary didactic approach which simulates interpreting reality and illustrates processes and strategies which (can) take place in real life. This idea is illustrated in more detail with methods taken from the Theatre of the Oppressed created by Augusto Boal. This includes examples from (dialogue) interpreting teaching based on documentation from recordings made in a seminar in the summer term 2014.

Keywords: augusto boal, didactic model, interpreting teaching, theatre of the oppressed

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90 The Impacts of Foreign Culture on Yoruba Crime Films

Authors: Alonge Isaac Olusola

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the evolution and development of Yoruba theatre during the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial years and how Yoruba crime films have been influenced by foreign culture. It emphasizes on the transition of theatre from the ground to the stage and from the stage to the screen with emphasis on the contribution of late Chief Hubert Ogunde who is regarded as the doyen of Yoruba and the entire Nigerian theatre. Using the Theory of Post-colonialism, two modern Yoruba crime films are carefully selected from the numerous available ones to highlight and explain the various aspects of Yoruba films that have been greatly influenced by the foreign cultural practices. The questions to be answered here include 'Which attitudes or cultural practices are widely believed to be that of Yoruba?', 'To what extent are they projected in the selected Yoruba crime films?', 'Which attitudes or cultural practices are widely believed to be foreign among the Yoruba people?', 'To what extent are they projected in the selected Yoruba crime films?'. Although, the British colonial masters granted political independence to Nigeria on October 1, 1960, but a seed of multi-culture and counterculture had been sown into the lives of the Yoruba people. Under the literature review, there is an intensive illumination on some scholars’ ideas and views on what constitutes Yoruba culture, the evolution and development of drama, theatre and films in the Yoruba society and the nature of criminals and criminalities in the Yoruba society and the western world in the pre-colonial and post-colonial times. Furthermore, the processes of interaction between man, his values and his thoughts are also highlighted – a situation that procreates criminal or benevolent acts. Consequently, the paper dwells on how colonialism, despite its so-called merits put the gradual process of urbanization and civilization among the originally rustic, cohesive and moralistic Yoruba society on a supersonic speed that culminated in acquisition of attitudes that are alien to the Yoruba culture. Since a drama is nothing but the theatrical replication of what occurs in the real life, the paper then focuses on the submission that Yoruba crime films have experienced a serious foreign influence in form and content as a result of this encounter. In conclusion, the findings of the impact of foreign cultural practices on Yoruba crime films are highlighted and expatiated with a view to recommending a few steps that could be taken to retain the projection of the original Yoruba cultural practices in Yoruba films, especially the ones that have crime as a theme.

Keywords: culture, films, theatre, Yoruba

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89 Building an Absurdist Approach to the Philosophy of Science: Combining Camus and Feyerabend

Authors: Robert Herold

Abstract:

This project aims to begin building out a new approach within the philosophy of science that is based around a combination of insights from Albert Camus and Paul Feyerabend. This approach is one that will be labeled an absurdist approach as it uses, for its foundation, the philosophy of the absurd as discussed by Camus. While Camus didn’t directly discuss the philosophy of science, nor did he offer his own views on the subject in any substantial way, that doesn’t mean that his work doesn’t have applications within the philosophy of science. In fact, as is argued throughout the piece, much of the work done by Paul Feyerabend stems from a similar metaphysical and epistemological foundation as Camus. This foundation is the notion of the absurd and the inability of us as humans to reach some sort of objective truth. In modern times both Camus and Feyerabend have been largely pushed to the wayside, though Feyerabend has undoubtedly received the most unfair treatment of the two, and this is something that serves to act more as a hindrance than anything else. Much of the claims and arguments made by both Camus and Feyerabend have not been truly refuted and have simply been pushed aside by pointing to supposed contradictions or inconsistencies. However, while it would be a monumental task to attempt to discuss all of this past work, perhaps it might be better to move beyond both Camus and Feyerabend and chart a new path. This is the overall goal of this paper. This research will demonstrate that not only are the philosophies of Camus and Feyerabend surprisingly similar and able to mesh well together, they also are able to form into something that is truly more than the sum of its parts. While the task of actually building out an approach is a monumental undertaking, the plan is to use this project as a jumping-off point. As such, this paper will start by examining some of the main claims made by both Camus and Feyerabend. Once this is done, then begin weaving them together and demonstrating where the links between the philosophies of both are. Then this study will end by building out the very begging foundations of the absurdist approach to the philosophy of science.

Keywords: philosophy, philosophy of science, albert camus, paul feyerabend

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88 Theatre, Tea-Time and Harpsichords: Women’s Entertainment and Sensibility in Eighteenth-Century England

Authors: Ayako Otomo

Abstract:

This paper will examines the rise of a feminine orientation regarding arts and culture associated with the notion of Sensibility during the early part of the English long eighteenth century. As is widely known, the prosperous modernisation that occurred in this period was a significant factor in the nation taking a leading role in the emergent Enlightenment via the social, political and scientific advancement of Britain. As a result, this prompted the relaxing of the strictures of class and gender hierarchies in line with the new consumerism and cosmopolitanism of the nation. Accordingly, there was a significant increase of female involvement in artistic and cultural consumption. This can be understood in terms of the notion of Sensibility, associating it further with the fields of physiology, psychology and aesthetics, indebted in their turn to British Empiricism. This paper first traces the background of how women were recognisably involved in artistic and cultural circulation within an historical perspective that is articulated by the notion of Sensibility. Then, the discussion turns to the confluence of the issues of female association, creativity and the feminisation of the aesthetic of the arts and culture employing an interdisciplinary perspective. Arts and culture can also classified by public and private social spheres and gender according to Jürgen Habermas. The relationship between women and the theatre became a public issue. Music-making such as playing the harpsichord, reading, and conversation within the ritualistic teatime space dominated many of the artistic and cultural activities within the domestic private sphere.

Keywords: theatre, arts, sensibility, 18th century England

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87 Mobile Schooling for the Most Vulnerable Children on the Street: An Innovation

Authors: Md. Shakhawat Ullah Chowdhury

Abstract:

Mobile school is an innovative methodology in non-formal education to increase access to education for children during conflict through theatre for education for appropriate basic education to children during conflict. The continuous exposure to harsh environments and the nature of the lifestyles of children in conflict make them vulnerable. However, the mobile school initiative takes into consideration the mobile lifestyle of children in conflict. Schools are provided considering the pocket area of the street children with portable chalkboards, tin of books and materials as communities move. Teaching is multi-grade to ensure all children in the community benefit. The established mobile schools, while focused on basic literacy and numeracy skills according to traditions of the communities. The school teachers are selected by the community and trained by a theatre activist. These teachers continue to live and move with the community and provide continuous education for children in conflict. The model proposed a holistic team work to deliver education focused services to the street children’s pocket area where the team is mobile. The team consists of three members –an educator (theatre worker), a psychological counsellor and paramedics. The mobile team is responsible to educate street children and also play dramas which specially produce on the basis of national curriculum and awareness issues for street children. Children enjoy play and learn about life skills and basic literacy and numeracy skills which may be a pillar of humanitarian aid during conflict.

Keywords: vulnerable, children in conflict, mobile schooling, child-friendly

Procedia PDF Downloads 358