Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: MnCl₂

8 [Keynote Talk]: Morphological Analysis of Continuous Graphene Oxide Fibers Incorporated with Carbon Nanotube and MnCl₂

Authors: Nuray Ucar, Pelin Altay, Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek

Abstract:

Graphene oxide fibers have recently received increasing attention due to their excellent properties such as high specific surface area, high mechanical strength, good thermal properties and high electrical conductivity. They have shown notable potential in various applications including batteries, sensors, filtration and separation and wearable electronics. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties and can be used together with graphene oxide fibers for several application areas such as lithium ion batteries, wearable electronics, etc. Metals salts that can be converted into metal ions and metal oxide can be also used for several application areas such as battery, purification natural gas, filtration, absorption. This study investigates the effects of CNT and metal complex compounds (MnCl₂, metal salts) on the morphological structure of graphene oxide fibers. The graphene oxide dispersion was manufactured by modified Hummers method, and continuous graphene oxide fibers were produced with wet spinning. The CNT and MnCl₂ were incorporated into the coagulation baths during wet spinning process. Produced composite continuous fibers were analyzed with SEM, SEM-EDS and AFM microscopies and as spun fiber counts were measured.

Keywords: continuous graphene oxide fiber, Hummers' method, CNT, MnCl₂

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7 Screening, Selection and Optimization of Extracellular Methanol and Ethanol Tolerant Lipase from Acinetobacter sp. K5B4

Authors: Khaled M. Khleifat

Abstract:

An extracellular methanol and ethanol tolerant lipase producing bacterial strain K5b4 was isolated from soil samples contaminated with hydrocarbon residues. It was identified by using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16srRNA technique as Acinetobacter species. The immobilized lipase from Acinetobacter sp. K5b4 retained more than 98% of its residual activity after incubation with pure methanol and ethanol for 24 hours. The highest hydrolytic activity of the immobilized enzyme was obtained in the presence of 75% (v/v) methanol in the assay solution. In contrary, the enzyme was able to maintain its original activity up to only 25% (v/v) ethanol whereas at elevated concentrations of 50 and 75% (v/v) the enzyme activity was reduced to 10 and 40%, respectively. Maximum lipase activity of 31.5 mU/mL was achieved after 48 hr cultivation when the optimized medium (pH 7.0) that composed of 1.0% (w/v) olive oil, 0.2% (w/v) glycerol, 0.15% (w/v) yeast extract, and 0.05% (w/v) NaCl was inoculated with 0.4% (v/v) seed culture and incubated at 30°C and 150 rpm agitation speed. However, the presence of CaCl2 in the growth media did not show any inhibitory or stimulatory effect on the enzyme production as it compared to the control experiment. Meanwhile, the other mineral salts MgCl2, MnCl2, KCl and CoCl2 were negatively affected the production of lipase enzyme. The inhibition of lipase production from Acinetobacter sp. K5b4 in presence of glucose suggesting that lipase gene expression is prone to catabolic repression.

Keywords: K5B4, methanol and ethanol, acinetobacter, morphological

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6 Improved Production, Purification and Characterization of Invertase from Penicillium lilacinum by Shaken Flask Technique of Submerged Fermentation

Authors: Kashif Ahmed

Abstract:

Recent years researchers have been motivated towards extensive exploring of living organism, which could be utilized effectively in intense industrial conditions. The present study shows enhanced production, purification and characterization of industrial enzyme, invertase (Beta-D-fructofuranosidase) from Penicillium lilacinum. Various agricultural based by-products (cotton stalk, sunflower waste, rice husk, molasses and date syrup) were used as energy source. The highest amount of enzyme (13.05 Units/mL) was produced when the strain was cultured on growth medium containing date syrup as energy source. Yeast extract was used as nitrogen source after 96 h of incubation at incubation temperature of 40º C. Initial pH of medium was 8.0, inoculum size 6x10⁶ conidia and 200 rev/min agitation rate. The enzyme was also purified (7 folds than crude) and characterized. Molecular mass of purified enzyme (65 kDa) was determined by 10 % SDS-PAGE. Lineweaver-Burk Plot was used to determine Kinetic constants (Vmax 178.6 U/mL/min and Km 2.76 mM). Temperature and pH optima were 55º C and 5.5 respectively. MnCl₂ (52.9 %), MgSO₄ (48.9 %), BaCl₂ (24.6 %), MgCl₂ (9.6 %), CoCl₂ (5.7 %) and NaCl (4.2 %) enhanced the relative activity of enzyme and HgCl₂ (-92.8 %), CuSO₄ (-80.2 %) and CuCl₂ (-76.6 %) were proved inhibitors. The strain was showing enzyme activity even at extreme conditions of temperature (up to 60º C) and pH (up to 9), so it can be used in industries.

Keywords: invertase, Penicillium lilacinum, submerged fermentation, industrial enzyme

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5 Improvement of Activity of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis via Immobilization on Polyethylenimine-Chitosan

Authors: Carlos A. C. G. Neto, Natan C. G. e Silva , Thaís de O. Costa, Luciana R. B. Gonçalves, Maria V. P. Rocha

Abstract:

β-galactosidases (E.C. 3.2.1.23) are enzymes that have attracted by catalyzing the hydrolysis of lactose and in producing galacto-oligosaccharides by favoring transgalactosylation reactions. These enzymes, when immobilized, can have some enzymatic characteristics substantially improved, and the coating of supports with multifunctional polymers is a promising alternative to enhance the stability of the biocatalysts, among which polyethylenimine (PEI) stands out. PEI has certain properties, such as being a flexible polymer that suits the structure of the enzyme, giving greater stability, especially for multimeric enzymes such as β-galactosidases. Besides that, protects them from environmental variations. The use of chitosan support coated with PEI could improve the catalytic efficiency of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis in the transgalactosylation reaction for the production of prebiotics, such as lactulose since this strain is more effective in the hydrolysis reaction. In this context, the aim of the present work was first to develop biocatalysts of β-galactosidase from K. lactis immobilized on chitosan-coated with PEI, determining the immobilization parameters, its operational and thermal stability, and then to apply it in hydrolysis and transgalactolisation reactions to produce lactulose using whey as a substrate. The immobilization of β-galactosidase in chitosan previously functionalized with 0.8% (v/v) glutaraldehyde and then coated with 10% (w/v) PEI solution was evaluated using an enzymatic load of 10 mg protein per gram support. Subsequently, the hydrolysis and transgalactosylation reactions were conducted at 50 °C, 120 RPM for 20 minutes, using whey supplemented with fructose at a ratio of 1:2 lactose/fructose, totaling 200 g/L. Operational stability studies were performed in the same conditions for 10 cycles. Thermal stabilities of biocatalysts were conducted at 50 ºC in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.6 with 0.1 mM MnCl2. The biocatalyst whose support was coated was named CHI_GLU_PEI_GAL, and the one that was not coated was named CHI_GLU_GAL. The coating of the support with PEI considerably improved the parameters of immobilization. The immobilization yield increased from 56.53% to 97.45%, biocatalyst activity from 38.93 U/g to 95.26 U/g and the efficiency from 3.51% to 6.0% for uncoated and coated support, respectively. The biocatalyst CHI_GLU_PEI_GAL was better than CHI_GLU_GAL in the hydrolysis of lactose and production of lactulose, converting 97.05% of lactose at 5 min of reaction and producing 7.60 g/L lactulose in the same time interval. QUI_GLU_PEI_GAL biocatalyst was stable in the hydrolysis reactions of lactose during the 10 cycles evaluated, converting 73.45% lactose even after the tenth cycle, and in the lactulose production was stable until the fifth cycle evaluated, producing 10.95 g/L lactulose. However, the thermal stability of CHI_GLU_GAL biocatalyst was superior, with a half-life time 6 times higher, probably because the enzyme was immobilized by covalent bonding, which is stronger than adsorption (CHI_GLU_PEI_GAL). Therefore, the strategy of coating the supports with PEI has proven to be effective for the immobilization of β-galactosidase from K. lactis, considerably improving the immobilization parameters, as well as, the catalytic action of the enzyme. Besides that, this process can be economically viable due to the use of an industrial residue as a substrate.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, immobilization, kluyveromyces lactis, lactulose, polyethylenimine, transgalactosylation reaction, whey

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4 Immobilization of β-Galactosidase from Kluyveromyces Lactis on Polyethylenimine-Agarose for Production of Lactulose

Authors: Carlos A. C. G. Neto, Natan C. G. Silva, Thais O. Costa, Luciana R. B. Goncalves, Maria v. P. Rocha

Abstract:

Galactosidases are enzymes responsible for catalyzing lactose hydrolysis reactions and also favoring transgalactosylation reactions for the production of prebiotics, among which lactulose stands out. These enzymes, when immobilized, can have some enzymatic characteristics substantially improved, and the coating of supports with multifunctional polymers in immobilization processes is a promising alternative in order to extend the useful life of the biocatalysts, for example, the coating with polyethyleneimine (PEI). PEI is a flexible polymer that suits the structure of the enzyme, giving greater stability, especially for multimeric enzymes such as β-galactosidases and also protects it from environmental variations, for example, pH and temperature. In addition, it can substantially improve the immobilization parameters and also the efficiency of enzymatic reactions. In this context, the aim of the present work was first to develop biocatalysts of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis immobilized on PEI coated agarose, determining the immobilization parameters, its operational and thermal stability, and then to apply it in the hydrolysis of lactose and synthesis of lactulose, using whey as a substrate. This immobilization strategy was chosen in order to improve the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme in the transgalactosylation reaction for the production of prebiotics, and there are few studies with β-galactosidase from this strain. The immobilization of β-galactosidase in agarose previously functionalized with 48% (w/v) glycidol and then coated with 10% (w/v) PEI solution was evaluated using an enzymatic load of 10 mg/g of protein. Subsequently, the hydrolysis and transgalactosylation reactions were conducted at 50 °C, 120 RPM for 20 minutes, using whey (66.7 g/L of lactose) supplemented with 133.3 g/L fructose at a ratio of 1:2 (lactose/fructose). Operational stability studies were performed in the same conditions for 10 cycles. Thermal stabilities of biocatalysts were conducted at 50 ºC in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.6, with 0.1 mM MnCl2. The biocatalysts whose supports were coated were named AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL, and those that were not coated were named AGA_GLY_GAL. The coating of the support with PEI considerably improved immobilization yield (2.6-fold), the biocatalyst activity (1.4-fold), and efficiency (2.2-fold). The biocatalyst AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL was better than AGA_GLY_GAL in hydrolysis and transgalactosylation reactions, converting 88.92% of lactose at 5 min of reaction and obtaining a residual concentration of 5.24 g/L. Besides that, it was produced 13.90 g/L lactulose in the same time interval. AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL biocatalyst was stable during the 10 cycles evaluated, converting approximately 80% of lactose and producing 10.95 g/L of lactulose even after the tenth cycle. However, the thermal stability of AGA_GLY_GAL biocatalyst was superior, with a half-life time 5 times higher, probably because the enzyme was immobilized by covalent bonding, which is stronger than adsorption (AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL). Therefore, the strategy of coating the supports with PEI has proven to be effective for the immobilization of β-galactosidase from K. lactis, considerably improving the immobilization parameters, as well as the enzyme, catalyzed reactions. In addition, the use of whey as a raw material for lactulose production has proved to be an industrially advantageous alternative.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, immobilization, lactulose, polyethylenimine, whey

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3 The Possible Interaction between Bisphenol A, Caffeine and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Neurotoxicity Induced by Manganese in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Hebatalla I. Ahmed, Asmaa Abdelaty

Abstract:

Background: Manganese (Mn) is a naturally occurring element. Exposure to high levels of Mn causes neurotoxic effects and represents an environmental risk factor. Mn neurotoxicity is poorly understood but changing of AChE activity, monoamines and oxidative stress has been established. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics. There is considerable debate about whether its exposure represents an environmental risk. Caffeine is one of the major contributors to the dietary antioxidants which prevent oxidative damage and may reduce the risk of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is another major component of green tea and has known interactions with caffeine. It also has health-promoting effects in CNS. Objective: To evaluate the potential protective effects of Caffeine and/or EGCG against Mn-induced neurotoxicity either alone or in the presence of BPA in rats. Methods: Seven groups of rats were used and received daily for 5 weeks MnCl2.4H2O (10 mg/kg, IP) except the control group which received saline, corn oil and distilled H2O. Mn was injected either alone or in combination with each of the following: BPA (50 mg/kg, PO), caffeine (10 mg/kg, PO), EGCG (5 mg/kg, IP), caffeine + EGCG and BPA +caffeine +EGCG. All rats were examined in five behavioral tests (grid, bar, swimming, open field and Y- maze tests). Biochemical changes in monoamines, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, glutamate, acetyl cholinesterase and oxidative parameters, as well as histopathological changes in the brain, were also evaluated for all groups. Results: Mn significantly increased MDA and nitrite content as well as caspase-3, GSK-3B, PGE2 and glutamate levels while significantly decreased TAC and SOD as well as cholinesterase in the striatum. It also decreased DA, NE and 5-HT levels in the striatum and frontal cortex. BPA together with Mn enhanced oxidative stress generation induced by Mn while increased monoamine content that was decreased by Mn in rat striatum. BPA abolished neuronal degeneration induced by Mn in the hippocampus but not in the substantia nigra, striatum and cerebral cortex. Behavioral examinations showed that caffeine and EGCG co-administration had more pronounced protective effect against Mn-induced neurotoxicity than each one alone. EGCG alone or in combination with caffeine prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex induced by Mn while caffeine alone prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra and striatum but still showed some nuclear pyknosis in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The marked protection of caffeine and EGCG co-administration also confirmed by the significant increase in TAC, SOD, ACHE, DA, NE and 5-HT as well as the decrease in MDA, nitrite, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, the glutamic acid in the striatum. Conclusion: Neuronal degeneration induced by Mn showed some inhibition with BPA exposure despite the enhancement in oxidative stress generation. Co-administration of EGCG and caffeine can protect against neuronal degeneration induced by Mn and improve behavioral deficits associated with its neurotoxicity. The protective effect of EGCG was more pronounced than that of caffeine even with BPA co-exposure.

Keywords: manganese, bisphenol a, caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, neurotoxicity, behavioral tests, rats

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2 Collagen/Hydroxyapatite Compositions Doped with Transitional Metals for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: D. Ficai, A. Ficai, D. Gudovan, I. A. Gudovan, I. Ardelean, R. Trusca, E. Andronescu, V. Mitran, A. Cimpean

Abstract:

In the last years, scientists struggled hardly to mimic bone structures to develop implants and biostructures which present higher biocompatibility and reduced rejection rate. One way to obtain this goal is to use similar materials as that of bone, namely collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials. However, it is very important to tailor both compositions but also the microstructure of the bone that would ensure both the optimal osteointegartion and the mechanical properties required by the application. In this study, new collagen/hydroxyapatites composite materials doped with Cu, Li, Mn, Zn were successfully prepared. The synthesis method is described below: weight the Ca(OH)₂ mass, i.e., 7,3067g, and ZnCl₂ (0.134g), CuSO₄ (0.159g), LiCO₃ (0.133g), MnCl₂.4H₂O (0.1971g), and suspend in 100ml distilled water under magnetic stirring. The solution thus obtained is added a solution of NaH₂PO₄*H2O (8.247g dissolved in 50ml distilled water) under slow dropping of 1 ml/min followed by adjusting the pH to 9.5 with HCl and finally filter and wash until neutral pH. The as-obtained slurry was dried in the oven at 80°C and then calcined at 600°C in order to ensure a proper purification of the final product of organic phases, also inducing a proper sterilization of the mixture before insertion into the collagen matrix. The collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials are tailored from morphological point of view to optimize their biocompatibility and bio-integration against mechanical properties whereas the addition of the dopants is aimed to improve the biological activity of the samples. The addition of transitional metals can improve the biocompatibility and especially the osteoblasts adhesion (Mn²⁺) or to induce slightly better osteoblast differentiation of the osteoblast, Zn²⁺ being a cofactor for many enzymes including those responsible for cell differentiation. If the amount is too high, the final material can become toxic and lose all of its biocompatibility. In order to achieve a good biocompatibility and not reach the cytotoxic effect, the amount of transitional metals added has to be maintained at low levels (0.5% molar). The amount of transitional metals entering into the elemental cell of HA will be verified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometric system. This highly sensitive technique is necessary, because, at such low levels of transitional metals, the difference between biocompatible and cytotoxic is a very thin line, thus requiring proper and thorough investigation using a precise technique. In order to determine the structure and morphology of the obtained composite materials, IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) were used. Acknowledgment: The present work was possible due to the EU-funding grant POSCCE-A2O2.2.1-2013-1, Project No. 638/12.03.2014, code SMIS-CSNR 48652. The financial contribution received from the national project “Biomimetic porous structures obtained by 3D printing developed for bone tissue engineering (BIOGRAFTPRINT), No. 127PED/2017 is also highly acknowledged.

Keywords: collagen, composite materials, hydroxyapatite, bone tissue engineering

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1 Improvement in the Photocatalytic Activity of Nanostructured Manganese Ferrite – Type of Materials by Mechanochemical Activation

Authors: Katerina Zaharieva, Katya Milenova, Zara Cherkezova-Zheleva, Alexander Eliyas, Boris Kunev, Ivan Mitov

Abstract:

The synthesized nanosized manganese ferrite-type of samples have been tested as photocatalysts in the reaction of oxidative degradation of model contaminant Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye in aqueous solutions under UV irradiation. As it is known this azo dye is applied in the textile-coloring industry and it is discharged into the waterways causing pollution. The co-precipitation procedure has been used for the synthesis of manganese ferrite-type of materials: Sample 1 - Mn0.25Fe2.75O4, Sample 2 - Mn0.5Fe2.5O4 and Sample 3 - MnFe2O4 from 0.03M aqueous solutions of MnCl2•4H2O, FeCl2•4H2O and/or FeCl3•6H2O and 0.3M NaOH in appropriate amounts. The mechanochemical activation of co-precipitated ferrite-type of samples has been performed in argon (Samples 1 and 2) or in air atmosphere (Sample 3) for 2 hours at a milling speed of 500 rpm. The mechano-chemical treatment has been carried out in a high energy planetary ball mill type PM 100, Retsch, Germany. The mass ratio between balls and powder was 30:1. As a result mechanochemically activated Sample 4 - Mn0.25Fe2.75O4, Sample 5 - Mn0.5Fe2.5O4 and Sample 6 - MnFe2O4 have been obtained. The synthesized manganese ferrite-type photocatalysts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The registered X-ray diffraction patterns and Moessbauer spectra of co-precipitated ferrite-type of materials show the presence of manganese ferrite and additional akaganeite phase. The presence of manganese ferrite and small amounts of iron phases is established in the mechanochemically treated samples. The calculated average crystallite size of manganese ferrites varies within the range 7 – 13 nm. This result is confirmed by Moessbauer study. The registered spectra show superparamagnetic behavior of the prepared materials at room temperature. The photocatalytic investigations have been made using polychromatic UV-A light lamp (Sylvania BLB, 18 W) illumination with wavelength maximum at 365 nm. The intensity of light irradiation upon the manganese ferrite-type photocatalysts was 0.66 mW.cm-2. The photocatalytic reaction of oxidative degradation of RB5 dye was carried out in a semi-batch slurry photocatalytic reactor with 0.15 g of ferrite-type powder, 150 ml of 20 ppm dye aqueous solution under magnetic stirring at rate 400 rpm and continuously feeding air flow. The samples achieved adsorption-desorption equilibrium in the dark period for 30 min and then the UV-light was turned on. After regular time intervals aliquot parts from the suspension were taken out and centrifuged to separate the powder from solution. The residual concentrations of dye were established by a UV-Vis absorbance single beam spectrophotometer CamSpec M501 (UK) measuring in the wavelength region from 190 to 800 nm. The photocatalytic measurements determined that the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants calculated by linear slopes approximating to first order kinetic equation, increase in following order: Sample 3 (1.1х10-3 min-1) < Sample 1 (2.2х10-3 min-1) < Sample 2 (3.3 х10-3 min-1) < Sample 4 (3.8х10-3 min-1) < Sample 6 (11х10-3 min-1) < Sample 5 (15.2х10-3 min-1). The mechanochemically activated manganese ferrite-type of photocatalyst samples show significantly higher degree of oxidative degradation of RB5 dye after 120 minutes of UV light illumination in comparison with co-precipitated ferrite-type samples: Sample 5 (92%) > Sample 6 (91%) > Sample 4 (63%) > Sample 2 (53%) > Sample 1 (42%) > Sample 3 (15%). Summarizing the obtained results we conclude that the mechanochemical activation leads to a significant enhancement of the degree of oxidative degradation of the RB5 dye and photocatalytic activity of tested manganese ferrite-type of catalyst samples under our experimental conditions. The mechanochemically activated Mn0.5Fe2.5O4 ferrite-type of material displays the highest photocatalytic activity (15.2х10-3 min-1) and degree of oxidative degradation of the RB5 dye (92%) compared to the other synthesized samples. Especially a significant improvement in the degree of oxidative degradation of RB5 dye (91%) has been determined for mechanochemically treated MnFe2O4 ferrite-type of sample with the highest extent of substitution of iron ions by manganese ions than in the case of the co-precipitated MnFe2O4 sample (15%). The mechanochemically activated manganese ferrite-type of samples show good photocatalytic properties in the reaction of oxidative degradation of RB5 azo dye in aqueous solutions and it could find potential application for dye removal from wastewaters originating from textile industry.

Keywords: nanostructured manganese ferrite-type materials, photocatalytic activity, Reactive Black 5, water treatment

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