Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: delimitation

24 Articles, Delimitation of Speech and Perception

Authors: Nataliya L. Ogurechnikova


The paper aims to clarify the function of articles in the English speech and specify their place and role in the English language, taking into account the use of articles for delimitation of speech. A focus of the paper is the use of the definite and the indefinite articles with different types of noun phrases which comprise either one noun with or without attributes, such as the King, the Queen, the Lion, the Unicorn, a dimple, a smile, a new language, an unknown dialect, or several nouns with or without attributes, such as the King and Queen of Hearts, the Lion and Unicorn, a dimple or smile, a completely isolated language or dialect. It is stated that the function of delimitation is related to perception: the number of speech units in a text correlates with the way the speaker perceives and segments the denotation. The two following combinations of words the house and garden and the house and the garden contain different numbers of speech units, one and two respectively, and reveal two different perception modes which correspond to the use of the definite article in the examples given. Thus, the function of delimitation is twofold, it is related to perception and cognition, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to grammar, if the subject of grammar is the structure of speech. Analysis of speech units in the paper is not limited by noun phrases and is amplified by discussion of peripheral phenomena which are nevertheless important because they enable to qualify articles as a syntactic phenomenon whereas they are not infrequently described in terms of noun morphology. With this regard attention is given to the history of linguistic studies, specifically to the description of English articles by Niels Haislund, a disciple of Otto Jespersen. A discrepancy is noted between the initial plan of Jespersen who intended to describe articles as a syntactic phenomenon in ‘A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles’ and the interpretation of articles in terms of noun morphology, finally given by Haislund. Another issue of the paper is correlation between description and denotation, being a traditional aspect of linguistic studies focused on articles. An overview of relevant studies, given in the paper, goes back to the works of G. Frege, which gave rise to a series of scientific works where the meaning of articles was described within the scope of logical semantics. Correlation between denotation and description is treated in the paper as the meaning of article, i.e. a component in its semantic structure, which differs from the function of delimitation and is similar to the meaning of other quantifiers. The paper further explains why the relation between description and denotation, i.e. the meaning of English article, is irrelevant for noun morphology and has nothing to do with nominal categories of the English language.

Keywords: delimitation of speech, denotation, description, perception, speech units, syntax

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23 Parvi̇z Jabrail's Novel 'in Foreign Language': Delimitation of Postmodernism with Modernism

Authors: Nargiz Ismayilova


The issue of modernism and the concept of postmodernism has been the focus of world researchers for many years, and there are very few researchers who have come to a common denominator about this term. During the independence period, the expansion of the relations of Azerbaijani literature with the world has led to the spread of many currents and tendencies formed in the West to the literary environment in our country. In this context, the works created in our environment are distinguished by their extreme richness in terms of subject matter and diversity in terms of genre. As an interesting example of contemporary postmodern prose in Azerbaijan, Parviz Jabrayil's novel "In a Foreign Language" pays attention with its more different plotline. The disagreement exists among the critics about the novel. Some are looking for high artistry in work; others are satisfied with the elements of postmodernism in work. Delimitation of the border between modernism and postmodernism can serve to carry out a deep scientific study of the novel. The novel depicts the world in the author's consciousness against the background of water shortage (thirst) in the Old City (Icharishahar). The author deconstructs today's Ichari Shahar mould. Along with modernism, elements of postmodernism occupy a large place in the work. When we look at the general tendencies of postmodernist art, we see that science and individuality are questioned, criticizing the sharp boundaries of modernism and the negativity of these restrictions, and modernism offers alternatives to artistic production by identifying its negatives and shortcomings in the areas of artistic freedom. The novel is extremely interesting in this point of view.

Keywords: concept of postmodernism, modernism, delimitation, political postmodernism, modern postmodern prose, Azerbaijani literature, novel, comparison, world literature, analysis

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22 Quality and Quality Assurance in Education: Examining the Possible Relationship

Authors: Rodoula Stavroula Gkarnara, Nikolaos Andreadakis


The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between quality and quality assurance in education. It constitutes a critical review of the bibliography regarding quality and its delimitation in the field of education, as well as the quality assurance in education and the approaches identified for its extensive study. The two prevailing and opposite views on the correlation of the two concepts are that on the one hand there is an inherent distance between these concepts as they are two separate terms and on the other hand they are interrelated and interdependent concepts that contribute to the improvement of quality in education. Finally, the last part of the paper, adopting the second view, refers to the contribution of quality assurance to quality, where it is pointed out that the first concept leads to the improvement of the latter by quality assurance being the means of feedback for the quality achieved.

Keywords: education, quality, quality assurance, quality improvement

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21 Delimitation of the Perimeters of PR Otection of the Wellfield in the City of Adrar, Sahara of Algeria through the Used Wyssling’s Method

Authors: Ferhati Ahmed, Fillali Ahmed, Oulhadj Younsi


delimitation of the perimeters of protection in the catchment area of the city of Adrar, which are established around the sites for the collection of water intended for human consumption of drinking water, with the objective of ensuring the preservation and reducing the risks of point and accidental pollution of the resource (Continental Intercalar groundwater of the Northern Sahara of Algeria). This wellfield is located in the northeast of the city of Adrar, it covers an area of 132.56 km2 with 21 Drinking Water Supply wells (DWS), pumping a total flow of approximately 13 Hm3/year. The choice of this wellfield is based on the favorable hydrodynamic characteristics and their location in relation to the agglomeration. The vulnerability to pollution of this slick is very high because the slick is free and suffers from the absence of a protective layer. In recent years, several factors have been introduced around the field that can affect the quality of this precious resource, including the presence of a strong centre for domestic waste and agricultural and industrial activities. Thus, its sustainability requires the implementation of protection perimeters. The objective of this study is to set up three protection perimeters: immediate, close and remote. The application of the Wyssling method makes it possible to calculate the transfer time (t) of a drop of groundwater located at any point in the aquifer up to the abstraction and thus to define isochrones which in turn delimit each type of perimeter, 40 days for the nearer and 100 days for the farther away. Special restrictions are imposed for all activities depending on the distance of the catchment. The application of this method to the Adrar city catchment field showed that the close and remote protection perimeters successively occupy areas of 51.14 km2 and 92.9 km2. Perimeters are delimited by geolocated markers, 40 and 46 markers successively. These results show that the areas defined as "near protection perimeter" are free from activities likely to present a risk to the quality of the water used. On the other hand, on the areas defined as "remote protection perimeter," there is some agricultural and industrial activities that may present an imminent risk. A rigorous control of these activities and the restriction of the type of products applied in industrial and agricultural is imperative.

Keywords: continental intercalaire, drinking water supply, groundwater, perimeter of protection, wyssling method

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20 One Species into Five: Nucleo-Mito Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Species in 'Frankliniella Schultzei Complex': Vector for Tospoviruses

Authors: Vikas Kumar, Kailash Chandra, Kaomud Tyagi


The insect order Thysanoptera includes small insects commonly called thrips. As insect vectors, only thrips are capable of Tospoviruses transmission (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) affecting various crops. Currently, fifteen species of subfamily Thripinae (Thripidae) have been reported as vectors for tospoviruses. Frankliniella schultzei, which is reported as act as a vector for at least five tospovirses, have been suspected to be a species complex with more than one species. It is one of the historical unresolved issues where, two species namely, F. schultzei Trybom and F. sulphurea Schmutz were erected from South Africa and Srilanaka respectively. These two species were considered to be valid until 1968 when sulphurea was treated as colour morph (pale form) and synonymised under schultzei (dark form) However, these two have been considered as valid species by some of the thrips workers. Parallel studies have indicated that brown form of schultzei is a vector for tospoviruses while yellow form is a non-vector. However, recent studies have shown that yellow populations have also been documented as vectors. In view of all these facts, it is highly important to have a clear understanding whether these colour forms represent true species or merely different populations with different vector carrying capacities and whether there is some hidden diversity in 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex'. In this study, we aim to study the 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex' with molecular spectacles with DNA data from India and Australia and Africa. A total of fifty-five specimens was collected from diverse locations in India and Australia. We generated molecular data using partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (mtCOI) and 28S rRNA gene. For COI dataset, there were seventy-four sequences, out of which data on fifty-five was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. All the four different tree construction methods: neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis, yielded the same tree topology and produced five cryptic species with high genetic divergence. For, rDNA, there were forty-five sequences, out of which data on thirty-nine was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. The four tree building methods yielded four cryptic species with high bootstrap support value/posterior probability. Here we could not retrieve one cryptic species from South Africa as we could not generate data on rDNA from South Africa and sequence for rDNA from African region were not available in the database. The results of multiple species delimitation methods (barcode index numbers, automatic barcode gap discovery, general mixed Yule-coalescent, and Poisson-tree-processes) also supported the phylogenetic data and produced 5 and 4 Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) for mtCOI and 28S dataset respectively. These results of our study indicate the likelihood that F. sulphurea may be a valid species, however, more morphological and molecular data is required on specimens from type localities of these two species and comparison with type specimens.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, species complex, thrips, species delimitation

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19 Parallel Transformation Processes of Historical Centres: The Cases of Sevilla and Valparaiso

Authors: Jorge Ferrada Herrera, Pablo M. Millán-Millán


The delimitation in the cities of heritage areas implicit in strong processes of transformation, both social and material. The study shows how two cities, seemingly different as Seville (Spain) and Valparaiso (Chile), share the same transformation process from its declaration as heritage cities. The metdología used in research has been on the one hand the analytic-criticism has shown us all processes and the level of involvement of these. On the other hand the direct observation methodology has allowed us to ratify all studied. Faced with these processes research shows social resources that people have developed to address each of them. The study concludes the need to strengthen the social and associative fabric in heritage areas as a resource to ensure the survival of heritage, not only material but also social and cultural. As examples, we have chosen Seville and Valparaiso: the gentrification of Seville prior to the universal exhibition of ‘92 –with pretty specific plans-- is paralleled by Valparaiso’s plan to revitalize its port and its protected (UNESCO) area. The whole of our theoretical discourse will be based thereupon.

Keywords: historical centers, tourism, heritage, social processes

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18 Social Data-Based Users Profiles' Enrichment

Authors: Amel Hannech, Mehdi Adda, Hamid Mcheick


In this paper, we propose a generic model of user profile integrating several elements that may positively impact the research process. We exploit the classical behavior of users and integrate a delimitation process of their research activities into several research sessions enriched with contextual and temporal information, which allows reflecting the current interests of these users in every period of time and infer data freshness. We argue that the annotation of resources gives more transparency on users' needs. It also strengthens social links among resources and users, and can so increase the scope of the user profile. Based on this idea, we integrate the social tagging practice in order to exploit the social users' behavior to enrich their profiles. These profiles are then integrated into a recommendation system in order to predict the interesting personalized items of users allowing to assist them in their researches and further enrich their profiles. In this recommendation, we provide users new research experiences.

Keywords: user profiles, topical ontology, contextual information, folksonomies, tags' clusters, data freshness, association rules, data recommendation

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17 Automatic Detection of Defects in Ornamental Limestone Using Wavelets

Authors: Maria C. Proença, Marco Aniceto, Pedro N. Santos, José C. Freitas


A methodology based on wavelets is proposed for the automatic location and delimitation of defects in limestone plates. Natural defects include dark colored spots, crystal zones trapped in the stone, areas of abnormal contrast colors, cracks or fracture lines, and fossil patterns. Although some of these may or may not be considered as defects according to the intended use of the plate, the goal is to pair each stone with a map of defects that can be overlaid on a computer display. These layers of defects constitute a database that will allow the preliminary selection of matching tiles of a particular variety, with specific dimensions, for a requirement of N square meters, to be done on a desktop computer rather than by a two-hour search in the storage park, with human operators manipulating stone plates as large as 3 m x 2 m, weighing about one ton. Accident risks and work times are reduced, with a consequent increase in productivity. The base for the algorithm is wavelet decomposition executed in two instances of the original image, to detect both hypotheses – dark and clear defects. The existence and/or size of these defects are the gauge to classify the quality grade of the stone products. The tuning of parameters that are possible in the framework of the wavelets corresponds to different levels of accuracy in the drawing of the contours and selection of the defects size, which allows for the use of the map of defects to cut a selected stone into tiles with minimum waste, according the dimension of defects allowed.

Keywords: automatic detection, defects, fracture lines, wavelets

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16 Machine Learning and Metaheuristic Algorithms in Short Femoral Stem Custom Design to Reduce Stress Shielding

Authors: Isabel Moscol, Carlos J. Díaz, Ciro Rodríguez


Hip replacement becomes necessary when a person suffers severe pain or considerable functional limitations and the best option to enhance their quality of life is through the replacement of the damaged joint. One of the main components in femoral prostheses is the stem which distributes the loads from the joint to the proximal femur. To preserve more bone stock and avoid weakening of the diaphysis, a short starting stem was selected, generated from the intramedullary morphology of the patient's femur. It ensures the implantability of the design and leads to geometric delimitation for personalized optimization with machine learning (ML) and metaheuristic algorithms. The present study attempts to design a cementless short stem to make the strain deviation before and after implantation close to zero, promoting its fixation and durability. Regression models developed to estimate the percentage change of maximum principal stresses were used as objective optimization functions by the metaheuristic algorithm. The latter evaluated different geometries of the short stem with the modification of certain parameters in oblique sections from the osteotomy plane. The optimized geometry reached a global stress shielding (SS) of 18.37% with a determination factor (R²) of 0.667. The predicted results favour implantability integration in the short stem optimization to effectively reduce SS in the proximal femur.

Keywords: machine learning techniques, metaheuristic algorithms, short-stem design, stress shielding, hip replacement

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15 Arbitration in Foreign Investment: The Need for Equitable Treatment between the Investor and the Host State

Authors: Maria João Mimoso, Bárbara Magalhães Bravo


This study aims to analyse the phenomenon of arbitration as a paradigm in solving emerging controversies of foreign investment. We will present their benefits and demonstrate their contribution to greater legal certainty in economic relations. This article explores the legal relevant concepts under a strictly conceptual methodology, preparing future research to be developed under more developed comparative law methodologies. The review of national and international literature and jurisprudence will reveal the importance of arbitration in the field of international economic relations, presenting it as an alternative dispute resolution. Globalization imposes new forms of investment protection and appeals to other forms of dispute settlement, primarily to prevent, among other problems, the possible bias of the recipient country's investment tribunals. Characterization of foreign investment, its regulatory sources, their characteristics and the need for intervention of an entity capable of resolving disputes between the parties involved: State investor reception; Investor (of a nationality other than the latter); State of the investor's nationality, and sometimes a ‘subsidiary’ local foreign investor. The ICSID (International Settlement of Investment Disputes) arbitration as a means of resolving investment litigations covered by bilateral treaties (BIT) and investment contracts calls for a delimitation of these two figures in order to clarify the scope of the arbitration under the aegis of the World Bank and to make it more secure in the view of the sovereign power of the States.

Keywords: arbitration, contract, foreign, investment, disputes

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14 International Dispute Settlements According to the Law of the Sea: Coastal States vs. Maritime Conflicts

Authors: Ermal Xhelilaj


International practice has revealed that many maritime conflicts have been initiated as a direct result of coastal states’ disagreements over maritime boundaries and other related maritime issues. These disagreements embrace relevant problematic matters reflecting international conflicts, which in order to prevent further escalation into international crises or even armed conflicts have to be legally resolved. The most challenging cases in international system involve regional or bilateral disputes regarding maritime boundaries delimitations between states, which may result in the activation of respective armed forces, considered crucial elements for the protection of territorial sovereignty. Taken under considerations the legal issues that Law of the Sea Convention (1982) reflects, including the legal provisions over disputes settlements, the importance of analyzing this paramount issue might be considered relevant at present. Therefore, this study will be focused in discussing legal and practical issues that concern the resolution of international maritime disputes seen from international relations point of view, by initially analyzing UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982) relevant legal provisions, further discussing several notable cases over maritime boundaries delimitations as well as concluding with some recommendations related to this issue. The author is of the opinion that although the boundaries delimitation’s legal regime of UNCLOS reflects important standards for dispute settlements, yet considering the complex situation that represents this issue, relevant amendments might be necessary to be undertaken by international maritime organizations in order to further clarify the aforementioned legal matter.

Keywords: Law of the Sea, maritime conflicts, dispute settlements, international relations

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13 Taxonomic Analyses of Some Members of Cucurbitoideae Using Phytolith Marker

Authors: J. K. Ebigwai, E. Asuquo


Systematic affinities among Cucurbitaceae members are highly debatable as exemplified by diverging views on their phylogenies. Worst still is the overriding reliance on morphometric marker in the delimitation of cucurbitoideae members. Considerable symplesiomorphic and synapmorphic character states have been observed among some members of same genera than do with some members of other genera. The broad study aims at establishing phylogenies among species of Cucumis (Melothrieae), Momordica, Telfairia (Jolliffieae), Trichosanthes (Trichosantheae), Citrullus, Lagenaria, Luffa (Benincaseae) and Cucurbita (Cucurbita) using anatomical, cytological, Palynological, serological, and phytolith markers. However, this paper shall present preliminary findings on the phytolith character states for Cucumis melo, Momordica charantia, Telfairia occidentales, Trichosanthes dioica, Citrullus vulgaris, Lagenaria siceraria, Luffa cylindrical, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima. Heavy liquid floatation method was employed in the extraction of the phytolith matter from the leaf tissues of these species. The result revealed that a bilobate short cell and a trapeziform sinuate form were absent in all the species except in Cucumis melo, Citrullus vulgaris and Lagenaria siceraria. Also a globular granulate form was observed exclusively in Telfairia occidentales, Cucurbita maxima, Momordica charantia and Luffa cylindrical. Other forms of phytolith observed were not diagnostic as they were not species specific. The results tentatively suggests a closer examination of the existing classification system.

Keywords: bilobate short cell, cucums, phytolith, telfairia, trapeziform sinuate

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12 Human and Environment Coevolution: The Chalcolithic Tell Settlements from Muntenia and Dobrogea, South-Eastern Romania

Authors: Constantin Haita


The chalcolithic tell settlements from south-eastern Romania, attributed to Gumelnița culture, are characterised by a well-defined surface, marked often by delimitation structures, a succession of many layers of construction, destruction, and rebuilding, and a well-structured area of occupation: built spaces, passage areas, waste zones. Settlements of tell type are located in the river valleys –on erosion remnants, alluvial bars or small islands, at the border of the valleys– on edges or prominences of Pleistocene terraces, lower Holocene terraces, and banks of lakes. This study integrates data on the geographical position, the morphological background, and the general stratigraphy of these important settlements. The correlation of the spatial distribution with the geomorphological units of each area of evolution creates an image of the natural landscape in which they occurred. The sedimentological researches achieved in the floodplain area of Balta Ialomiței showed important changes in the alluvial activity of Danube, after the Chalcolithic period (ca. 6500 - 6000 BP), to Iron Age and Middle Ages. The micromorphological analysis, consisting in thin section interpretation, at the microscopic scale, of sediments and soils in an undisturbed state, allowed the interpretation of the identified sedimentary facies, in terms of mode of formation and anthropic activities. Our studied cases reflect some distinct situations, correlating either with the geomorphological background or with the vertical development, the presence of delimiting structures and the internal organization. The characteristics of tells from this area bring significant information about the human habitation of Lower Danube in Prehistory.

Keywords: chalcolithic, micromorphology, Romania, sedimentology, tell settlements

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11 Machine Learning for Exoplanetary Habitability Assessment

Authors: King Kumire, Amos Kubeka


The synergy of machine learning and astronomical technology advancement is giving rise to the new space age, which is pronounced by better habitability assessments. To initiate this discussion, it should be recorded for definition purposes that the symbiotic relationship between astronomy and improved computing has been code-named the Cis-Astro gateway concept. The cosmological fate of this phrase has been unashamedly plagiarized from the cis-lunar gateway template and its associated LaGrange points which act as an orbital bridge to the moon from our planet Earth. However, for this study, the scientific audience is invited to bridge toward the discovery of new habitable planets. It is imperative to state that cosmic probes of this magnitude can be utilized as the starting nodes of the astrobiological search for galactic life. This research can also assist by acting as the navigation system for future space telescope launches through the delimitation of target exoplanets. The findings and the associated platforms can be harnessed as building blocks for the modeling of climate change on planet earth. The notion that if the human genus exhausts the resources of the planet earth or there is a bug of some sort that makes the earth inhabitable for humans explains the need to find an alternative planet to inhabit. The scientific community, through interdisciplinary discussions of the International Astronautical Federation so far has the common position that engineers can reduce space mission costs by constructing a stable cis-lunar orbit infrastructure for refilling and carrying out other associated in-orbit servicing activities. Similarly, the Cis-Astro gateway can be envisaged as a budget optimization technique that models extra-solar bodies and can facilitate the scoping of future mission rendezvous. It should be registered as well that this broad and voluminous catalog of exoplanets shall be narrowed along the way using machine learning filters. The gist of this topic revolves around the indirect economic rationale of establishing a habitability scoping platform.

Keywords: machine-learning, habitability, exoplanets, supercomputing

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10 Machine Learning for Exoplanetary Habitability Assessment

Authors: King Kumire, Amos Kubeka


The synergy of machine learning and astronomical technology advancement is giving rise to the new space age, which is pronounced by better habitability assessments. To initiate this discussion, it should be recorded for definition purposes that the symbiotic relationship between astronomy and improved computing has been code-named the Cis-Astro gateway concept. The cosmological fate of this phrase has been unashamedly plagiarized from the cis-lunar gateway template and its associated LaGrange points which act as an orbital bridge to the moon from our planet Earth. However, for this study, the scientific audience is invited to bridge toward the discovery of new habitable planets. It is imperative to state that cosmic probes of this magnitude can be utilized as the starting nodes of the astrobiological search for galactic life. This research can also assist by acting as the navigation system for future space telescope launches through the delimitation of target exoplanets. The findings and the associated platforms can be harnessed as building blocks for the modeling of climate change on planet earth. The notion that if the human genus exhausts the resources of the planet earth or there is a bug of some sort that makes the earth inhabitable for humans explains the need to find an alternative planet to inhabit. The scientific community, through interdisciplinary discussions of the International Astronautical Federation so far, has the common position that engineers can reduce space mission costs by constructing a stable cis-lunar orbit infrastructure for refilling and carrying out other associated in-orbit servicing activities. Similarly, the Cis-Astro gateway can be envisaged as a budget optimization technique that models extra-solar bodies and can facilitate the scoping of future mission rendezvous. It should be registered as well that this broad and voluminous catalog of exoplanets shall be narrowed along the way using machine learning filters. The gist of this topic revolves around the indirect economic rationale of establishing a habitability scoping platform.

Keywords: exoplanets, habitability, machine-learning, supercomputing

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9 Hybrid Strategies of Crisis Intervention for Sexualized Violence Using Digital Media

Authors: Katharina Kargel, Frederic Vobbe


Sexualized violence against children and adolescents using digital media poses particular challenges for practitioners with a focus on crisis intervention (social work, psychotherapy, law enforcement). The technical delimitation of violence increases the burden on those affected and increases the complexity of interdisciplinary cooperation. Urgently needed recommendations for practical action do not yet exist in Germany. Funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, these recommendations for action are being developed in the HUMAN project together with science and practice. The presentation introduces the participatory approach of the HUMAN project. We discuss the application-oriented, casuistic approach of the project and present its results using the example of concrete case-based recommendations for Action. The participants will be presented with concrete prototypical case studies from the project, which will be used to illustrate quality criteria for crisis intervention in cases of sexualized violence using digital media. On the basis of case analyses, focus group interviews and interviews with victims of violence, we present the six central challenges of sexualized violence with the use of digital media, namely: • Diffusion (Ambiguities regarding the extent and significance of violence) , • Transcendence (Space and time independence of the dynamics of violence, omnipresence), • omnipresent anxiety (considering diffusion and transcendence), • being haunted (repeated confrontation with digital memories of violence or the perpetrator), • disparity (conflicts of interpretative power between those affected and the social environment) • simultaneity (of all other factors). We point out generalizable principles with which these challenges can be dealt with professionally. Dealing professionally with sexualized violence using digital media requires a stronger networking of professional actors. A clear distinction must be made between their own mission and the mission of the network partners. Those affected by violence must be shown options for crisis intervention in the context of the aid networks. The different competencies and the professional mission of the offers of help are to be made transparent. The necessity of technical possibilities for deleting abuse images beyond criminal prosecution will be discussed. Those affected are stabilized by multimodal strategies such as a combination of rational emotive therapy, legal support and technical assistance.

Keywords: sexualized violence, intervention, digital media, children and youth

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8 Leaf Epidermal Micromorphology as Identification Features in Accessions of Sesamum indicum L. Collected from Northern Nigeria

Authors: S. D. Abdul, F. B. J. Sawa, D. Z. Andrawus, G. Dan'ilu


Fresh leaves of twelve accessions of S. indicum were studied to examine their stomatal features, trichomes, epidermal cell shapes and anticlinal cell-wall patterns which may be used for the delimitation of the varieties. The twelve accessions of S. indicum studied have amphistomatic leaves, i.e. having stomata on both surfaces. Four types of stomatal complex types were observed namely, diacytic, anisocytic, tetracytic and anomocytic. Anisocytic type was the most common occurring on both surfaces of all the varieties and occurred 100% in varieties lale-duk, ex-sudan and ex-gombe 6. One-way ANOVA revealed that there was no significant difference between the stomatal densities of ex-gombe 6, ex-sudan, adawa-wula, adawa-ting, ex-gombe 4 and ex-gombe 2 . Accession adawa-ting (improved) has the smallest stomatal size (26.39µm) with highest stomatal density (79.08mm2) while variety adawa-wula possessed the largest stomatal size (74.31µm) with lowest stomatal density (29.60mm2), the exception was found in variety adawa-ting whose stomatal size is larger (64.03µm) but with higher stomatal density (71.54mm2). Wavy, curve or undulate anticlinal wall patterns with irregular and or isodiametric epidermal cell shapes were observed. These accessions were found to exhibit high degree of heterogeneity in their trichome features. Ten types of trichomes were observed: unicellular, glandular peltate, capitate glandular, long unbranched uniseriate, short unbranched uniseriate, scale, multicellular, multiseriate capitate glandular, branched uniseriate and stallate trichomes. The most frequent trichome type is short-unbranched uniseriate, followed by long-unbranched uniseriate (72.73% and 72.5%) respectively. The least frequent was multiseriate capitate glandular (11.5%). The high variation in trichome types and density coupled with the stomatal complex types suggest that these varieties of S. indicum probably have the capacity to conserve water. Furthermore, the leaf micromorphological features varied from one accession to another, hence, are found to be good diagnostic and additional tool in identification as well as nomenclature of the accessions of S. indicum.

Keywords: Sesamum indicum, stomata, trichomes, epidermal cells, taxonomy

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7 BLS-2/BSL-3 Laboratory for Diagnosis of Pathogens on the Colombia-Ecuador Border Region: A Post-COVID Commitment to Public Health

Authors: Anderson Rocha-Buelvas, Jaqueline Mena Huertas, Edith Burbano Rosero, Arsenio Hidalgo Troya, Mauricio Casas Cruz


COVID-19 is a disruptive pandemic for the public health and economic system of whole countries, including Colombia. Nariño Department is the southwest of the country and draws attention to being on the border with Ecuador, constantly facing demographic transition affecting infections between countries. In Nariño, the early routine diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, which can be handled at BSL-2, has affected the transmission dynamics of COVID-19. However, new emerging and re-emerging viruses with biological flexibility classified as a Risk Group 3 agent can take advantage of epidemiological opportunities, generating the need to increase clinical diagnosis, mainly in border regions between countries. The overall objective of this project was to assure the quality of the analytical process in the diagnosis of high biological risk pathogens in Nariño by building a laboratory that includes biosafety level (BSL)-2 and (BSL)-3 containment zones. The delimitation of zones was carried out according to the Verification Tool of the National Health Institute of Colombia and following the standard requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories of the International Organization for Standardization. This is achieved by harmonization of methods and equipment for effective and durable diagnostics of the large-scale spread of highly pathogenic microorganisms, employing negative-pressure containment systems and UV Systems in accordance with a finely controlled electrical system and PCR systems as new diagnostic tools. That increases laboratory capacity. Protection in BSL-3 zones will separate the handling of potentially infectious aerosols within the laboratory from the community and the environment. It will also allow the handling and inactivation of samples with suspected pathogens and the extraction of molecular material from them, allowing research with pathogens with high risks, such as SARS-CoV-2, Influenza, and syncytial virus, and malaria, among others. The diagnosis of these pathogens will be articulated across the spectrum of basic, applied, and translational research that could receive about 60 daily samples. It is expected that this project will be articulated with the health policies of neighboring countries to increase research capacity.

Keywords: medical laboratory science, SARS-CoV-2, public health surveillance, Colombia

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6 The Connection between De Minimis Rule and the Effect on Trade

Authors: Pedro Mario Gonzalez Jimenez


The novelties introduced by the last Notice on agreements of minor importance tighten the application of the ‘De minimis’ safe harbour in the European Union. However, the undetermined legal concept of effect on trade between the Member States becomes importance at the same time. Therefore, the current analysis that the jurist should carry out in the European Union to determine if an agreement appreciably restrict competition under Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union is double. Hence, it is necessary to know how to balance the significance in competition and the significance in effect on trade between the Member States. It is a crucial issue due to the negative delimitation of restriction of competition affects the positive one. The methodology of this research is rather simple. Beginning with a historical approach to the ‘De Minimis Rule’, their main problems and uncertainties will be found. So, after the analysis of normative documents and the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union some proposals of ‘Lege ferenda’ will be offered. These proposals try to overcome the contradictions and questions that currently exist in the European Union as a consequence of the current legal regime of agreements of minor importance. The main findings of this research are the followings: Firstly, the effect on trade is another way to analyze the importance of an agreement different from the ‘De minimis rule’. In point of fact, this concept is singularly adapted to go through agreements that have as object the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition, as it is observed in the most famous European Union case-law. Thanks to the effect on trade, as long as the proper requirements are met there is no a restriction of competition under article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, even if the agreement had an anti-competitive object. These requirements are an aggregate market share lower than 5% on any of the relevant markets affected by the agreement and turnover lower than 40 million of Euros. Secondly, as the Notice itself says ‘it is also intended to give guidance to the courts and competition authorities of the Member States in their application of Article 101 of the Treaty, but it has no binding force for them’. This reality makes possible the existence of different statements among the different Member States and a confusing perception of what a restriction of competition is. Ultimately, damage on trade between the Member States could be observed for this reason. The main conclusion is that the significant effect on trade between Member States is irrelevant in agreements that restrict competition because of their effects but crucial in agreements that restrict competition because of their object. Thus, the Member States should propose the incorporation of a similar concept in their legal orders in order to apply the content of the Notice. Otherwise, the significance of the restrictive agreement on competition would not be properly assessed.

Keywords: De minimis rule, effect on trade, minor importance agreements, safe harbour

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5 Approach to Freight Trip Attraction Areas Classification, in Developing Countries

Authors: Adrián Esteban Ortiz-Valera, Angélica Lozano


In developing countries, informal trade is relevant, but it has been little studied in urban freight transport (UFT) context, although it is a challenge due to the non- contemplated demand it produces and the operational limitations it imposes. Hence, UFT operational improvements (initiatives) and freight attraction models must consider informal trade for developing countries. Afour phasesapproach for characterizing the commercial areas in developing countries (considering both formal and informal establishments) is proposed and applied to ten areas in Mexico City. This characterization is required to calculate real freight trip attraction and then select and/or adapt suitable initiatives. Phase 1 aims the delimitation of the study area. The following information is obtained for each establishment of a potential area: location or geographic coordinates, industrial sector, industrial subsector, and number of employees. Phase 2 characterizes the study area and proposes a set of indicators. This allows a broad view of the operations and constraints of UFT in the study area. Phase 3 classifies the study area according to seven indicators. Each indicator represents a level of conflict in the area due to the presence of formal (registered) and informal establishments on the sidewalks and streets, affecting urban freight transport (and other activities). Phase 4 determines preliminary initiatives which could be implemented in the study area to improve the operation of UFT. The indicators and initiatives relation allows a preliminary initiatives selection. This relation requires to know the following: a) the problems in the area (congested streets, lack of parking space for freight vehicles, etc.); b) the factors which limit initiatives due to informal establishments (reduced streets for freight vehicles; mobility and parking inability during a period, among others), c) the problems in the area due to its physical characteristics; and d) the factors which limit initiatives due to regulations of the area. Several differences in the study areas were observed. As the indicators increases, the areas tend to be less ordered, and the limitations for the initiatives become higher, causing a smaller number of susceptible initiatives. In ordered areas (similar to the commercial areas of developed countries), the current techniquesfor estimating freight trip attraction (FTA) can bedirectly applied, however, in the areas where the level of order is lower due to the presence of informal trade, this is not recommended because the real FTA would not be estimated. Therefore, a technique, which consider the characteristics of the areas in developing countries to obtain data and to estimate FTA, is required. This estimation can be the base for proposing feasible initiatives to such zones. The proposed approach provides a wide view of the needs of the commercial areas of developing countries. The knowledge of these needs would allow UFT´s operation to be improved and its negative impacts to be minimized.

Keywords: freight initiatives, freight trip attraction, informal trade, urban freight transport

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4 A Methodology Based on Image Processing and Deep Learning for Automatic Characterization of Graphene Oxide

Authors: Rafael do Amaral Teodoro, Leandro Augusto da Silva


Originated from graphite, graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) material that promises to revolutionize technology in many different areas, such as energy, telecommunications, civil construction, aviation, textile, and medicine. This is possible because its structure, formed by carbon bonds, provides desirable optical, thermal, and mechanical characteristics that are interesting to multiple areas of the market. Thus, several research and development centers are studying different manufacturing methods and material applications of graphene, which are often compromised by the scarcity of more agile and accurate methodologies to characterize the material – that is to determine its composition, shape, size, and the number of layers and crystals. To engage in this search, this study proposes a computational methodology that applies deep learning to identify graphene oxide crystals in order to characterize samples by crystal sizes. To achieve this, a fully convolutional neural network called U-net has been trained to segment SEM graphene oxide images. The segmentation generated by the U-net is fine-tuned with a standard deviation technique by classes, which allows crystals to be distinguished with different labels through an object delimitation algorithm. As a next step, the characteristics of the position, area, perimeter, and lateral measures of each detected crystal are extracted from the images. This information generates a database with the dimensions of the crystals that compose the samples. Finally, graphs are automatically created showing the frequency distributions by area size and perimeter of the crystals. This methodological process resulted in a high capacity of segmentation of graphene oxide crystals, presenting accuracy and F-score equal to 95% and 94%, respectively, over the test set. Such performance demonstrates a high generalization capacity of the method in crystal segmentation, since its performance considers significant changes in image extraction quality. The measurement of non-overlapping crystals presented an average error of 6% for the different measurement metrics, thus suggesting that the model provides a high-performance measurement for non-overlapping segmentations. For overlapping crystals, however, a limitation of the model was identified. To overcome this limitation, it is important to ensure that the samples to be analyzed are properly prepared. This will minimize crystal overlap in the SEM image acquisition and guarantee a lower error in the measurements without greater efforts for data handling. All in all, the method developed is a time optimizer with a high measurement value, considering that it is capable of measuring hundreds of graphene oxide crystals in seconds, saving weeks of manual work.

Keywords: characterization, graphene oxide, nanomaterials, U-net, deep learning

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3 Integration of Gravity and Seismic Methods in the Geometric Characterization of a Dune Reservoir: Case of the Zouaraa Basin, NW Tunisia

Authors: Marwa Djebbi, Hakim Gabtni


Gravity is a continuously advancing method that has become a mature technology for geological studies. Increasingly, it has been used to complement and constrain traditional seismic data and even used as the only tool to get information of the sub-surface. In fact, in some regions the seismic data, if available, are of poor quality and hard to be interpreted. Such is the case for the current study area. The Nefza zone is part of the Tellian fold and thrust belt domain in the north west of Tunisia. It is essentially made of a pile of allochthonous units resulting from a major Neogene tectonic event. Its tectonic and stratigraphic developments have always been subject of controversies. Considering the geological and hydrogeological importance of this area, a detailed interdisciplinary study has been conducted integrating geology, seismic and gravity techniques. The interpretation of Gravity data allowed the delimitation of the dune reservoir and the identification of the regional lineaments contouring the area. It revealed the presence of three gravity lows that correspond to the dune of Zouara and Ouchtata separated along with a positive gravity axis espousing the Ain Allega_Aroub Er Roumane axe. The Bouguer gravity map illustrated the compartmentalization of the Zouara dune into two depressions separated by a NW-SE anomaly trend. This constitution was confirmed by the vertical derivative map which showed the individualization of two depressions with slightly different anomaly values. The horizontal gravity gradient magnitude was performed in order to determine the different geological features present in the studied area. The latest indicated the presence of NE-SW parallel folds according to the major Atlasic direction. Also, NW-SE and EW trends were identified. The maxima tracing confirmed this direction by the presence of NE-SW faults, mainly the Ghardimaou_Cap Serrat accident. The quality of the available seismic sections and the absence of borehole data in the region, except few hydraulic wells that been drilled and showing the heterogeneity of the substratum of the dune, required the process of gravity modeling of this challenging area that necessitates to be modeled for the geometrical characterization of the dune reservoir and determine the different stratigraphic series underneath these deposits. For more detailed and accurate results, the scale of study will be reduced in coming research. A more concise method will be elaborated; the 4D microgravity survey. This approach is considered as an expansion of gravity method and its fourth dimension is time. It will allow a continuous and repeated monitoring of fluid movement in the subsurface according to the micro gal (μgall) scale. The gravity effect is a result of a monthly variation of the dynamic groundwater level which correlates with rainfall during different periods.

Keywords: 3D gravity modeling, dune reservoir, heterogeneous substratum, seismic interpretation

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2 Analysis of the Interests, Conflicts and Power Resources in the Urban Development in the Megacity of Sao Paulo

Authors: A. G. Back


Urban planning is a relevant tool to address, in a systemic way, several sectoral policies capable of linking the urban agenda with the reduction of socio-environmental risks. The Sao Paulo’s master plan (2014) presents innovations capable of promoting the transition to sustainability in the urban space, with a view to its regulatory instruments related to i) promotion of density in the axes of mass transport involving the mixture of commercial, residential, services, and leisure uses (principles related to the compact city); ii) vulnerabilities reduction based on housing policies including regular sources of funds for social housing and land reservation in urbanized areas; iii) reserve of green areas in the city to create parks and environmental regulations for new buildings focused on reducing the effects of heat island and improving urban drainage. However, its long-term implementation involves distributive conflicts and can undergo changes in different political, economic, and social contexts over time. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to identify and analyze the dynamics of conflicts of interest between social groups in the implementation of Sao Paulo’s urban development policy, particularly in relation to recent attempts at a (re) interpretation of the Master Plan guidelines, in view of the proposals for revision of the urban zoning law. In this sense, we seek to identify the demands, narratives of urban actors, including the real estate market, middle-class neighborhood associations ('not in my backyard' movements), and social housing rights movements. And we seek to analyze the power resources that these actors mobilize to influence the decision-making process, involving five categories: social capital, political access; discursive resource; media, juridical resource. The major findings of this research suggest that the interests and demands of the real estate market do not always prevail in urban regulation. After all, other actors also press for the definition of urban law with interests opposite to those of the real estate market. This is the case of associations of middle-class neighborhoods, which work to protect the characteristics of the locality, acting, in general, to prevent constructive and population densification in neighborhoods well located near the center, in São Paulo. One of the main demands of these “not in my backyard” movements is the delimitation of exclusively residential areas in the central region of the city, which is not only contrary to the interests of the real state market but also contrary to the principles of the compact city. On the other hand, social housing rights movements have also made progress in delimiting special areas of social interest in well-located and valued areas in the city dedicated to building social housing, also contrary to the interests of the real estate market. An urban development that follows the principles of the compact city must take into account the insertion of low-income populations in well-located regions; otherwise, such a development model may continue to push the less favored to the peripheries towards the preservation areas and/or risk areas.

Keywords: interest groups, Sao Paulo, sustainable urban development, urban policies implementation

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1 The Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Context of a Space Traffic Management System: Legal Aspects

Authors: George Kyriakopoulos, Photini Pazartzis, Anthi Koskina, Crystalie Bourcha


The need for securing safe access to and return from outer space, as well as ensuring the viability of outer space operations, maintains vivid the debate over the promotion of organization of space traffic through a Space Traffic Management System (STM). The proliferation of outer space activities in recent years as well as the dynamic emergence of the private sector has gradually resulted in a diverse universe of actors operating in outer space. The said developments created an increased adverse impact on outer space sustainability as the case of the growing number of space debris clearly demonstrates. The above landscape sustains considerable threats to outer space environment and its operators that need to be addressed by a combination of scientific-technological measures and regulatory interventions. In this context, recourse to recent technological advancements and, in particular, to Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning systems, could achieve exponential results in promoting space traffic management with respect to collision avoidance as well as launch and re-entry procedures/phases. New technologies can support the prospects of a successful space traffic management system at an international scale by enabling, inter alia, timely, accurate and analytical processing of large data sets and rapid decision-making, more precise space debris identification and tracking and overall minimization of collision risks and reduction of operational costs. What is more, a significant part of space activities (i.e. launch and/or re-entry phase) takes place in airspace rather than in outer space, hence the overall discussion also involves the highly developed, both technically and legally, international (and national) Air Traffic Management System (ATM). Nonetheless, from a regulatory perspective, the use of AI for the purposes of space traffic management puts forward implications that merit particular attention. Key issues in this regard include the delimitation of AI-based activities as space activities, the designation of the applicable legal regime (international space or air law, national law), the assessment of the nature and extent of international legal obligations regarding space traffic coordination, as well as the appropriate liability regime applicable to AI-based technologies when operating for space traffic coordination, taking into particular consideration the dense regulatory developments at EU level. In addition, the prospects of institutionalizing international cooperation and promoting an international governance system, together with the challenges of establishment of a comprehensive international STM regime are revisited in the light of intervention of AI technologies. This paper aims at examining regulatory implications advanced by the use of AI technology in the context of space traffic management operations and its key correlating concepts (SSA, space debris mitigation) drawing in particular on international and regional considerations in the field of STM (e.g. UNCOPUOS, International Academy of Astronautics, European Space Agency, among other actors), the promising advancements of the EU approach to AI regulation and, last but not least, national approaches regarding the use of AI in the context of space traffic management, in toto. Acknowledgment: The present work was co-funded by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Human Resources Development, Education and Lifelong Learning " (NSRF 2014-2020), under the call "Supporting Researchers with an Emphasis on Young Researchers – Cycle B" (MIS: 5048145).

Keywords: artificial intelligence, space traffic management, space situational awareness, space debris

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