Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 77

Search results for: craft

77 The Effects of Implementing Platform Strategy for Craft Industry Development: A Case Study on Economic Value-Added of Taiwan Bamboo Village

Authors: Kuo-Wei Hsu, Shu-Fang Huang

Abstract:

Global trend in creative economies promoted the modernization process of the development of cultural and creative industries and technology coincided with the craft industry towards value-added industrial restructuring. Due to government support and economic motivation in the private sector, regional craft products have emerged across counties and cities all over Taiwan which have led to an increased focus on craft culture promotion. However, most craft industry corporations in Taiwan are micro-enterprise, restricted operating profitability. This phenomenon shows the weakness of craft industry constitution when facing the rapid expansion of global economic commerce and manufacturing. In recent years, combining public and private enterprise, Platform business models revolutionary changed in craft industries’ original operation and transaction models. Therefore, this study attempts to explore the effects by implementing platform strategy on bamboo industry development in Nantou, the hometown of crafts in Taiwan, with an experimental investigation. This study concluded that platform strategy increases essence and insubstantial value for the bamboo industry in Taiwan. This study explored the economic value added of Taiwan bamboo village with three perspectives: Community participation, Culture Conservation, Regional Rejuvenation.

Keywords: platform strategy, craft industry, economic value-added

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76 The Effect of Market Orientation on Marketing Performance through Product Adaptation Strategy

Authors: Hotlan Siagian, Hatane Semuel, Wilma Laura Sahetapy

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This study aims at examining the effect of market orientation on marketing performance through product adaptation strategy. The population of the research is domestic leather craft companies located in five regions, the center of the leather craft industry in Indonesia, i.e., Central Java, East Java, South Sulawesi, Bali, and West Kalimantan. The respondent consists of a manager level from each company. Data collection used a questionnaire designed with five-item Likert scale. Collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) technique with SmartPLS software version 3.0 to examine the hypotheses. The result of the study shows that all hypotheses are supported. Market orientation affects marketing performance. Market orientation affects product adaptation strategy. Product adaptation strategy influences the marketing performance. The research also has revealed the main finding that product adaptation strategy contributes to a mediating role in the market orientation strategy and marketing performance relationship. The leather craft companies in Indonesia, therefore, may refer to this result in improving their marketing performance.

Keywords: leather craft industry, market orientation, marketing performance, product adaptation strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
75 Numerical Simulation of the Flow around Wing-In-Ground Effect (WIG) Craft

Authors: A. Elbatran, Y. Ahmed, A. Radwan, M. Ishak

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The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will support in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future. This paper investigates the aerodynamic characteristic of compound wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model. Drag coefficient, lift coefficient and Lift and drag ratio were studied numerically with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The modifications of the wing has been done in order to investigate the most suitable wing configuration that can increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. A numerical investigation was carried out in this research work using finite volume Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANSE) code ANSYS CFX, Validation was carried out by using experiments. The experimental and the numerical results concluded that the lift to drag ratio decreased with the increasing of the ground clearance.

Keywords: drag Coefficient, ground clearance, navier-stokes, WIG

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74 Sustainable Design through up-Cycling Crafts in the Mainstream Fashion Industry of India

Authors: Avani Chhajlani

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Fashion is considered to be the most destructive industry, second only to the oil rigging industry, which has a greater impact on the environment. While fashion today banks upon fast fashion to generate a higher turnover of designs and patterns in apparel and related accessories, crafts push us towards a more slow and thoughtful approach with culturally identifiably unique work and slow community-centered production. Despite this strong link between indigenous crafts and sustainability, it has not been extensively researched and explored upon. In the forthcoming years, the fashion industry will have to reinvent itself to move towards a more holistic and sustainable circular model to balance the harm already caused. And closed loops of the circular economy will help the integration of indigenous craft knowledge, which is regenerative. Though sustainability and crafts of a region go hand-in-hand, the craft still have to find its standing in the mainstream fashion world; craft practices have a strong local congruence and knowledge that has been passed down generation-to-generation through oration or written materials. This paper aims to explore ways a circular economy can be created by amalgamating fashion and craft while creating a sustainable business model and how this is slowly being created today through brands like – RaasLeela, Pero, and KaSha, to name a few.

Keywords: circular economy, fashion, India, indigenous crafts, slow fashion, sustainability, up-cycling

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73 Association Between Occupation Type and Obesity Prevalence - An Analysis of the 2018 KNHANES -

Authors: Jeong Heon Kim, Kyu Rae Lee

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Purpose: Although occupational factors such as working hours, shift workers are associated with obesity, the relationships between occupation types and the prevalence of obesity, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), were not still clarified. We, therefore, investigated the association between obesity markers (BMI and WC) and types of occupation using 2018 KNHANES data. Methods: We evaluated height, weight, WC, demographic variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking) from 2018 KNHANES data. The occupational groups were classified into 9 categories (managers, professionals and related workers, clerks, service workers, sales workers, skilled agriculture, forestry and fishery workers, craft and related trade workers, equipment, machine operating and assembling workers, elementary workers) using the Korean version of the Standard Classification of Occupations. We performed an ANCOVA test in order to assess the relationship between obesity markers (BMI, WC) and types of occupation. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in general and central obesity markers (BMI, WC) according to occupation categories after controlling socio-demographic covariates in men. The prevalence of general and central obesity in men was significantly higher in managers (25.7 +/- 2.6 kg/m2, 90.0 +/- 7.2 cm), and lower in craft and related trade workers (24.3 +/- 3.3 kg/m2, 85.2 +/- 8.4 cm) respectively. (p = 0.011) Conclusion: The central and general obesity prevalence was highest in the manager group and lowest in the craft and related trades workers group among all occupation groups of men.

Keywords: BMI, occupation, WC, men, Korea

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72 Establishment of Thuja Label: Development Prospects for the Marketing Practices of the Handicraft of Essaouira's Marquetry

Authors: Fatima El Kandoussi, Lamiae El Hdiddioui, Mustapha Bouragba

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The woodwork of thuja in Essaouira is one of the main crafts in Morocco. Certainly, marquetry reflects both cultural and artistic identity of the city, considering the talent and ancestral knowledge of craftsman working in marquetry. Yet, the production units encounter a considerable number of difficulties among which insufficiencies within marketing practices. Consequently, it is obvious that major improvements are needed, and supportive solutions must be provided in order to improve the Essaouira’s marquetry, as a symbol of the entire province. Thus, the establishment of Thuja Label is a necessary measure that would be the key to ensuring sustainability of this vital craft. The main purpose of this paper is to study marketing practices’ current state of the production units in the marquetry of Essaouira, therefore to recommend remedial actions likely to raise them up to the required functional level.

Keywords: craft, marketing practices, marquetry, thuja label

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
71 Crafting a Livelihood: A Story of the Kotpad Dyers and Weavers

Authors: Anahita Suri

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Craft -an integral part of the conduit to create something beautiful- is a visual representation of the human imagination given life through the hand. The Mirgan tribe in the Naxalite infested forests of Koraput, Odisha are not exempt from this craving for beauty. These skilled craftsmen dye and weave the simple yet sophisticated Kotpad textiles. The women undertake the time-consuming task of dyeing the cotton and silk yarns with the root of the aul tree. The men then weave these yarns into beautiful sarees and dupattas. The root of the aul tree lends the textile its maroon to brown color, which is offset against the unbleached cotton to create a minimalist and distinctive look. The motifs, incorporated through the extra weft technique, reflect the rich tribal heritage of the community. This is an eco-friendly, non-toxic textile. Kotpad fabrics were on the verge of extinction due to various factors like poor infrastructure, no innovation in traditional designs/products, customer ignorance leading to low demand. With livelihood opportunities through craft slowly dwindling, artisans were moving to alternative sources of income generation, like agriculture and daily wage labor. There was an urgent need for intervention to revive the craft, spread awareness about them in urban spaces, and strengthen the artisan’s ability to innovate and create. Recent efforts by government bodies and local designers have given Kotpad handloom a contemporary look without diluting its essence. This research explores the possibilities to leverage Kotpad handloom to find a place in the dynamic culture of the world by its promotion among different target groups and incorporating self-sustaining practices for the artisans. This could further encourage a space for handmade and handcrafted art, rich with stories about India, with a contemporary visual sensibility. This will strengthen environmental and ethical sustainability.

Keywords: craft, contemporary, handloom, natural dye, tribal

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70 Ikat: Undaunted Journey of a Traditional Textile Practice, a Sublime Connect of Traditionality with Modernity and Calibration for Eco-Sustainable Options

Authors: Purva Khurana

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Traditional textile crafts are universally found to have been significantly impeded by the uprise of innovative technologies, but sustained human endeavor, in sync with dynamic market nuances, holds key to these otherwise getting fast-extinct marvels. The metamorphosis of such art-forms into niche markets pre-supposes sharp concentration on adaptability. The author has concentrated on the ancient handicraft of Ikat in Andhra Pradesh (India), a manifestation of their cultural heritage and esoteric cottage industry, so very intrinsic to the development and support of local economy and identity. Like any other traditional practice, ikat weaving has been subjected to the challenges of modernization. However, owing to its unique character, personalize production and adaptability, both of material and process, ikat weaving has stood the test of time by way of judiciously embellishing innovation with contemporary taste. To survive as a living craft as also to justify its role as a universal language of aesthetic sensibility, it is imperative that ikat tradition should lend itself continuous process of experiments, change and growth. Besides, the instant paper aims to examine the contours of ikat production process from its pure form, to more fashion and market oriented production, with upgraded process, material and tools. Over the time, it has adapted well to new style-paradigms, duly matching up with the latest fashion trends, in tandem with the market-sensitivities. Apart, it is an effort to investigate how this craft could respond constructively to the pressure of contemporary technical developments in order to be at cutting edge, while preserving its integrity. In order to approach these issues, the methodology adopted is, conceptual analysis of the craft practices, its unique strength and how they could be used to advance the craft in relation to the emergence of technical developments. The paper summarizes the result of the study carried out by the author on the peculiar advantages of suitably- calibrated vat dyes over natural dyes, in terms of its recycling ability and eco-friendly properties, thus holding definite edge, both in terms of socio-economic as well as environmental concerns.

Keywords: craft, eco-friendly dyes, ikat, metamorphosis

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69 Effect of Design Parameters on Porpoising Instability of a High Speed Planing Craft

Authors: Lokeswara Rao P., Naga Venkata Rakesh N., V. Anantha Subramanian

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It is important to estimate, predict, and avoid the dynamic instability of high speed planing crafts. It is known that design parameters like relative location of center of gravity with respect to the dynamic lift centre and length to beam ratio of the craft have influence on the tendency to porpoise. This paper analyzes the hydrodynamic performance on the basis of the semi-empirical Savitsky method and also estimates the same by numerical simulations based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations using a commercial code namely, STAR- CCM+. The paper examines through the same numerical simulation considering dynamic equilibrium, the changing running trim, which results in porpoising. Some interesting results emerge from the study and this leads to early detection of the instability.

Keywords: CFD, planing hull, porpoising, Savitsky method

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68 Design of Control System Based On PLC and Kingview for Granulation Product Line

Authors: Mei-Feng, Yude-Fan, Min-Zhu

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Based on PLC and kingview, this paper proposed a method that designed a set of the automatic control system according to the craft flow and demands for granulation product line. There were the main station and subordinate stations in PLC which were communicated by PROFIBUS network. PLC and computer were communicated by Ethernet network. The conversation function between human and machine was realized by kingview software, including actual time craft flows, historic report curves and product report forms. The construction of the control system, hardware collocation and software design were introduced. Besides these, PROFIBUS network frequency conversion control, the difficult points and configuration software design were elaborated. The running results showed that there were several advantages in the control system. They were high automatic degree, perfect function, perfect steady and convenient operation.

Keywords: PLC, PROFIBUS, configuration, frequency

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67 Window Display Design of Thai Craft Product Affecting Perceptions of Thai and Foreign Tourists

Authors: Kanokwan Somoon, Chumporn Moorapun

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A product’s perceived value may increase purchase intention. Value perceptions may differ among cultures. Window displays can be used to increase products’ information and value. This study aims to investigate the relationship between window display design elements and value perceptions of local products between two different cultures. The research methodology is based on survey research. Several window displays in favorite of tourist spots were selected as a unit of study. Also, 100 tourists (56 Thai tourists and 44 foreign tourists) were asked to complete a questionnaire. T-Tests were used to analyze the comparison. Then, the results were compared to Thai and foreign tourists. Finally, the results find that Thai and foreign tourists have different perception towards three design elements that are size of the window, props and colour lighting. The differences of their perceptions signify the different cultural values they adhere to.

Keywords: cross-culture, window display, Thai craft product, environmental perception

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66 Numerical Studies on 2D and 3D Boundary Layer Blockage and External Flow Choking at Wing in Ground Effect

Authors: K. Dhanalakshmi, N. Deepak, E. Manikandan, S. Kanagaraj, M. Sulthan Ariff Rahman, P. Chilambarasan C. Abhimanyu, C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper using a validated double precision, density-based implicit standard k-ε model, the detailed 2D and 3D numerical studies have been carried out to examine the external flow choking at wing-in-ground (WIG) effect craft. The CFD code is calibrated using the exact solution based on the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows. We observed that at the identical WIG effect conditions the numerically predicted 2D boundary layer blockage is significantly higher than the 3D case and as a result, the airfoil exhibited an early external flow choking than the corresponding wing, which is corroborated with the exact solution. We concluded that, in lieu of the conventional 2D numerical simulation, it is invariably beneficial to go for a realistic 3D simulation of the wing in ground effect, which is analogous and would have the aspects of a real-time parametric flow. We inferred that under the identical flying conditions the chances of external flow choking at WIG effect is higher for conventional aircraft than an aircraft facilitating a divergent channel effect at the bottom surface of the fuselage as proposed herein. We concluded that the fuselage and wings integrated geometry optimization can improve the overall aerodynamic performance of WIG craft. This study is a pointer to the designers and/or pilots for perceiving the zone of danger a priori due to the anticipated external flow choking at WIG effect craft for safe flying at the close proximity of the terrain and the dynamic surface of the marine.

Keywords: boundary layer blockage, chord dominated ground effect, external flow choking, WIG effect

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65 Crafting of Paper Cutting Techniques for Embellishment of Fashion Textiles

Authors: A. Vaidya-Soocheta, K. M. Wong-Hon-Lang

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Craft and fashion have always been interlinked. The combination of both often gives stunning results. The present study introduces ‘Paper Cutting Craft Techniques’ like the Japanese –Kirigami, Mexican –PapelPicado, German –Scherenschnitte, Polish –Wycinankito in textiles to develop innovative and novel design structures as embellishments and ornamentation. The project studies various ways of using these paper cutting techniques to obtain interesting features and delicate design patterns on fabrics. While paper has its advantages and related uses, it is fragile rigid and thus not appropriate for clothing. Fabric is sturdy, flexible, dimensionally stable and washable. In the present study, the cut out techniques develop creative design motifs and patterns to give an inventive and unique appeal to the fabrics. The beauty and fascination of lace in garments have always given them a nostalgic charm. Laces with their intricate and delicate complexity in combination with other materials add a feminine touch to a garment and give it a romantic, mysterious appeal. Various textured and decorative effects through fabric manipulation are experimented along with the use of paper cutting craft skills as an innovative substitute for developing lace or “Broderie Anglaise” effects on textiles. A number of assorted fabric types with varied textures were selected for the study. Techniques to avoid fraying and unraveling of the design cut fabrics were introduced. Fabrics were further manipulated by use of interesting prints with embossed effects on cut outs. Fabric layering in combination with assorted techniques such as cutting of folded fabric, printing, appliqué, embroidery, crochet, braiding, weaving added a novel exclusivity to the fabrics. The fabrics developed by these innovative methods were then tailored into garments. The study thus tested the feasibility and practicability of using these fabrics by designing a collection of evening wear garments based on the theme ‘Nostalgia’. The prototypes developed were complemented by designing fashion accessories with the crafted fabrics. Prototypes of accessories add interesting features to the study. The adaptation and application of this novel technique of paper cutting craft on textiles can be an innovative start for a new trend in textile and fashion industry. The study anticipates that this technique will open new avenues in the world of fashion to incorporate its use commercially.

Keywords: collection, fabric cutouts, nostalgia, prototypes

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64 Designing for Wearable Interactions: Exploring Care Design for Design Anthropology and Participatory Design

Authors: Wei-Chen Chang, Yu-Cheng Pei

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This research examines wearable interaction design to mediate the design anthropology and participatory design found in technology and fashion. We will discuss the principles of design anthropology and participatory design using a wearable and fashion product process to transmit the ‘people-situation-reason-object’ method and analyze five sense applied examples that provide new thinking for designers engaged in future industry. Design anthropology and Participatory Design attempt to engage physiological and psychological design through technology-function, meaning-form and fashion aesthetics to achieve cognition between user and environment. The wearable interaction provides technological characteristics and semantic ideas transmitted to craft-cultural, collective, cheerful and creative performance. It is more confident and innovative attempt, that is able to achieve a joyful, fundamental interface. This study takes two directions for cultural thinking as the basis to establish a set of life-craft designs with interactive experience objects by users that assist designers in examining the sensual feelings to initiate a new lifestyle value.

Keywords: design anthropology, wearable design, design communication, participatory design

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63 The Promotion of Andalusian Heritage through Tourism in the Medina of Marrakech

Authors: Nour Eddine Nachouane, Aicha Knidiri

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The Hispano-Moorish art was born in 786 when Abd ar-Rahman built the first mosque in Cordoba. It is a still-living art in the trades of the big Moroccan cities. Everyone agrees that the different artistic forms of Arab-Muslim art find their full development in traditional Moroccan architecture, and this heritage allows artists and artisans to create magnificent masterpieces. Marrakech, by way of example, constitutes a symbolic city, which represents the reflection of a rich history of this art carried by a long artisanal tradition that is still living nowadays. Despite its ratification by UNESCO as intangible cultural heritage, and beyond official speeches, several of those craft trades are endangered, and with them the whole history of millennial savoir-faire. From the empirical study of the old historic center, 'the medina' of Marrakech, we explore in this article the opportunity offered by the tourism industry in order to protect these craft trades. We question artisans on the evolution of the sector and the challenges of the transmission of this heritage. We evoke the case of Spanish cities like Granada in a comparative reflection on the strategies and perceptions of the public administrations of a part, and, on the other hand, on the shared experience of artisans and tourists. In an interdisciplinary approach mixing anthropology, history, sociology, and even geography, we question the capacity of heritage processes to mobilize and involve a set of actors and activate a trajectory for the safeguarding of Andalusian arts and techniques. The basic assumption of this research is that the promotion of traditional craft trades through tourism and based on good scientific knowledge can present an original offer to cope with globalization and guarantee the transmission of that savoir-faire to new generations. Research in the field of Islamic arts does not constitute a retreat into the nationalist identity or a fixation on the past but an opening towards cultural diversity, free from any standardization.

Keywords: heritage, art andalusi, handcraft, tourism

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62 An Occupational Analysis on Chikankari Industry Workers in Lucknow City, India

Authors: Mahvish Anjum

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India is a land of craftsmen and a hub of many popular embroidery clusters. Chikankari is the name given to the delicate art of hand embroidery, traditionally practiced in the city of Lucknow and its environs. Chikankari not only provide employment to 250,000 artisans of different crafts but people from non-craft base also earn their livelihood by associating themselves with this craft. People working in this sector are exploited in term of working hours, low and irregular income, unsatisfactory work conditions, no legal protection and exposed to occupational health hazards. The present paper is an attempt to analyse occupational profile of workers engaged in Chikan embroidery industry. Being an empirical study, the entire work is based upon primary sources of data which have collected through field survey. Purposive random sampling has used for selection of data. Total 150 workers have surveyed through questionnaire technique in Lucknow city during October-November, 2017. For analysis of data Z-score, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation techniques are used. The result of present study indicates that artisans are exploited by the middle man and face the problem of late payment and long working hours because they are not directly associated with the manufacturers. Work conditions of the workers are quite poor such as improper ventilation, poor light and unhygienic conditions that adversely affect the health of workers.

Keywords: artisans, socio-economic status, unorganized industry, work condition

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61 A Resource-Based Perspective on Job Crafting Consequences: An Empirical Study from China

Authors: Eko Liao, Cheryl Zhang

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Employee job crafting refers to employee’s proactive behaviors of making customized changes to their jobs on cognitive, relationship, and task levels. Previous studies have investigated different situations triggering employee’s job crafting. However, much less is known about what would be the consequences for both employee themselves and their work groups. Guided by conservation of resources theory (COR), this study investigates how employees job crafting increases their objective task performance and promotive voice behaviors at work. It is argued that employee would gain more resources when they actively craft their job tasks, which in turn increase their job performance and encourage them to have more constructive speak-up behaviors. Specifically, employee’s psychological resources (i.e., job engagement) and relational resources (i.e., leader-member relationships) would be enhanced from effective crafting behaviors, because employees are more likely to regard their job tasks as meaningful, and their leaders would be more likely to notice and recognize their dedication at work when employees craft their job frequently. To test this research model, around 400 employees from various Chinese organizations from mainland China joins the two-wave data collection stage. Employee’s job crafting behaviors in three aspects are measured at time 1. Perception of resource gain (job engagement and leader-member exchange), voice, and job performance are measured at time 2. The research model is generally supported. This study contributes to the job crafting literature by broadening the theoretical lens to a resource-based perspective. It also has practical implications that organizations should pay more attention to employee crafting behaviors because they are closely related to employees in-role performance and constructive voice behaviors.

Keywords: job crafting, resource-based perspective, voice, job performance

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60 New Territories: Materiality and Craft from Natural Systems to Digital Experiments

Authors: Carla Aramouny

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Digital fabrication, between advancements in software and machinery, is pushing practice today towards more complexity in design, allowing for unparalleled explorations. It is giving designers the immediate capacity to apply their imagined objects into physical results. Yet at no time have questions of material knowledge become more relevant and crucial, as technological advancements approach a radical re-invention of the design process. As more and more designers look towards tactile crafts for material know-how, an interest in natural behaviors has also emerged trying to embed intelligence from nature into the designed objects. Concerned with enhancing their immediate environment, designers today are pushing the boundaries of design by bringing in natural systems, materiality, and advanced fabrication as essential processes to produce active designs. New Territories, a yearly architecture and design course on digital design and materiality, allows students to explore processes of digital fabrication in intersection with natural systems and hands-on experiments. This paper will highlight the importance of learning from nature and from physical materiality in a digital design process, and how the simultaneous move between the digital and physical realms has become an essential design method. It will detail the work done over the course of three years, on themes of natural systems, crafts, concrete plasticity, and active composite materials. The aim throughout the course is to explore the design of products and active systems, be it modular facades, intelligent cladding, or adaptable seating, by embedding current digital technologies with an understanding of natural systems and a physical know-how of material behavior. From this aim, three main themes of inquiry have emerged through the varied explorations across the three years, each one approaching materiality and digital technologies through a different lens. The first theme involves crossing the study of naturals systems as precedents for intelligent formal assemblies with traditional crafts methods. The students worked on designing performative facade systems, starting from the study of relevant natural systems and a specific craft, and then using parametric modeling to develop their modular facades. The second theme looks at the cross of craft and digital technologies through form-finding techniques and elastic material properties, bringing in flexible formwork into the digital fabrication process. Students explored concrete plasticity and behaviors with natural references, as they worked on the design of an exterior seating installation using lightweight concrete composites and complex casting methods. The third theme brings in bio-composite material properties with additive fabrication and environmental concerns to create performative cladding systems. Students experimented in concrete composites materials, biomaterials and clay 3D printing to produce different cladding and tiling prototypes that actively enhance their immediate environment. This paper thus will detail the work process done by the students under these three themes of inquiry, describing their material experimentation, digital and analog design methodologies, and their final results. It aims to shed light on the persisting importance of material knowledge as it intersects with advanced digital fabrication and the significance of learning from natural systems and biological properties to embed an active performance in today’s design process.

Keywords: digital fabrication, design and craft, materiality, natural systems

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59 Interstellar Mission to Wolf 359: Possibilities for the Future

Authors: Rajasekar Anand Thiyagarajan

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One of the driving forces of mankind is the “le r`eve d'etoiles" or the “dream of stars", which has been the dynamo of our civilization. Since the beginning of the dawn of the civilization, mankind has looked upon the heavens with wonder and he has tried to understand the meaning of those twinkling lights. As human history has progressed, the understanding of those twinkling lights has progressed, as we now know a lot of information about stars. However, the dream of stars or the dream of reaching those stars always remains within the expectations of mankind. In fact, the needs of the civilization constantly drive for better knowledge and the capability of reaching those stars is one such way that knowledge and exultation can be achieved. This paper takes a futuristic case study of an interstellar mission to Wolf 359, which is approximately 8.3 light years away from us. In terms of galactic distances, 8.3 light years is not much, but as far as present space technology capabilities are concerned, it is next to impossible for us to reach those distances. Several studies have been conducted on various missions to Alpha Centauri and other nearby stars such as Barnard's star and Wolf 359. However, taking a more distant star such as Wolf 359 will help test the mankind's drive for interstellar exploration, as exotic means of travel are needed. This paper will take a futuristic case study of the event and various possibilities of space travel will be discussed in detail. Comprehensive tables and graphs will be given, which will depict the amount of time that will pass at each mode of travel and more importantly some idea on the cost in terms of energy as well as money will be discussed within today's context. In addition, prerequisites to an interstellar mission to Wolf 359 will be given in detail as well as a sample mission which will take place to that particular destination. Even though the possibility of such a mission is probably nonexistent for the 21st century, it is essential to do these exercises so that mankind's understanding of the universe will be increased. In addition, this paper hopes to establish some general guidelines for such an interstellar mission.

Keywords: wolf 359, interstellar mission, alpha centauri, core diameter, core length, reflector thickness enrichment, gas temperature, reflector temperature, power density, mass of the space craft, acceleration of the space craft, time expansion

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58 Need for Contemporization of Craft for Sustenance: A Study on Solapur Wall Hanging

Authors: Reena Aggarwal

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Wall art is a manifestation of the human mind and an absorbing form of cultural expression. Solapur wall hanging making art reflects cultural values, regional sensibilities, beliefs, and identity and helps to preserve the many different communities. The tango of warp and weft in many ways than one tells the story of civilization itself. Solapur wall hanging is a poem in multicolor, written with the warp and weft having long, rich, and complex history with indigenous design vocabularies made by the Padmasali communities. The wall-hanging weaving of Solapur has remained unaltered for years, from being very basic and monochrome having landscapes and portraits catering only to the local market, thereby becoming a potential family income generation tool. The study focuses on the need for contemporization of the Solapur wall hanging and also deliberates on the fact that wherever the culture of native people has been aided by intervention, in nearly every case, the quality of their craft has began to be enhanced. The study also found the underlying reason for diminishing sales to a declining market, low sales, lack of innovation in design, and product development. Keeping in mind that the artisans of Solapur have heroically always hold on to their ancient beliefs and practices, which give them strength and identity, and a sense of pride, an intervention program was developed with an objective of widening the market and help artisans have a sustaining income which include urban consumers and create designs suitable for the urban market. The process of defining and measuring the advantages of design intervention was achieved by using qualitative research methods. An ethnographic research methodology was adopted, which includes six months of close interface with artisans from ten families engaged in making of wall hanging in Solapur. Design solutions were proposed in terms of product diversification and design extensions of the existing product line for increased variety. A collection of contemporary wall arts (wall decor) and room dividers were designed and developed.

Keywords: wall hanging, Solapur, contemporization, traditional, sustainable

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57 Electro Magnetic Tractor (E. M. Tractor)

Authors: Sijo Varghese

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A space craft (E. M. Tractor) which is intended to deflect or tug the asteroids which possesses threat towards the planets is the whole idea behind this paper. In this case "Electro Magnetic Induction" is used where it is known that when two separate circuits are connected to the electro magnet and on application of electric current through the one circuit in to the coil induces magnetic fields which repels the other circuit.( Faraday's law of Electromagnetic Induction). Basically a Spacecraft is used to attach a large sheet of aluminum on to the surface of the asteroid, the Spacecraft acts as an electro magnet and the induced magnetic field would eventually repel the aluminum intern repelling the asteroid. This method would take less time as compared to use of gravity( which requires a larger spacecraft and process will take a long time).

Keywords: asteroids, electro magnetic induction, gravity, electro magnetic tractor

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56 Optimum Flight Altitude

Authors: Ravi Nandu, Anmol Taploo

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As per current scenario, commercial aircrafts have been very well functioning with higher efficiency, but there is something that affects it. Every aircraft runs with the combustion produced by mixture of fuel and air. For example: A flight to travel from Mumbai to Kolkata it takes 2h: 30 min and from Kolkata to Mumbai it takes 2h: 45 min. It happens due to head and tail wind. Due to head wind air craft travels faster than its usual velocity and it takes 2h: 30 min to reach to Kolkata, while it takes 2h;45min vis versa. This lag in time is caused due to head wind that increases the drag and reduces the relative velocity of the plane. So in order to reduce this wastage of fuel there is an optimal flight altitude at which the head and tail wind action is reduced compared to the present scenario.

Keywords: drag, head wind, tail wind, aircraft

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55 The Current And Prospective Legal Regime of Non-Orbital Flights

Authors: Olga Koutsika

Abstract:

The paper deals primarily with the question of the legal framework of non-orbital flights. The submission is based upon two pillars, starting with the ill-defined current legal regime and proceeding to further recommendations for the prospective legal regime for non-orbital flights. For this reason, the paper focuses on certain key legal aspects of the topic, including among other things liability, responsibility, jurisdiction, registration and authorisation. Furthermore, taking into consideration the hybrid nature of both the craft conducting non-orbital flights and of the flights themselves, which exit airspace but do not enter an orbit in outer space, the paper addresses each legal question from the perspective of both air law and space law and concludes to a number of recommendations regarding the applicability of each legal regime for each legal question individually.

Keywords: current regime, legal framework, non-orbital flights, prospective regime

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54 Revival and Protection of Traditional Jewellery Motifs of Assam (India), over Eri Silk by Innovative Techniques

Authors: Ratna Sharma, Kaveri Dutta

Abstract:

Assam (India), the gate way to the Northeast India is mainly known for its exquisite silks, the art and craft. The state has a rich collection of traditional jewellery which is unique and exclusive to the state. These jewelleries hold a special place in the heart of the Assamese women. Similarly handloom industry of Assam is basically silk oriented. Among the wild silk, Eri silk fabric has remained as “the poor man’s silk” but it is closely attached to the assamese society, dress for it's warm quality. In view of the changing market trends, fashion and consumer demands, Silk is emerging as a fashion fabric both in India and abroad. In case of Eri silk fabric it has limited use in clothing and accessories. Hence the restructured and redesigned traditional jewellery motifs of Assam (India) over Eri silk products will have greater potential in reviving the decline of art, generate revenue, self employment towards craftsmen and also recognition of the art. The information incorporated in the paper is primary and the data have been collected by purposive sampling method. This work of art was expressed on Eri silk fabric in the form of traditional hand embroidery as it is closely connected with the era of the individual in history of mankind and reflects the personal expression of an entity. For this study selected traditional motifs of Assamese ornaments was used. Some of the popular traditional Assamese jewellery include earrings with exquisite Lokaparo, Keru, Thuriya, Jangphai, etc. An array of necklaces including Golpata, Satsori, Jon biri, Bena, Gejera, Dhol biri, Doog doogi, Biri Moni, Mukuta Moni, Poalmoni, Silikha Moni and Magardana and diversified rings including Senpata, Horinsakua, Jethinejia, bakharpata and others. Selected two motifs each from necklace, earring and finger ring designs. Selected motifs were further developed into 3 categories- the border, the main motif and all over butta followed by placement of developed patterns on products. Products developed were stoles, scarf’s, purses, brooch pins, skirts for women and ties, handkerchief, jackets for men. The developed products were surveyed by selected respondents. From the present study it can be observed that the embellished traditional jewellery motifs resulted in fresh and colourful pattern on developed Eri silk products. Moreover the motifs which were gradually fading among the community itself showed a very good recognition towards art. The embroidered Eri silk fabric also created a huge change in a positive way among craftsman.

Keywords: Art and craft of Assam, eri silk, hand embroidery, traditional Assamese jewellery motifs

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53 Contemporary Materialities

Authors: Fabian Saptouw

Abstract:

In the past decade there was a resurgence of interest in the value of ‘process’ and ‘craft’ within the social and artistic community. Theorist like Barbara Bolt and Paul Carter have eloquently argued for the importance of ‘theorizing out of practice’ and ‘material thinking’ in response to this trend. Time and labour intensive artistic production processes are however not generally included in this bracket and often labelled as either obsessive or absurd. Neither of these terms adequately conveys the conceptual importance of labour in relation to ‘process’ as manifested through this production method. This issue will be addressed by critically assessing the work of eight South African artists through the lens of contemporary process-based production. This will result in a more integrated view of the art-object, its art-historical trajectory, its materialisation as well as its production process. This paper will conclude by tying the characteristics of these artworks to international trends and provide a platform for the overall reconsideration of unalienated artistic labour.

Keywords: materiality, process art, practice-led research, unalienated labour

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52 The Relationship between Organizational Climate with Job Burnout and Job Satisfaction in Employees of Tehran Electric Company

Authors: Zeinab Amini Moghaddam

Abstract:

Nowadays, organizations have found a high status in the cultural and social structures of societies. The purpose of current study is to investigate the relationship between organizational climate with job burnout as well as job satisfaction. The research method is descriptive and correlational. The population of the study includes all employees in Tehran Electric Company, which equals 1984 people in 2018. The sampling was performed in the form of a consensus, and all employees were regarded as samples. The data gathering tools consist of three questionnaires of Smith’s Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, Halpin and Craft's Occupational climate, and Maslach and Jackson's Job burnout. The results showed that there was a direct and positive relationship between organizational climate and job burnout, as well as job satisfaction. The organizational climate variable could successfully predict job satisfaction. It was also able to predict job burnout.

Keywords: organizational climate, job burnout, job satisfaction, descriptive, correlational

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51 An Investigation of Sustainability: Scope of Eco Denim Fashion

Authors: Sneha Bhatnagar, Sachin Bhatnagar

Abstract:

Denim presently is the most widely accepted textile product and shows its hold even in future with its growing popularity. Denim today is no longer restricted to only a pair of jeans but has diversified in all different product categories. Although denim is considered as an expression of youth and demonstrates durability and comfort, denim raises issues of sustainability. Through an exploratory research, the researcher aims at addressing the possibilities of denim fashion promoting environmental sustainability by means of creativity, awareness, recycle and artisan appreciation. It also touches on how eco conscious fashion brands involve in development in terms of ideation and modification of denim as a fabric or product into diversified sustainable fashion. In conclusion, it is shown that blue denim fashion continues to evolve and shows eventual transformation in becoming green denim in future, nurturing values of both quality and sustainability.

Keywords: arts, craft, creativity, denim, fashion, recycle, sustainability

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50 The Association between Malaysian Culture and Ornaments

Authors: Swee Guat Yeoh, Yung Ling Tseng

Abstract:

Malaysia is comprised of three major ethnic groups: The Malay, Chinese and Indian as well as a small number of indigenous peoples. With the influences of the multiple races, Malaysia is a multi-cultural country. In the era of globalization, culture has become an important soft power for a race or a country. At the same time, it provides endless inspirational source of ideas for creative business. Although jewelries are decorative objects, they function and exist as the emblems of power, wealth and contract in certain cultural systems. In the meantime, they also record the lifestyle and ideology of everyday life. Therefore, in a creative cultural industry, jewelry with cultural aspects and cultural contents are deemed to be highly important. With the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia as objects, this research aims to find out the relationships between the cultures and decorations of the three major ethnic groups in the aspects of customs, religions and lifestyles.

Keywords: ethnicity, multi-cultural, jewelry, craft technique

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49 Evaluation of Bagh Printing Motifs and Processes of Madhya Pradesh: From Past to Contemporary

Authors: Kaveri Dutta, Ratna Sharma

Abstract:

Indian traditional textile is a synthesis of various cultures. Art and crafts of a country showcases the rich cultural and artistic history of that nation. Prehistorically Indian handicrafts were basically made for day to day use; the yearning for aesthetic application soon saw the development of flooding designs and motifs. Similarly, Bagh print a traditional hand block Print with natural colours an Indian handicraft practiced in Bagh, Madhya Pradesh(India). Bagh print has its roots in Sindh, which is now a part of Pakistan. The present form of Bagh printing actually started in 1962 when the craftsmen migrated from Manavar to the neighboring town of Bagh situated in Madhya Pradesh and hence Bagh has always been associated with this printing style. Bagh printing basically involved blocks that are carved onto motifs that represent flora such as Jasmine, Mushroom leheriya and so on. There are some prints that were inspired by the jaali work that embellished the Taj Mahal and various other forts. Inspiration is also drawn from the landscapes and geometrical figures. The motifs evoke various moods in the serenity of the prints and that is the catchy element of Bagh prints. The development in this traditional textile is as essential as in another field. Nowadays fashion trends are fragile and innovative changes over existing fashion field in the short span is the demand of times. We must make efforts to preserve this cultural heritage of arts and crafts and this is done either by documenting the various ancient traditions or by making a blend of it. Since this craft is well known over the world, but the need is to document the original motif, fabric, technology and colors used in contemporary fashion. Hence keeping above points in mind this study on bagh print textiles of Madhya Pradesh work has been formulated. The information incorporated in the paper was based on secondary data taken from relevant books, journals, museum visit and articles. Besides for the demographic details and working profile of the artisans dealt with printing, an interview schedule was carried out in three regions of Madhya Pradesh. This work of art was expressed in Cotton fabric. For this study selected traditional motifs for Bang printing was used. Some of the popular traditional Bagh motifs are Jasmine, Mushroom leheriya, geometrical figures and jaali work. The Bagh printed cotton fabrics were developed into a range of men’s ethic wear in combination with embroideries from Rajasthan. Products developed were bandhgala jackets, kurtas, serwani and dupattas. From the present study, it can be observed that the embellished traditional Bang printed range of ethnic men’s wear resulted in the fresh and colourful pattern. The embroidered Bagh printed cotton fabric also created a huge change in a positive way among artisans of the three regions.

Keywords: art and craft of Madhya Pradesh, evolution of printing in India, history of Bagh printing, sources of inspiration

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48 The Influence of Islamic Arts in Omani Weaving Motifs

Authors: Zahra Ahmed Al-zadjali

Abstract:

The influence of Islam on arts can be found primarily in calligraphy, arabesque designs and architecture. Also, geometric designs were used quite extensively. Muslim craftsmen produced stunning designs based on simple geometric principles and traditional motifs which were used to decorate many surfaces. The idea of interlacing simple rectilinear lines to form the patterns impressed Arabs. Nomads of Persia, Turks and Mongols were equally impressed with the designs so they begin to use them in their homes in carpet weaving. Islamic designs, motifs and colours which were used became common place and served to influence people’s tastes. Modern life style and contemporary products have changed the style of people’s daily lives, however, people still long for the nomadic way of life. This is clearly reflected in people’s homes. In a great many Muslim homes, Islamic decorative motifs can be seen along with traditional ‘Bedouin’ style furnishing, especially in homes of the Arabian Peninsula.

Keywords: art, craft, design, Oman, weaving

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