Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 231

Search results for: Maryam Pirdehghan

231 Leviathan, the Myth of Evil, Based on Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism

Authors: Maryam Pirdehghan

Abstract:

The myth of Leviathan, its ontology and appearance is often one of the problems of Judeo-Christian religious commentators so that some of them have tried to interpret and explain formation or symbolic implications of this myth in different contexts their specific methods and proofs. However, the Bible has presented only vague references in this field and it is not clear why and how to develop such mentions to create a powerful myth with allegorical and symbolic capacity as Leviathan. Therefore, the paper aims to clarify the process of formation of Leviathan and explore the mythical and symbolic systems related to it, first by adopting the imagological approach and then using the Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism. Finally, it is concluded that The Leviathan is rooted in the stories of legendary battles of the beginning of creation and almost continues to live with the same nature into the Old Testament, but continuously, in an interactive process between the Greek and Egyptian mythological networks, it attracts more stories and implications about his existence while maintaining its satanic nature. After intense metamorphosis in Jewish interpretations, it appears in the book of Revelation and finally, becomes one of the princes of Hell in the tradition of Christian demonology. The myth, that has become the archetype and fluidized symbol of evil because of the ambiguity and lack of objectivity on its apparent characteristics, finds symbolical extensive capabilities in Judeo-Christian culture, especially in the mysticism, so that its presence or death has special implications and also fighting against it is taken into account as an external and more internal action.

Keywords: Leviathan, The Evil, Bible, myth, Northrop Frye

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
230 The Image of Saddam Hussein and Collective Memory: The Semiotics of Ba'ath Regime's Mural in Iraq (1980-2003)

Authors: Maryam Pirdehghan

Abstract:

During the Ba'ath Party's rule in Iraq, propaganda was utilized to justify and to promote Saddam Hussein's image in the collective memory as the greatest Arab leader. Consequently, urban walls were routinely covered with images of Saddam. Relying on these images, the regime aimed to provide a basis for evoking meanings in the public opinion, which would supposedly strengthen Saddam’s power and reconstruct facts to legitimize his political ideology. Nonetheless, Saddam was not always portrayed with common and explicit elements but in certain periods of his rule, the paintings depicted him in an unusual context, where various historical and contemporary elements were combined in a narrative background. Therefore, an understanding of the implied socio-political references of these elements is required to fully elucidate the impact of these images on forming the memory and collective unconscious of the Iraqi people. To obtain such understanding, one needs to address the following questions: a) How Saddam Hussein is portrayed in mural during his rule? b) What of elements and mythical-historical narratives are found in the paintings? c) Which Saddam's political views were subject to the collective memory through mural? Employing visual semiotics, this study reveals that during Saddam Hussein's regime, the paintings were initially simple portraits but gradually transformed into narrative images, characterized by a complex network of historical, mythical and religious elements. These elements demonstrate the transformation of a secular-nationalist politician into a Muslim ruler who tried to instill three major policies in domestic and international relations i.e. the arabization of Iraq, as well as the propagation of pan-arabism ideology (first period), the implementation of anti-Israel policy (second period) and the implementation of anti-American-British policy (last period).

Keywords: Ba'ath Party, Saddam Hussein, mural, Iraq, propaganda, collective memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
229 Characterization of Antioxidant-Antimicrobial Microcapsules Containing Carum Copticum Essential Oil and Their Effect on the Sensory Quality of Yoghurt

Authors: Maryam Rahimi, Maryam Moslehishad, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini

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In this study, preparation of spray dried Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO)-loaded microcapsules by maltodextrin and its blending with two other natural biodegradable polymers, gum Arabic (GA) or modified starch (MS) were investigated. Addition of these polymers to maltodextrin resulted in the encasement of encapsulation efficiency (EE). The highest EE (78.22±0.34%) and total phenolic (TP) content (83.86±1.72 mg GAE/100g) was related to MD-MS microcapsules. CCEO-loaded microcapsules showed spherical surface, good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In addition, sensory tests confirmed the possible application of CCEO-loaded microcapsules as natural food additives.

Keywords: carum copticum, essential oil, encapsulation, spray drying, sensory evaluation, antioxidants

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228 The Effect of Six Weeks Aerobic Training and Taxol Consumption on Interleukin 8 and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 on Mice with Cervical Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Maryam Firoozi, Maryam Ebrahimzadeh, Romina Roohan Ardeshiri, Maryam Kamarloeei

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Background: The The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of six-week aerobic training and taxol consumption on interleukin 8 and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in mice with cervical cancer. Material and method: In this experimental study, 40 female C57 mice, eight weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 groups: cancer, cancer-taxol complement, cancer-training and cancer-training - taxol complement with 10 mice in each group. The implantation of cancerous tumors was performed under the skin of the upper pelvis. The training group completed the endurance training protocol, which included 3 sessions per week, 50 minutes per session, at a speed of 14-18 m/s for six weeks. A dose of 60 mg/ kg/day, a pure extract of Taxol was injected peritoneal Data were analyzed by t-test, One-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferron's at the significant level P<0. 05. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between mean values of interleukin-8 (P < 0.05, F = 12.25) and the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (P < 0.05, P=0.10737) in four groups. A significance level of less than 0.05 in Tukey test for both variables also showed a significant difference between the "control" group and the complementary "exercise" group. Namely, six weeks of aerobic training, along with taxol, have a significant effect on the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and interleukin-8 mice with cervical cancer. Conclusion: Considering the effect of training on these variables, this type of exercise can be used as a complementary therapeutic approach along with other therapies for cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer, taxol, endurance training, interleukin 8, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

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227 Contributions of Women to the Development of Hausa Literature as an Effective Means of Public Enlightenment: The Case of a 19th Century Female Scholar Maryam Bint Uthman Ibn Foduye

Authors: Balbasatu Ibrahim

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In the 19th century, Hausaland an Islamic revolution known as the Sokoto Jihad took place that led to the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate in 1804 under the leadership of the famous Sheik Uthman Bn Fodiye. Before the Jihad movement in Hausaland (now Northern Nigeria), women were left in ignorance and were used and dumped like old kitchen utensils. The sheik and his followers did their best to actualising women’s right to education by using their female family members as role models who were highly educated and renowned scholars. After the Jihad with the establishment of an Islamic state, the women scholars initiated different strategies to teach the generality of the women. The most efficient strategy was the ‘Yantaru Movement founded by Nana Asma’u the daughter of Sheikh Uthman Bn Fodiye in collaboration with her sisters around 1840. The ‘Yantaru movement is a women’s educational movement aimed at enlightening women in rural and urban areas. The move helped in massively mobilizing women for education. In addition to town pupils, women from villages and throughout the nooks and crannies of metropolitan Sokoto participated in the movement in the search for knowledge. Thus, the birth of the ‘Yantaru system of women’s education. The ‘Yantaru operates the three-tier system at village, town and the metropolitan capital of Sokoto. ‘Yantaru functions include imparting knowledge to elderly women and young girls. Step down enlightenment program on returning home. The most effective medium of communication in the ‘Yantaru movement was through poetry where scholars composed educational poems which were memorized by the ‘Yantaru, who on return recite it to fellow women at home. Through this system, many women were educated. This paper translated and examines one of such educative poems written by the second leader of the ‘Yantaru Movement Maryam Bn Uthman Bn Fodiye in 1855.

Keywords: English, Hausa language, public enlightenment, Maryam Bint Uthman Ibn Foduye

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
226 A Preliminary Report of HBV Full Genome Sequencing Derived from Iranian Intravenous Drug Users

Authors: Maryam Vaezjalali, Koroush Rahimian, Maryam Asli, Tahmineh Kandelouei, Foad Davoodbeglou, Amir H. Kashi

Abstract:

Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the HBV molecular profiles including genotypes, subgenotypes, subtypes & mutations in hepatitis B genes. Materials/Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 229 intravenous drug users who referred to three Drop- in-Centers and a hospital in Tehran. HBV DNA was extracted from HBsAg positive serum samples and amplified by Nested PCR. HBV genotype, subgenotypes, subtype and genes mutation were determined by direct sequencing. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor- joining (NJ) method. Statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS 20. Results: HBV DNA was found in 3 HBsAg positive cases. Phylogenetic tree of derived HBV DNAs showed the existence of genotype D (subgenotype D1, subtype ayw2). Also immune escape mutations were determined in S gene. Conclusion: There were a few variations and genotypes and subtypes among infected intravenous drug users. This study showed the predominance of genotype D among intravenous drug users. Our study concurs with other reports from Iran, that all showing currently only genotype D is the only detectable genotype in Iran.

Keywords: drug users, genotype, HBV, phylogenetic tree

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225 The Effect of Endurance Training and Taxol Consumption on Cyclooxygenase-2 and Prostaglandin E2 Levels in the Liver Tissue of Mice with Cervical Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Maryam Firozi-Niyaki, Maryam Kamarlouei

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Background: Herbs have a strong anti-cancer effect. Also, exercise is one of several lifestyle factors known to lower the risk of developing cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of endurance training and taxol on cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in the liver tissue of mice with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 35 female C57 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=7 in each group): control (healthy), control (cancer), complement (cancer), training-supplementary (cancer) and training (cancer). The implantation of cancerous tumors was performed under the skin of the upper pelvis. The training group completed the endurance training protocol, which included 3 sessions per week, 50 minutes per session, at a speed of 14-18 m/s for six weeks. A dose of 60 mg/kg/day of pure taxol was injected intra peritoneally. The dependent variables of this study were measured 24 hours after the last training session by ELISA. Results: The results showed that the use of taxol and endurance training reduced the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in the liver tissues of C57 mice with cervical cancer. Conclusion: Induction of the cancerous tissue in mice with cervical cancer increases the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 and endurance training along with taxol may reduce these levels.

Keywords: cervical cancer, taxol, endurance training, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2

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224 Women Retelling the Iranian Revolution: A Comparative Study of Novelists Maryam Madjidi and Negar Djavadi

Authors: Alessandro Giardino

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The Iranian Revolution has been the object of numberless historical and semi-fictional accounts, often providing a monolithic perspective on the events, due to the westerner positioning of those recounting them. Against this tradition, two contemporary French-Iranian novels "Disoriental" (2016) by Negar Djavadi and "Marx and The Doll" (2017) by Maryam Madjidi have offered readers a female-oriented and interestingly layered representation of the Iranian Revolution, hence addressing the responsibilities and misconceptions of Western countries. Furthermore, these two women writers have shed light on the disenchantment of the Iranian intellectual class vis-à-vis the foundation of the Islamic Republic, by particularly focusing on the deterioration of women’s rights, as well as the repression of political, ethnical, religious and sexual minorities. By a psycholinguistic and semasiological analysis of the two novels by Djavadi and Madjidi, this essay will focus on alternative accounts of the revolution in order to reflect upon the role of intersectional literature to the understanding of history. More specifically, as both women, refugees, and bi-cultural writers, Djavadi and Madjidi unearthed moments and figures of the revolution which had disappeared from the prevalent narrative. In doing so, however, these two writers resorted to entirely opposite styles of writing that, it will be argued, stem from different types of female resistance. In defining these two approaches as a "narrative resistance" and a "photographic resistance," the essay will elucidate the dependence of these writers’ language on generational and psychological factors, but it will also stir a reflection on their different communicative strategies.

Keywords: Iranian revolution, French-Iranian, intersectionality, literature, women writers

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223 Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of New Quinazolinone-Based Compounds against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7

Authors: Maryam Zahedifard, Fadhil Lafta Faraj, Maryam Hajrezaie, Nazia Abdul Majid, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Hapipah Mohd Ali

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In the current study, we prepared two new quinazoline schiff bases through condensation reaction of 2-aminobenzhydrazide with 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 3-methoxy-5-bromosalicylaldehyde. The chemical structures of both newly synthesized compounds (1 and 2) were confirmed by FT-IR and X-ray crystallography studies. The cytotoxic effect of compounds was investigated against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. MTT results showed that (1) and (2) decreased the viability of MCF-7 cells in a time-dependent manner, exhibiting an IC50 value of 3.23 ± 0.28 µg/mL and 3.41 ± 0.34 µg/mL, respectively, after a 72-hours treatment period. In contrast, they did not show significant anti-proliferative effect towards MCF-10A normal breast cells and WRL-68 normal liver cells. We found a perturbation in mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, suggesting an activation of apoptosis by compounds, which was confirmed by activation of the initiator caspase-9 and the executioner caspases-3/7. (1) was also able to trigger extrinsic pathway via activation of caspase-8 and inhibition of NF-κB translocation. The acute toxicity test showed no toxicity effect of the compounds in rats. Our results showed that the selected synthesized compounds are highly potent to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via either intrinsic or extrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

Keywords: Quinazoline Schiff base, apoptosis, MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, caspase, NF-κB translocation

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222 Chemopreventive Efficacy Of Cdcl2(C14H21N3O2) in Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Model Using Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) as Endpoint Marker

Authors: Maryam Hajrezaie, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Nazia AbdulMajid, Maryam Zahedifard

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Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural or synthetic compounds capable of inducing biological mechanisms necessary to preserve genomic fidelity. New schiff based compounds are reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities of therapeutic importance. To evaluate inhibitory properties of CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex on colonic aberrant crypt foci, five groups of 7-week-old male rats were used. Control group was fed with 10% Tween 20 once a day, cancer control group was intra-peritoneally injected with 15 mg/kg Azoxymethan, drug control group was injected with 15 mg/kg azoxymethan and 5-Flourouracil, experimental groups were fed with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) compound each once a day. Administration of compound were found to be effectively chemoprotective. Andrographolide suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 72% to 74%, respectively, when compared with control group. The results also showed a significant increase in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and a decrease in malondialdehyde level. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated down-regulation of PCNA protein. According to the Western blot comparison analysis, COX-2 and Bcl2 is up-regulated whilst the Bax is down-regulated. according to these data, this compound plays promising chemoprotective activity, in a model of AOM-induced in ACF.

Keywords: chemopreventive, Schiff based compound, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), immunohistochemical staining

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221 Toward Particular Series with (k,h)-Jacobsthal Sequence

Authors: Seyyd Hossein Jafari-Petroudi, Maryam Pirouz

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This note is devoted to (k; h)-Jacobsthal sequence as a general term of particular series. More formulas for nth term and sum of the first n terms of series that their general terms are (k; h)-Jacobsthal sequence and (k; h)-Jacobsthal-Petroudi sequence are derived. Finally other properties of these sequences are represented.

Keywords: (k, h)-Jacobsthal sequence, (k, h)-Jacobsthal Petroudisequence, recursive relation, sum

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220 Multiple Strategies in Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome Result from Vitamin D Deficiency in Children

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Maryam Shahrooz

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Background: Nowadays the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) has taken on a growing trend. Studies have shown the relationship between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) status and Mets in children. Also studies have recorded that exerting strategies for vitamin D status improvement can help prevent Mets in children. This study investigated multiple strategies of prevention of Mets resulting from VDD in children. Methods: This review study has been done by using keywords related to the topic and 54 articles were found (2000-2015) that 25 were selected according to the indicators of Mets, supplementation and fortification of foods with vitamin D and attention to children environment and life style. Results: Studies have suggested the correlation between serum levels of vitamin D with waist circumference (p < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (p=0.01), HOMA-IR (p=0.001) and HDL cholesterol (p < 0.0001). An inverse correlation between serum 25 (OH) D and HOMA-IR (p = 0.006) and insulin (P = 0.002) has been proved in overweight group. Higher HOMASDS and triglycerides found in vitamin D deficient obese children compared to control group without VDD (p=0.04). After supplementation with vitamin D, serum TG concentration decreases significantly (p=0.04), and improves insulin resistance (p=0.02). The prevalence of VDD is associated with time of watching TV (P < 0.01), hours of physical activity per week (P = 0.01), skipping breakfast (P < 0.001) soda intake (P < 0.001), and milk intake per day (P < 0.01). Conclusion: According to the beneficial role of vitamin D in prevention of Mets and proven relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and Mets indicators, we can prevent childhood Mets through the application of appropriate strategies such as supplementation and food fortification with vitamin D and positive changes in children life style with especial attention to physical activity in exposure of sunlight and their environment condition.

Keywords: children, metabolic syndrome, prevention strategies, vitamin D

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219 A Study on Effect of Almahdi Aluminium Factory of Bandar Abbas on Environment Status of the Region with an Emphasis on Measuring of Some Scarce Metals Existing in the Air (Atmosphere)

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Maryam Malekpour, Rastin Afkhami

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Today, industry is one of the indices of growth and development of countries and is a suitable applicable criterion to compare the countries. Bandar Abbas has a high industrial centralization in term of geographical redundancy of industries in comparison with other rural and urban places of Hormozgan province. Most important and major industries of the province are located in Bandar abbas eighth refinery, power plant, zinc melting company, Almahdi Aluminium, Hormozgan steel, south steel, which are the most important of these industries. So, it is necessary to study pollution from these industries and their destructive effects on environment of region. In respect of these things, general purpose of this research is codling and presenting managing solution of Almahdi Aluminium factory in them of measuring of air (atmosphere) parameters. For gaining this purpose it is necessary to determine measure of heavy metals suspension in the air (atmosphere) in the neighborhood of industries and also in residential regions close to them as partial purposes. So, for achieving the purposes above, operation of sampling from the air in two hot and cold seasons of the year (2010-2011) was performed, after field reviews to recognize the sources of effluence and to choose place of sampling stations. Sampling and preparation way to read was based on EPA and NIOSH. Also, decreasing process was included Fe>Al>Cd>Pb>Ni respectively, in term of results gaining from sampling of ingredients existing in the air (atmosphere). Also Ni and Fe elements in samples of air were higher than permissive measure in both of cold and hot season. Average of these two metals was 34% and 33% in cold season and 44% and 34% micrograms/m3 in hot season. Finally, suitable managing solutions to improve existing situation is presented in term for all results.

Keywords: Almahdi aluminium factory, Bandar Abbas, scarce metals, atmosphere

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218 Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian Version of the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale in Iranian Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia

Authors: Akram Farhadi, Mahshid Froughan, Farahnaz Mohammadi, Maryam Rassouli, Maryam Noroozian, Leila Sadeghmoghaddam

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Background: The caregivers’ assessment of their own caregiving is considered the most important concept in exploring their experiences and has a major role in care outcomes. The rising number of people with dementia and their need for care makes family caregiving really important matter to consider and evaluate. Objectives: This study was conducted with the aim to naturalize and validate the Persian version of the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale (RCAS) in family caregivers of older adults with dementia. Patients and Method: In this cross-sectional methodological study, the Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale (RCAS) was translated using International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) protocol, and then a panel of experts examined its face and content validities. To ensure construct validity, the translated Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale (RCAS) was completed by 236 family caregivers, and factor construct of the scale was assessed with 5 initial factors using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was found using Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest using intraclass correlation coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed in LISREL-8.8 software in Windows®. Results: Participating caregivers' mean age was 53.5±13.13 years. Content and face validities of the scale were confirmed according to the views expressed by family caregivers and panel of experts. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) results showed appropriate values for all fitness indices (RMSEA=0.046, df/X2=2.428, CFI=0.98, AGFI=0.84, GFI=0.9), and the 5-factor model was confirmed with 27 items. Overall Cronbach's alpha was reported 0.894, and test retest showed overall ICC=0.94. Conclusion: The Persian version of RCAS is a valid and reliable tool for family caregivers' assessment of their caregiving of older adults with dementia, and can be useful in assessing family caregiving interventions.

Keywords: psychometric, family caregivers, reliability and validity, elderly, dementia, self-appraisal

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217 Formalizing the Sense Relation of Hyponymy from Logical Point of View: A Study of Mathematical Linguistics in Farsi

Authors: Maryam Ramezankhani

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The present research tries to study the possibility of formalizing the sense relation of hyponymy. It applied mathematical tools and also uses mathematical logic concepts especially those from propositional logic. In order to do so, firstly, it goes over the definitions of hyponymy presented in linguistic dictionaries and semantic textbooks. Then, it introduces a formal translation of the sense relation of hyponymy. Lastly, it examines the efficiency of the suggested formula by some examples of natural language.

Keywords: sense relations, hyponymy, formalizing, words’ sense relation, formalizing sense relations

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216 Solution of Hybrid Fuzzy Differential Equations

Authors: Mahmood Otadi, Maryam Mosleh

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The hybrid differential equations have a wide range of applications in science and engineering. In this paper, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to obtain the series solution of the hybrid differential equations. Using the homotopy analysis method, it is possible to find the exact solution or an approximate solution of the problem. Comparisons are made between improved predictor-corrector method, homotopy analysis method and the exact solution. Finally, we illustrate our approach by some numerical example.

Keywords: fuzzy number, fuzzy ODE, HAM, approximate method

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215 Towards a Simulation Model to Ensure the Availability of Machines in Maintenance Activities

Authors: Maryam Gallab, Hafida Bouloiz, Youness Chater, Mohamed Tkiouat

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The aim of this paper is to present a model based on multi-agent systems in order to manage the maintenance activities and to ensure the reliability and availability of machines just with the required resources (operators, tools). The interest of the simulation is to solve the complexity of the system and to find results without cost or wasting time. An implementation of the model is carried out on the AnyLogic platform to display the defined performance indicators.

Keywords: maintenance, complexity, simulation, multi-agent systems, AnyLogic platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
214 Women's Concerns in Disasters at Family Level in Iranian Context

Authors: Maryam Nakhaei, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Mitra Moodi, Leila Daddoust

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Although individuals (men and women) experience disasters in different ways, because of important women’s roles in the family, we aim to shed more light on their issues in doing family. In this report, we present an overview of the main qualitative and quantitative findings of different projects have been conducted in the regions affected by disaster in Iran. This paper explores women’s needs and experiences after disaster at the family level in 'disaster response behavior', 'personal health' including reproductive health and needs of pregnant women, 'livelihood responsibilities', and 'marital relationships'. This clarification can help not only to ensure that their needs are adequately addressed but also to plan family based strategies which consider their strengths.

Keywords: disaster, family, women, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
213 Applying Polyphonic Dialogue as an Approach to Thematically Analyse the Development of Online Identities in Social Media

Authors: Maryam Khosronejad

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In social media, differences between individuals become salient as they become a member of different groups with particular social and cultural practices and get engaged in various conversations. The influence of the presence of social media on the promotion of self-expression and polyphonic dialogue is an understudied area and is, therefore, the focus of this paper. This exploration aims to understand the formation of online identities as an ongoing process of orchestrating polyphonic dialogue and responding to available positions. In addition, applying the thematic analysis, it gives examples of how discursive transactions facilitate this process. The implications for the use of social media in education will be discussed based on the findings.

Keywords: online identity, polyphonic dialogue, self expression, social media

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212 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Metronidazole by Planetary Ball-Milling

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Maryam Gholipoor

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Metronidazole nano -powders with the average mean particle size around 90 nm were synthesized by high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill is provided. The Scattering factors, milling of time,the ball size and ball to powder ratio on the material properties powder by the Ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR. It has been observed that the density of nano-sized grinding balls as ball to powder ratio depends. Using the dispersion factor, the density Can be reduced below the initial particle size was achieved.

Keywords: metronidazole, ball-milling, nanoparticles, characterization, XRD diffraction

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211 Preparation of MgO Nanoparticles by Green Methods

Authors: Maryam Sabbaghan, Pegah Sofalgar

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Over the past few decades, a significant amount of research activities in the chemical community has been directed towards green synthesis. This area of chemistry has received extensive attention because of environmentally benign processes as well as economically viable. In this article, the MgO nanoparticles were prepared by different methods in the present of ionic liquids. A wide range of Magnesium oxide particle sizes within the nanometer scale is obtained by these methods. The structure of these MgO particles was studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the formation of nanoparticle could involve the role of performed 'nucleus' and used template to control the growth rate of nucleuses. The crystallite size of the MgO products was in a range from 31 to 77 nm.

Keywords: MgO, ionic liquid, nanoparticles, green chemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
210 A Series Solution of Fuzzy Integro-Differential Equation

Authors: Maryam Mosleh, Mahmood Otadi

Abstract:

The hybrid differential equations have a wide range of applications in science and engineering. In this paper, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to obtain the series solution of the hybrid differential equations. Using the homotopy analysis method, it is possible to find the exact solution or an approximate solution of the problem. Comparisons are made between improved predictor-corrector method, homotopy analysis method and the exact solution. Finally, we illustrate our approach by some numerical example.

Keywords: Fuzzy number, parametric form of a fuzzy number, fuzzy integrodifferential equation, homotopy analysis method

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
209 Output Voltage Analysis of CMOS Colpitts Oscillator with Short Channel Device

Authors: Maryam Ebrahimpour, Amir Ebrahimi

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This paper presents the steady-state amplitude analysis of MOS Colpitts oscillator with short channel device. The proposed method is based on a large signal analysis and the nonlinear differential equations that govern the oscillator circuit behaviour. Also, the short channel effects are considered in the proposed analysis and analytical equations for finding the steady-state oscillation amplitude are derived. The output voltage calculated from this analysis is in excellent agreement with simulations for a wide range of circuit parameters.

Keywords: colpitts oscillator, CMOS, electronics, circuits

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208 Phishing Attacks Facilitated by Open Source Intelligence

Authors: Urva Maryam

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The information has become an important asset to the current cosmos. Globally, various tactics are being observed to confine the spread of information as it makes people vulnerable to security attacks. Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) is a publicly available source that has disseminated information about users or websites, companies, and various organizations. This paper focuses on the quantitative method of exploring various OSINT tools that reveal public information of personals. This information could further facilitate phishing attacks. Phishing attacks can be launched on email addresses, open ports, and unsecure web-surfing. This study allows to analyze the information retrieved from OSINT tools, i.e. theHarvester, and Maltego that can be used to send phishing attacks to individuals.

Keywords: e-mail spoofing, Maltego, OSINT, phishing, spear phishing, theHarvester

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207 Relationship between Legacy of Islamic Hadith and Biodiversity

Authors: Mohsen Nouraei, Maryam Amouei

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Islamic studies are considered in both the Quran and Hadith. Hadith is defined as a set of reports that narrated the words and behaviors of infallible persons such as the holy Prophet (pbuh) or the Infallible Imams (as). The issue of biodiversity which is the one of the most important environmental aspects is considered in the field of Hadith. The present paper has investigated biodiversity on the basis of descriptive-analytical methods and with the approach of library-documentary. The household of the Prophet (as) have referred biodiversity that were included diversity of animals, plants, climate etc. In addition, they also have emphasized on the human need to keep diversity and no damage. It should be noted that they have expressed the rights of the animals and plants for correct using of human, so that human can use these rights in conservation of diversity and their generation.

Keywords: biodiversity, conservation of biodiversity, degradation of biodiversity, extinction of biodiversity

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206 Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in Khark Island-Iran Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Abbas Hani, Maryam Jassasizadeh

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The concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Ni were determined from 40 soil samples collected in surface soils of Khark Island. Geostatistic methods and GIS were used to identify heavy metal sources and their spatial pattern. Principal component analysis coupled with correlation between heavy metals showed that level of mentioned heavy metal was lower than the standard level. Then the data obtained from the soil analyzing were studied for the purposes of normal distribution. The best way of interior finding for cadmium and nickel was ordinary kriging and the best way of interpolation of lead was inverse distance weighted. The result of this study help us to understand heavy metals distribution and make decision for remediation of soil pollution.

Keywords: geostatistics, ordinary kriging, heavy metals, GIS, Khark

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205 Can Sustainability Help Achieve Social Justice?

Authors: Maryam Davodi-Far

Abstract:

Although sustainability offers a vision to preserve the earth’s resources while sustaining life on earth, there tends to be injustice and disparity in how resources are allocated across the globe. As such, the question that arises is whom will sustainability benefit? Will the rich grow richer and the poor become worse off? Is there a way to find balance between sustainability and still implement and achieve success with distributive justice theories? One of the facets of justice is distributive justice; the idea of balancing benefits and costs associated with the way in which we disseminate and consume goods. Social justice relies on how the cost and burdens of our resource allocation can be done reasonably and equitably and spread across a number of societies, and within each society spread across diverse groups and communities. In the end, the question is how to interact with the environment and diverse communities of today and of those communities of the future.

Keywords: consumerism, sustainability, sustainable development, social justice, social equity, distributive justice

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204 The Necessity and Methods of Abolishing Discrimination and Religious Violence

Authors: Hossein Boroujerdi, Mohammad R. Sadeghi, Maryam Moazen Zadeh

Abstract:

During the recent decades, the result of religious prophets has lost its attraction, and theology has become disfigured, so it has been made ugly. Undoubtedly, some of existing non-peaceful and harsh rules and measures within the religious books and contexts have been considered as the reasons and excuses for defamation of religions. Based on library sources and also extensive research in Quran and Islamic narratives, this study has aimed to find some alternative solutions and options to abolish and disregard those religious rules which are in contrary of human right charters and standards. The results have demonstrated that some of inhuman religious punishments such as execution, stoning, whipping as well as religious discriminations and warlike behaviors are in contrary of some other religious contexts and concepts. This finding have proved inadaptability between some religious contexts and religious records.

Keywords: adjustment and abolishment, discrimination, religious commands and laws, tolerance, violence

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203 Planning Healthy, Livable, and Sustainable Community in Terms of Effective Indicators on Policy Maker

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelat, Maryam Baradaran

Abstract:

Creating healthy communities that are sustainable and livable is a desire of policy makers in European countries. Indicators have used at the level of international, national, state to evaluate the level of health in cities and regions. Therefore, there are many challenges in the assumption of health and planning indicators. This research provides an overview of health indicators used to date in Europe according to World Health Organization (WHO) strategy. It then discusses on how indicators have been successful to the creation of healthy, livable and sustainable cities in Europe. This research is based on qualitative research to review the documentary researches on health issue and urban planning. The result will show the positive and negative effects of in process indicators on European cities.

Keywords: healthy community, livability, sustainability, WHO strategy

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202 Health Risks Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Sea Food from Persian ‎Gulf

Authors: Mohsen Ehsanpour, Maryam Ehsanpour, ‎Majid Afkhami, Fatemeh Afkhami ‎

Abstract:

Heavy metals are increasingly being released into natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distribution of several heavy metals (Cd, Pb) was investigated in muscle, liver in six different fish species seasonally collected in Persian Gulf (autumn 2009-summer 2010). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The THQ index for fish was calculated. Estimation of target hazard quotients calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQs values (Pb and Cd) for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Bushehr and Bandar-Genaveh, respectively, and for children they were 0.08 and 0.05 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Persian Gulf, heavy metals, health risks, THQ index

Procedia PDF Downloads 580