Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1018

Search results for: membrane filtration

1018 Micro-Filtration with an Inorganic Membrane

Authors: Benyamina, Ouldabess, Bensalah

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to use membrane technique for filtration of a coloring solution. the preparation of the micro-filtration membranes is based on a natural clay powder with a low cost, deposited on macro-porous ceramic supports. The micro-filtration membrane provided a very large permeation flow. Indeed, the filtration effectiveness of membrane was proved by the total discoloration of bromothymol blue solution with initial concentration of 10-3 mg/L after the first minutes.

Keywords: the inorganic membrane, micro-filtration, coloring solution, natural clay powder

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1017 Ceramic Membrane Filtration Technologies for Oilfield Produced Water Treatment

Authors: Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Oliver Schmitz, Axel Schmidt, Peter Czermak

Abstract:

“Produced water” (PW) is any fossil water that is brought to the surface along with crude oil or natural gas. By far, PW is the largest waste stream by volume associated with oil and gas production operations. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging PW on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concerns. Therefore, there is a need for new technologies for PW treatment due to increase focus on water conservation and environmental regulation. The use of membrane processes for treatment of PW has several advantages over many of the traditional separation techniques. In oilfield produced water treatment with ceramic membranes, process efficiency is characterized by the specific permeate flux and by the oil separation performance. Apart from the membrane properties, the permeate flux during filtration of oily wastewaters is known to be strongly dependent on the constituents of the feed solution, as well as on process conditions, e.g. trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and cross-flow velocity (CFV). The research project presented in these report describes the application of different ceramic membrane filtration technologies for the efficient treatment of oil-field produced water and different model oily solutions.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, membrane fouling, oil rejection, produced water treatment

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1016 Graphene Based Materials as Novel Membranes for Water Desalination and Boron Separation

Authors: Francesca Risplendi, Li-Chiang Lin, Jeffrey C. Grossman, Giancarlo Cicero

Abstract:

Desalination is one of the most employed approaches to supply water in the context of a rapidly growing global water shortage. However, the most popular water filtration method available is the reverse osmosis (RO) technique, still suffers from important drawbacks, such as a large energy demands and high process costs. In addition some serious limitations have been recently discovered, among them, the boron problem seems to have a critical meaning. Boron has been found to have a dual effect on the living systems on Earth and the difference between boron deficiency and boron toxicity levels is quite small. The aim of this project is to develop a new generation of RO membranes based on porous graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) able to remove salts from seawater and to reduce boron concentrations in the permeate to the level that meets the drinking or process water requirements, by means of a theoretical approach based on density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics. Computer simulations have been employed to investigate the relationship between the atomic structure of nanoporous graphene or rGO monolayer and its membrane properties in RO applications (i.e. water permeability and resilience at RO pressures). In addition, an emphasis has been given to multilayer nanoporous rGO and rGO flakes based membranes. By means of non-equilibrium MD simulations, we investigated the water transport mechanism permeating through such multilayer membrane focusing on the effect of slit widths and sheet geometries. These simulations allowed us to establish the implications of these graphene based materials as promising membrane properties for desalination plants and as boron filtration.

Keywords: boron filtration, desalination, graphene membrane, reduced graphene oxide membrane

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1015 Layer-by-Layer Modified Ceramic Membranes for Micropollutant Removal

Authors: Jenny Radeva, Anke-Gundula Roth, Christian Goebbert, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Lars Daehne, Axel Wolfram, Juergen Wiese

Abstract:

Ceramic membranes for water purification combine excellent stability with long-life characteristics and high chemical resistance. Layer-by-Layer coating is a well-known technique for customization and optimization of filtration properties of membranes but is mostly used on polymeric membranes. Ceramic membranes comprising a metal oxide filtration layer of Al2O3 or TiO2 are charged and therefore highly suitable for polyelectrolyte adsorption. The high stability of the membrane support allows efficient backwash and chemical cleaning of the membrane. The presented study reports metal oxide/organic composite membrane with an increased rejection of bivalent salts like MgSO4 and the organic micropollutant Diclofenac. A self-build apparatus was used for applying the polyelectrolyte multilayers on the ceramic membrane. The device controls the flow and timing of the polyelectrolytes and washing solutions. As support for the Layer-by-Layer coat, ceramic mono-channel membranes were used with an inner capillary of 8 mm diameter, which is connected to the coating device. The inner wall of the capillary is coated subsequently with polycat- and anions. The filtration experiments were performed with a feed solution of MgSO4 and Diclofenac. The salt content of the permeate was detected conductometrically and Diclofenac was measured with UV-Adsorption. The concluded results show retention values of magnesium sulfate of 70% and diclofenac retention of 60%. Further experimental research studied various parameters of the composite membrane-like Molecular Weight Cut Off and pore size, Zeta potential and its mechanical and chemical robustness.

Keywords: water purification, polyelectrolytes, membrane modification, layer-by-layer coating, ceramic membranes

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1014 Optimization of Tangential Flow Filtration Process for Purifying DNA Vaccine

Authors: Piyakajornkul T., Noppiboon S., Hochareon L., Kitsubun P.

Abstract:

Nowadays, DNA vaccines become an interesting subject in the third vaccine generation. The platform of DNA vaccines production has been developed and its downstream process becomes challenging due to the quality of the products in terms of purity and percentage of supercoiled DNA. To overcome these challenges, tangential flow filtration (TFF), which is involved in the purification process, could be used since it provides effective separation of impurity prior to performing further purification steps. However, operating conditions of TFF is varied based on several factors such as sizes of target particle and impurities, a concentration of solution as well as a concentration polarization on the membrane surface. In this study, pVAX1/lacZ was used as a model of TFF optimization in order to prevent a concentration polarization that can lead to the membrane fouling and also minimize a diafiltration volume while maintaining the maximum permeate flux resulting in proper operating times and buffer volume. By using trans membrane pressure (TMP) excursion method, feed flow rates and TMP were varied. The results showed a correlation of permeate flux with TMP where the maximum volume concentration factor reached 2.5 times of the initial volume when feed flow rate and TMP were 7 liters/m²/min and 1 bar, respectively. It was optimal operating conditions before TFF system undergone pressure independent regime. In addition, the diafiltration volume was 14 times of the concentrated volume prior to performing a further anion chromatography process.

Keywords: concentration polarization, DNA vaccines, optimization, permeate flux, pressure dependent, tangential flow filtration (TFF), trans membrane pressure (TMP)

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1013 Effect of Proteoliposome Concentration on Salt Rejection Rate of Polysulfone Membrane Prepared by Incorporation of Escherichia coli and Halomonas elongata Aquaporins

Authors: Aysenur Ozturk, Aysen Yildiz, Hilal Yilmaz, Pinar Ergenekon, Melek Ozkan

Abstract:

Water scarcity is one of the most important environmental problems of the World today. Desalination process is regarded as a promising solution to solve drinking water problem of the countries facing with water shortages. Reverse osmosis membranes are widely used for desalination processes. Nano structured biomimetic membrane production is one of the most challenging research subject for improving water filtration efficiency of the membranes and for reducing the cost of desalination processes. There are several researches in the literature on the development of novel biomimetic nanofiltration membranes by incorporation of aquaporin Z molecules. Aquaporins are cell membrane proteins that allow the passage of water molecules and reject all other dissolved solutes. They are present in cell membranes of most of the living organisms and provide high water passage capacity. In this study, GST (Glutathione S-transferas) tagged E. coli aquaporinZ and H. elongate aquaporin proteins, which were previously cloned and characterized, were purified from E. coli BL21 cells and used for fabrication of modified Polysulphone Membrane (PS). Aquaporins were incorporated on the surface of the membrane by using 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) phospolipids as carrier liposomes. Aquaporin containing proteoliposomes were immobilized on the surface of the membrane with m-phenylene-diamine (MPD) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) rejection layer. Water flux, salt rejection and glucose rejection performances of the thin film composite membranes were tested by using Dead-End Reactor Cell. In this study, effect of proteoliposome concentration, and filtration pressure on water flux and salt rejection rate of membranes were investigated. Type of aquaporin used for membrane fabrication, flux and pressure applied for filtration were found to be important parameters affecting rejection rates. Results suggested that optimization of concentration of aquaporin carriers (proteoliposomes) on the membrane surface is necessary for fabrication of effective composite membranes used for different purposes.

Keywords: aquaporins, biomimmetic membranes, desalination, water treatment

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1012 An Inorganic Nanofiber/Polymeric Microfiber Network Membrane for High-Performance Oil/Water Separation

Authors: Zhaoyang Liu

Abstract:

It has been highly desired to develop a high-performance membrane for separating oil/water emulsions with the combined features of high water flux, high oil separation efficiency, and high mechanical stability. Here, we demonstrated a design for high-performance membranes constructed with ultra-long titanate nanofibers (over 30 µm in length)/cellulose microfibers. An integrated network membrane was achieved with these ultra-long nano/microfibers, contrast to the non-integrated membrane constructed with carbon nanotubes (5 µm in length)/cellulose microfibers. The morphological properties of the prepared membranes were characterized by A FEI Quanta 400 (Hillsboro, OR, United States) environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The hydrophilicity, underwater oleophobicity and oil adhesion property of the membranes were examined using an advanced goniometer (Rame-hart model 500, Succasunna, NJ, USA). More specifically, the hydrophilicity of membranes was investigated by analyzing the spreading process of water into membranes. A filtration device (Nalgene 300-4050, Rochester, NY, USA) with an effective membrane area of 11.3 cm² was used for evaluating the separation properties of the fabricated membranes. The prepared oil-in-water emulsions were poured into the filtration device. The separation process was driven under vacuum with a constant pressure of 5 kPa. The filtrate was collected, and the oil content in water was detected by a Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer (Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan) to examine the separation efficiency. Water flux (J) of the membrane was calculated by measuring the time needed to collect some volume of permeate. This network membrane demonstrated good mechanical flexibility and robustness, which are critical for practical applications. This network membrane also showed high separation efficiency (99.9%) for oil/water emulsions with oil droplet size down to 3 µm, and meanwhile, has high water permeation flux (6.8 × 10³ L m⁻² h⁻¹ bar⁻¹) at low operation pressure. The high water flux is attributed to the interconnected scaffold-like structure throughout the whole membrane, while the high oil separation efficiency is attributed to the nanofiber-made nanoporous selective layer. Moreover, the economic materials and low-cost fabrication process of this membrane indicate its great potential for large-scale industrial applications.

Keywords: membrane, inorganic nanofibers, oil/water separation, emulsions

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1011 Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Aquarius Solutions Using Hybrid Ceramic Membranes

Authors: Jenny Radeva, Anke-Gundula Roth, Christian Goebbert, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Lars Daehne, Axel Wolfram, Juergen Wiese

Abstract:

The technological advantages of ceramic filtration elements were combined with polyelectrolyte films in the development process of hybrid membrane for the elimination of pharmaceuticals from Aquarius solutions. Previously extruded alumina ceramic membranes were coated with nanosized polyelectrolyte films using Layer-by-Layer technology. The polyelectrolyte chains form a network with nano-pores on the ceramic surface and promote the retention of small molecules like pharmaceuticals and microplastics, which cannot be eliminated using standard ultrafiltration methods. Additionally, the polyelectrolyte coat contributes with its adjustable (based on application) Zeta Potential for repulsion of contaminant molecules with opposite charges. Properties like permeability, bubble point, pore size distribution and Zeta Potential of ceramic and hybrid membranes were characterized using various laboratory and pilot tests and compared with each other. The most significant role for the membrane characterization played the filtration behavior investigation, during which retention against widely used pharmaceuticals like Diclofenac, Ibuprofen and Sulfamethoxazol was subjected to series of filtration tests. The presented study offers a new perspective on nanosized molecules removal from aqueous solutions and shows the importance of combined techniques application for the elimination of pharmaceutical contaminants from drinking water.

Keywords: water treatment, hybrid membranes, layer-by-layer coating, filtration, polyelectrolytes

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1010 Removal of Chromium by UF5kDa Membrane: Its Characterization, Optimization of Parameters, and Evaluation of Coefficients

Authors: Bharti Verma, Chandrajit Balomajumder

Abstract:

Water pollution is escalated owing to industrialization and random ejection of one or more toxic heavy metal ions from the semiconductor industry, electroplating, metallurgical, mining, chemical manufacturing, tannery industries, etc., In semiconductor industry various kinds of chemicals in wafers preparation are used . Fluoride, toxic solvent, heavy metals, dyes and salts, suspended solids and chelating agents may be found in wastewater effluent of semiconductor manufacturing industry. Also in the chrome plating, in the electroplating industry, the effluent contains heavy amounts of Chromium. Since Cr(VI) is highly toxic, its exposure poses an acute risk of health. Also, its chronic exposure can even lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. On the contrary, Cr (III) which is naturally occurring, is much less toxic than Cr(VI). Discharge limit of hexavalent chromium and trivalent chromium are 0.05 mg/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. There are numerous methods such as adsorption, chemical precipitation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, and electrochemical methods for the heavy metal removal. The present study focuses on the removal of Chromium ions by using flat sheet UF5kDa membrane. The Ultra filtration membrane process is operated above micro filtration membrane process. Thus separation achieved may be influenced due to the effect of Sieving and Donnan effect. Ultrafiltration is a promising method for the rejection of heavy metals like chromium, fluoride, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, etc. from effluent water. Benefits behind ultrafiltration process are that the operation is quite simple, the removal efficiency is high as compared to some other methods of removal and it is reliable. Polyamide membranes have been selected for the present study on rejection of Cr(VI) from feed solution. The objective of the current work is to examine the rejection of Cr(VI) from aqueous feed solutions by flat sheet UF5kDa membranes with different parameters such as pressure, feed concentration and pH of the feed. The experiments revealed that with increasing pressure, the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) is increased. Also, the effect of pH of feed solution, the initial dosage of chromium in the feed solution has been studied. The membrane has been characterized by FTIR, SEM and AFM before and after the run. The mass transfer coefficients have been estimated. Membrane transport parameters have been calculated and have been found to be in a good correlation with the applied model.

Keywords: heavy metal removal, membrane process, waste water treatment, ultrafiltration

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1009 Using Nanofiber-Like Attapulgite Microfiltration Membranes to Treat Oily Wastewater

Authors: Shouyong Zhou, Meisheng Li, Yijiang Zhao

Abstract:

The environmentally acceptable disposal of oily wastewater is a current challenge to many industries. The membrane separation technologies, which is no phase change, without pharmaceutical dosing, reprocessing costs low, less energy consumption, etc., have been widely applied in oily wastewater treatment. In our lab, a kind of low cost ceramic microfiltration membranes with a separation layer of attapulgite nanofibers (attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membranes) has been prepared and applied in the purification of cellulase fermentation broth and TiO2 nanoparticles system successfully. In this paper, this new attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane was selected to try to separate water from oily wastewater. The oil-in water emulsion was obtained from mixing 1 g/L engine oil, 0.5 g/L Tween-80, 0.5 g/L Span-80 and distilled water at mild speed in blender for 2 min. The particle size distribution of the oil-in-water emulsion was controlled. The maximum steady flux and COD rejection for a 0.2 um attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane can reach about 450 L. m-2. h-1 and 98% at 0.2 MPa. The results obtained in this work indicated that the attapulgite microfiltration membrane may represent a feasible pretreatment for oily wastewater.

Keywords: attapulgite, microfiltration membrane, oily wastewater, cross-flow filtration

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1008 Fouling of Regenerated Ultrafiltration Membrane in Treatment of Oily Wastewater of Palm Oil Refinery

Authors: K. F. Md Yunos, N. S. Pajar, N. S. Azmi

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Oily wastewater in Malaysian refinery has become a big issue of water and environment pollution to be solved urgently. The results of an experimental study on separation of oily wastewaters are presented. The characteristic of filtration behavior of commercial polymer ultrafiltration (UF) membranes was evaluated in the treatment of oily wastewater from palm oil refinery. The performance of different molecular weight cut off 5kDa and 10kDa regenerated cellulose membrane were evaluated and compared and the fouling behavior were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of pressure (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 bar) and sample concentration (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%) on fouling of 5kDa and 10kDa membrane were evaluated. The characteristic of the sample solutions were analyzed for turbidity, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), BOD, and COD. The results showed that the best fit to experimental data corresponds to the cake layer formation followed by the intermediate blocking for the experimental conditions tested. A more detailed analysis of the fouling mechanisms was studied by dividing the filtration curves into different regions corresponding to the different fouling mechanisms. Intermediate blocking and cake layer formation or combinations of them were found to occur during the UF experiments depending on the operating conditions.

Keywords: fouling, oily wastewater, regenerated cellulose, ultrafiltration

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1007 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan

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The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

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1006 Development of Vacuum Planar Membrane Dehumidifier for Air-Conditioning

Authors: Chun-Han Li, Tien-Fu Yang, Chen-Yu Chen, Wei-Mon Yan

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The conventional dehumidification method in air-conditioning system mostly utilizes a cooling coil to remove the moisture in the air via cooling the supply air down below its dew point temperature. During the process, it needs to reheat the supply air to meet the set indoor condition that consumes a considerable amount of energy and affect the coefficient of performance of the system. If the processes of dehumidification and cooling are separated and operated respectively, the indoor conditions will be more efficiently controlled. Therefore, decoupling the dehumidification and cooling processes in heating, ventilation and air conditioning system is one of the key technologies as membrane dehumidification processes for the next generation. The membrane dehumidification method has the advantages of low cost, low energy consumption, etc. It utilizes the pore size and hydrophilicity of the membrane to transfer water vapor by mass transfer effect. The moisture in the supply air is removed by the potential energy and driving force across the membrane. The process can save the latent load used to condense water, which makes more efficient energy use because it does not involve heat transfer effect. In this work, the performance measurements including the permeability and selectivity of water vapor and air with the composite and commercial membranes were conducted. According to measured data, we can choose the suitable dehumidification membrane for designing the flow channel length and components of the planar dehumidifier. The vacuum membrane dehumidification system was set up to examine the effects of temperature, humidity, vacuum pressure, flow rate, the coefficient of performance and other parameters on the dehumidification efficiency. The results showed that the commercial Nafion membrane has better water vapor permeability and selectivity. They are suitable for filtration with water vapor and air. Meanwhile, Nafion membrane has promising potential in the dehumidification process.

Keywords: vacuum membrane dehumidification, planar membrane dehumidifier, water vapour and air permeability, air conditioning

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1005 A Novel Nanocomposite Membrane Designed for the Treatment of Oil/Gas Produced Water

Authors: Zhaoyang Liu, Detao Qin, Darren Delai Sun

Abstract:

The onshore production of oil and gas (for example, shale gas) generates large quantities of wastewater, referred to be ‘produced water’, which contains high contents of oils and salts. The direct discharge of produced water, if not appropriately treated, can be toxic to the environment and human health. Membrane filtration has been deemed as an environmental-friendly and cost-effective technology for treating oily wastewater. However, conventional polymeric membranes have their drawbacks of either low salt rejection rate or high membrane fouling tendency when treating oily wastewater. Recent years, forward osmosis (FO) membrane filtration has emerged as a promising technology with its unique advantages of low operation pressure and less membrane fouling tendency. However, until now there is still no report about FO membranes specially designed and fabricated for treating the oily and salty produced water. In this study, a novel nanocomposite FO membrane was developed specially for treating oil- and salt-polluted produced water. By leveraging the recent advance of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, this nanocomposite FO membrane was designed to be made of double layers: an underwater oleophobic selective layer on top of a nanomaterial infused polymeric support layer. Wherein, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were selected to add into the polymeric support layer because adding GO nanosheets can optimize the pore structures of the support layer, thus potentially leading to high water flux for FO membranes. In addition, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel was selected as the selective layer because hydrated and chemically-crosslinked PVA hydrogel is capable of simultaneously rejecting oil and salt. After nanocomposite FO membranes were fabricated, the membrane structures were systematically characterized with the instruments of TEM, FESEM, XRD, ATR-FTIR, surface zeta-potential and Contact angles (CA). The membrane performances for treating produced waters were tested with the instruments of TOC, COD and Ion chromatography. The working mechanism of this new membrane was also analyzed. Very promising experimental results have been obtained. The incorporation of GO nanosheets can reduce internal concentration polarization (ICP) effect in the polymeric support layer. The structural parameter (S value) of the new FO membrane is reduced by 23% from 265 ± 31 μm to 205 ± 23 μm. The membrane tortuosity (τ value) is decreased by 20% from 2.55 ± 0.19 to 2.02 ± 0.13 μm, which contributes to the decrease of S value. Moreover, the highly-hydrophilic and chemically-cross-linked hydrogel selective layer present high antifouling property under saline oil/water emulsions. Compared with commercial FO membrane, this new FO membrane possesses three times higher water flux, higher removal efficiencies for oil (>99.9%) and salts (>99.7% for multivalent ions), and significantly lower membrane fouling tendency (<10%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of a nanocomposite FO membrane with the combined merits of high salt rejection, high oil repellency and high water flux for treating onshore oil/gas produced waters. Due to its outstanding performance and ease of fabrication, this novel nanocomposite FO membrane possesses great application potential in wastewater treatment industry.

Keywords: nanocomposite, membrane, polymer, graphene oxide

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1004 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi

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Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity

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1003 Hybrid Method Development for the Removal of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Medium

Authors: D. Nareshyadav, K. Anand Kishore, D. Bhagawan

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Water scarcity is the much-identified issue all over the world. The available sources of water need to be reused to sustainable future. The present work explores the treatment of dye wastewater using combinative photocatalysis and ceramic nanofiltration membrane. Commercial ceramic membrane and TiO₂ catalyst were used in this study to investigate the removal of crystal violet dye from the aqueous solution. The effect of operating parameters such as inlet pressure, initial concentration of crystal violet dye, catalyst (TiO₂) loading, initial pH was investigated in the individual system as well as the combined system. In this study, 95 % of dye water was decolorized and 89 % of total organic carbon (TOC) was removed by the hybrid system for 500 ppm of dye and 0.75 g/l of TiO₂ concentrations at pH 9. The operation of the integrated photocatalytic reactor and ceramic membrane filtration has shown the maximum removal of crystal violet dye compared to individual systems. Hence this proposed method may be effective for the removal of Crystal violet dye from effluents.

Keywords: advanced oxidation process, ceramic nanoporous membrane, dye degradation/removal, hybrid system, photocatalysis

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1002 Basic Evaluation for Polyetherimide Membrane Using Spectroscopy Techniques

Authors: Hanan Alenezi

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Membrane performance depends on the kind of solvent used in preparation. A membrane made by Polyetherimide (PEI) was evaluated for gas separation using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The purity and the thickness are detected to evaluate the membrane in order to optimize PEI membrane preparation.

Keywords: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Membrane, Polyetherimide PEI, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Solvent, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

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1001 Mitigating Biofouling on Reverse Osmosis Membranes: Applying Greener Preservatives to Biofilm Treatment

Authors: Anna Curtin, Matthew Thibodeau, Heather Buckley

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Water scarcity is characterized by a lack of access to clean and affordable drinking water, as well as water for hygienic and economic needs. The amount of people effected by water scarcity is expected to increase in the coming years due to climate change, population growth, and pollution, amongst other things. In response, scientists are pursuing cost effective drinking water treatment methods, often with a focus on alternative water sources. Desalination of seawater via reverse osmosis is one promising alternative method. Desalination of seawater via reverse osmosis, however, is limited significantly by biofouling of the filtration membrane. Biofouling is the buildup of microorganisms in a biofilm at the water-membrane interface. It clogs the membrane, decreasing the efficiency of filtration, consequently increasing operational and maintenance costs. Although effective, existing chemical treatment methods can damage the membrane, decreasing the lifespan of the membrane; create antibiotic resistance; and cause harm to humans and the environment if they pass through the membrane into the permeate. The current project focuses on applying safer preservatives used in home and personal care products to RO membranes to investigate the biofouling treatment efficacy. Currently, many of these safer preservatives have only been tested on cells in planktonic phase in suspension cultures, not on cells in biofilms. The results of suspension culture tests are not applicable to biofouling scenarios because organisms in planktonic phase in suspension cultures exhibit different morphological, chemical, and metabolic characteristics than those in a biofilm. Testing antifoulant efficacy of safer preservatives on biofilms will provide more applicable results to biofouling on RO membranes. To do this, biofilms will be grown on 96-well-plates and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) and log-reductions will be calculated for various safer preservatives. Results from these tests will be used to guide doses for tests of safer preservatives in a bench-scale RO system.

Keywords: reverse osmosis, biofouling, preservatives, antimicrobial, safer alternative, green chemistry

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1000 Portable Water Treatment for Flood Resilience

Authors: Alireza Abbassi Monjezi, Mohammad Hasan Shaheed

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Flood, caused by excessive rainfall, monsoon, cyclone and tsunami is a common disaster in many countries of the world especially sea connected low-lying countries. A stand-alone self-powered water filtration module for decontamination of floodwater has been designed and modeled. A combination forward osmosis – low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system powered by solar photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) energy is investigated which could overcome the main barriers to water supply for remote areas and ensure off-grid filtration. The proposed system is designed to be small scale and portable to provide on-site potable water to communities that are no longer themselves mobile nor can be reached quickly by the aid agencies. FO is an osmotically driven process that uses osmotic pressure gradients to drive water across a controlled pore membrane from a feed solution (low osmotic pressure) to a draw solution (high osmotic pressure). This drops the demand for high hydraulic pressures and therefore the energy demand. There is also a tendency for lower fouling, easier fouling layer removal and higher water recovery. In addition, the efficiency of the PVT unit will be maximized through freshwater cooling which is integrated into the system. A filtration module with the capacity of 5 m3/day is modeled to treat floodwater and provide drinking water. The module can be used as a tool for disaster relief, particularly in the aftermath of flood and tsunami events.

Keywords: flood resilience, membrane desalination, portable water treatment, solar energy

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999 Bacteriological Analysis of Logan's Branch Rowan County, Kentucky Utilizing Membrane Filtration Method

Authors: Elizabeth G. Hereford, Geoffrey W. Gearner

Abstract:

Logan’s Branch, within the Triplett Creek Watershed of Rowan County, Kentucky, is a waterway located near important agricultural and residential areas. Part of Logan’s Branch flows over an exposed black shale formation with elevated radioactivity and heavy metals. Three sites were chosen in relation to the formation and sampled five times over a thirty-day period during the recreational season. A fourth site in North Fork in Rowan County, Kentucky was also sampled periodically as it too has contact with the shale formation. These sites were then sampled monthly. All samples are analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli, heterotrophic bacteria, and total coliform bacteria utilizing the membrane filtration method and various culture media. Current data suggests that the radioactivity of the shale formation influences the bacteriological growth present in the waterway; however, further data will be collected and compared with that of my colleagues to confirm this trend.

Keywords: bacteriological analysis, Escherichia coli, heterotrophic bacteria, radioactive black shale formation, water quality

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998 Modification of a Commercial Ultrafiltration Membrane by Electrospray Deposition for Performance Adjustment

Authors: Elizaveta Korzhova, Sebastien Deon, Patrick Fievet, Dmitry Lopatin, Oleg Baranov

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Filtration with nanoporous ultrafiltration membranes is an attractive option to remove ionic pollutants from contaminated effluents. Unfortunately, commercial membranes are not necessarily suitable for specific applications, and their modification by polymer deposition is a fruitful way to adapt their performances accordingly. Many methods are usually used for surface modification, but a novel technique based on electrospray is proposed here. Various quantities of polymers were deposited on a commercial membrane, and the impact of the deposit is investigated on filtration performances and discussed in terms of charge and hydrophobicity. The electrospray deposition is a technique which has not been used for membrane modification up to now. It consists of spraying small drops of polymer solution under a high voltage between the needle containing the solution and the metallic support on which membrane is stuck. The advantage of this process lies in the small quantities of polymer that can be coated on the membrane surface compared with immersion technique. In this study, various quantities (from 2 to 40 μL/cm²) of solutions containing two charged polymers (13 mmol/L of monomer unit), namely polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), were sprayed on a negatively charged polyethersulfone membrane (PLEIADE, Orelis Environment). The efficacy of the polymer deposition was then investigated by estimating ion rejection, permeation flux, zeta-potential and contact angle before and after the polymer deposition. Firstly, contact angle (θ) measurements show that the surface hydrophilicity is notably improved by coating both PEI and PSS. Moreover, it was highlighted that the contact angle decreases monotonously with the amount of sprayed solution. Additionally, hydrophilicity enhancement was proved to be better with PSS (from 62 to 35°) than PEI (from 62 to 53°). Values of zeta-potential (ζ were estimated by measuring the streaming current generated by a pressure difference on both sides of a channel made by clamping two membranes. The ζ-values demonstrate that the deposits of PSS (negative at pH=5.5) allow an increase of the negative membrane charge, whereas the deposits of PEI (positive) lead to a positive surface charge. Zeta-potentials measurements also emphasize that the sprayed quantity has little impact on the membrane charge, except for very low quantities (2 μL/m²). The cross-flow filtration of salt solutions containing mono and divalent ions demonstrate that polymer deposition allows a strong enhancement of ion rejection. For instance, it is shown that rejection of a salt containing a divalent cation can be increased from 1 to 20 % and even to 35% by deposing 2 and 4 μL/cm² of PEI solution, respectively. This observation is coherent with the reversal of the membrane charge induced by PEI deposition. Similarly, the increase of negative charge induced by PSS deposition leads to an increase of NaCl rejection from 5 to 45 % due to electrostatic repulsion of the Cl- ion by the negative surface charge. Finally, a notable fall in the permeation flux due to the polymer layer coated at the surface was observed and the best polymer concentration in the sprayed solution remains to be determined to optimize performances.

Keywords: ultrafiltration, electrospray deposition, ion rejection, permeation flux, zeta-potential, hydrophobicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
997 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot

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The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: The pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: activated carbon, organic micropolluants, membrane bioreactor, carbon

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996 Development of an Integrated Methodology for Fouling Control in Membrane Bioreactors

Authors: Petros Gkotsis, Anastasios Zouboulis, Manasis Mitrakas, Dimitrios Zamboulis, E. Peleka

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The most serious drawback in wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is membrane fouling which gradually leads to membrane permeability decrease and efficiency deterioration. This work is part of a research project that aims to develop an integrated methodology for membrane fouling control, using specific chemicals which will enhance the coagulation and flocculation of compounds responsible for fouling, hence reducing biofilm formation on the membrane surface and limiting the fouling rate acting as a pre-treatment step. For this purpose, a pilot-scale plant with fully automatic operation achieved by means of programmable logic controller (PLC) has been constructed and tested. The experimental set-up consists of four units: wastewater feed unit, bioreactor, membrane (side-stream) filtration unit and permeate collection unit. Synthetic wastewater was fed as the substrate for the activated sludge. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the aerobic tank was maintained in the range of 2-3 mg/L during the entire operation by using an aerator below the membrane module. The membranes were operated at a flux of 18 LMH while membrane relaxation steps of 1 min were performed every 10 min. Both commercial and composite coagulants are added in different concentrations in the pilot-scale plant and their effect on the overall performance of the ΜΒR system is presented. Membrane fouling was assessed in terms of TMP, membrane permeability, sludge filterability tests, total resistance and the unified modified fouling index (UMFI). Preliminary tests showed that particular attention should be paid to the addition of the coagulant solution, indicating that pipe flocculation effectively increases hydraulic retention time and leads to voluminous sludge flocs. The most serious drawback in wastewater treatment using MBRs is membrane fouling, which gradually leads to membrane permeability decrease and efficiency deterioration. This results in increased treatment cost, due to high energy consumption and the need for frequent membrane cleaning and replacement. Due to the widespread application of MBR technology over the past few years, it becomes clear that the development of a methodology to mitigate membrane fouling is of paramount importance. The present work aims to develop an integrated technique for membrane fouling control in MBR systems and, thus, contribute to sustainable wastewater treatment.

Keywords: coagulation, membrane bioreactor, membrane fouling, pilot plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
995 Water Purification By Novel Nanocomposite Membrane

Authors: E. S. Johal, M. S. Saini, M. K. Jha

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Currently, 1.1 billion people are at risk due to lack of clean water and about 35 % of people in the developed world die from water related problem. To alleviate these problems water purification technology requires new approaches for effective management and conservation of water resources. Electrospun nanofibres membrane has a potential for water purification due to its high large surface area and good mechanical strength. In the present study PAMAM dendrimers composite nynlon-6 nanofibres membrane was prepared by crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde. Further, the efficacy of the modified membrane can be renewed by mere exposure of the saturated membrane with the solution having acidic pH. The modified membrane can be used as an effective tool for water purification.

Keywords: dendrimer, nanofibers, nanocomposite membrane, water purification

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994 Crosslinked PVA/Bentonite Clay Nanocomposite Membranes: An Effective Membrane for the Separation of Azeotropic Composition of Isopropanol and Water

Authors: Soney C. George, Thomasukutty Jose, Sabu Thomas

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Membrane based separation is the most important energy –efficient separation processes. There are wide ranges of membrane based separation process such as Micro-filtration, ultra filtration, reverse osmosis, electro-dialysis etc. Among these pervaporation is one of the most promising techniques. The promising technique is in the sense that it needs an ease of process design, low energy consumption, environmentally clean, economically cost effective and easily separate azeotropic composition without losing any components, unlike distillation in a short period of time. In the present work, we developed a new bentonite clay reinforced cross-linked PVA nano-composite membranes by solution casting method. The membranes were used for the pervaporation separation of azeotropic composition of isopropanol and water mixtures. The azeotropic composition of water and isopropanol is difficult to separate and we can’t get a better separation by normal separation processes. But the better separation was achieved here using cross-linked PVA/Clay nano-composite membranes. The 2wt% bentonite clay reinforced 5vol% GA cross-linked nano-composite membranes showed better separation efficiency. The selectivity of the cross-linked membranes increases 65% upon filler loading. The water permeance is showed tremendous enhancement upon filler loading. The permeance value changes from 4100 to 8200, due to the incorporation hydrophilic bentonite clay to the cross-linked PVA membranes. The clay reinforced membranes shows better thermal stability upon filler loading was confirmed from TGA and DSC analysis. The dispersion of nanoclay in the polymeric matrix was clearly evident from the TEM analysis. The better dispersed membranes showed better separation performance. Thus the developed cross-linked PVA/Clay membranes can be effectively used for the separation of azeotropic composition of water and isopropanol.

Keywords: poly(vinyl alcohol), membrane, gluraldehyde, permeance

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
993 Gas Permeation Behavior of Single and Mixed Gas Components Using an Asymmetric Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Godson Osueke, Edward Gobina

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A unique sol–gel dip-coating process to form an asymmetric silica membrane with improved membrane performance and reproducibility has been reported. First, we deposited repeatedly a silica solution on top of a commercial alumina membrane support to improve its structural make up. The coated membrane is further processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust impurity and subsequent drying in an oven for high thermal, chemical and physical stability. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in the membrane layer thickness. Compared to a single-layer process using only the membrane support, the dual-layer process improves both flux and selectivity. For the scientifically significant difficulties of natural gas purification, collective CO2, CH4 and H2 gas fluxes and separation factors obtained gave reasonably excellent values. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen as demonstrated by a high concentration of hydrogen recovery.

Keywords: gas permeation, silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
992 Possibility of Membrane Filtration to Treatment of Effluent from Digestate

Authors: Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski, Magdalena Zielinska, Paulina Rusanowska

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The problem with digestate management is one of the most important factors influencing on the development and operation of biogas plant. Turbidity and bacterial contamination negatively affect the growth of algae, which can limit the use of the effluent in the production of algae biomass on a large scale. These problems can be overcome by cultivating of algae species resistant to environmental factors, such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., or reducing load of organic compounds to prevent bacterial contamination. The effluent requires dilution and/or purification. One of the methods of effluent treatment is the use of a membrane technology such as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), depending on the membrane pore size and the cut off point. Membranes are a physical barrier to solids and particles larger than the size of the pores. MF membranes have the largest pores and are used to remove turbidity, suspensions, bacteria and some viruses. UF membranes remove also color, odor and organic compounds with high molecular weight. In treatment of wastewater or other waste streams, MF and UF can provide a sufficient degree of purification. NF membranes are used to remove natural organic matter from waters, water disinfection products and sulfates. RO membranes are applied to remove monovalent ions such as Na⁺ or K⁺. The effluent was used in UF for medium to cultivation of two microalgae: Chlorella sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Growth rates of Chlorella sp. and P. tricornutum were similar: 0.216 d⁻¹ and 0.200 d⁻¹ (Chlorella sp.); 0.128 d⁻¹ and 0.126 d⁻¹ (P. tricornutum), on synthetic medium and permeate from UF, respectively. The final biomass composition was also similar, regardless of the medium. Removal of nitrogen was 92% and 71% by Chlorella sp. and P. tricornutum, respectively. The fermentation effluents after UF and dilution were also used for cultivation of algae Scenedesmus sp. that is resistant to environmental conditions. The authors recommended the development of biorafinery based on the production of algae for the biogas production. There are examples of using a multi-stage membrane system to purify the liquid fraction from digestate. After the initial UF, RO is used to remove ammonium nitrogen and COD. To obtain a permeate with a concentration of ammonium nitrogen allowing to discharge it into the environment, it was necessary to apply three-stage RO. The composition of the permeate after two-stage RO was: COD 50–60 mg/dm³, dry solids 0 mg/dm³, ammonium nitrogen 300–320 mg/dm³, total nitrogen 320–340 mg/dm³, total phosphorus 53 mg/dm³. However compostion of permeate after three-stage RO was: COD < 5 mg/dm³, dry solids 0 mg/dm³, ammonium nitrogen 0 mg/dm³, total nitrogen 3.5 mg/dm³, total phosphorus < 0,05 mg/dm³. Last stage of RO might be replaced by ion exchange process. The negative aspect of membrane filtration systems is the fact that the permeate is about 50% of the introduced volume, the remainder is the retentate. The management of a retentate might involve recirculation to a biogas plant.

Keywords: digestate, membrane filtration, microalgae cultivation, Chlorella sp.

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991 Molecular Detection of E. coli in Treated Wastewater and Well Water Samples Collected from Al Riyadh Governorate, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hanouf A. S. Al Nuwaysir, Nadine Moubayed, Abir Ben Bacha, Islem Abid

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Consumption of waste water continues to cause significant problems for human health in both developed and developing countries. Many regulations have been implied by different world authorities controlling water quality for the presence of coliforms used as standard indicators of water quality deterioration and historically leading health protection concept. In this study, the European directive for the detection of Escherichia coli, ISO 9308-1, was applied to examine and monitor coliforms in water samples collected from Wadi Hanifa and neighboring wells, Riyadh governorate, kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which is used for irrigation and industrial purposes. Samples were taken from different locations for 8 months consecutively, chlorine concentration ranging from 0.1- 0.4 mg/l, was determined using the DPD FREE CHLORINE HACH kit. Water samples were then analyzed following the ISO protocol which relies on the membrane filtration technique (0.45µm, pore size membrane filter) and a chromogenic medium TTC, a lactose based medium used for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms and E.coli. Data showed that the number of bacterial isolates ranged from 60 to 300 colonies/100ml for well and surface water samples respectively; where higher numbers were attributed to the surface samples. Organisms which apparently ferment lactose on TTC agar plates, appearing as orange colonies, were selected and additionally cultured on EMB and MacConkey agar for a further differentiation among E.coli and coliform bacteria. Two additional biochemical tests (Cytochrome oxidase and indole from tryptophan) were also investigated to detect and differentiate the presence of E.coli from other coliforms, E. coli was identified in an average of 5 to 7colonies among 25 selected colonies.On the other hand, a more rapid, specific and sensitive analytical molecular detection namely single colony PCR was also performed targeting hha gene to sensitively detect E.coli, giving more accurate and time consuming identification of colonies considered presumptively as E.coli. Comparative methodologies, such as ultrafiltration and direct DNA extraction from membrane filters (MoBio, Grermany) were also applied; however, results were not as accurate as the membrane filtration, making it a technique of choice for the detection and enumeration of water coliforms, followed by sufficiently specific enzymatic confirmatory stage.

Keywords: coliform, cytochrome oxidase, hha primer, membrane filtration, single colony PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
990 Effect of Fluidized Granular Activated Carbon for the Mitigation of Membrane Fouling in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Jingwei Wang, Anthony G. Fane, Jia Wei Chew

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The use of fluidized Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a means of mitigation membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has received much attention in recent years, especially in anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). It has been affirmed that the unsteady-state tangential shear conferred by GAC fluidization on membrane surface suppressed the extent of membrane fouling with energy consumption much lower than that of bubbling (i.e., air sparging). In a previous work, the hydrodynamics of the fluidized GAC particles were correlated with membrane fouling mitigation effectiveness. Results verified that the momentum transfer from particle to membrane held a key in fouling mitigation. The goal of the current work is to understand the effect of fluidized GAC on membrane critical flux. Membrane critical flux values were measured by a vertical Direct Observation Through the Membrane (DOTM) setup. The polystyrene particles (known as latex particles) with the particle size of 5 µm were used as model foulant thus to give the number of the foulant on the membrane surface. Our results shed light on the positive effect of fluidized GAC enhancing the critical membrane flux by an order-of-magnitude as compared to that of liquid shear alone. Membrane fouling mitigation was benefitted by the increasing of power input.

Keywords: membrane fouling mitigation, liquid-solid fluidization, critical flux, energy input

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
989 UF as Pretreatment of RO for Tertiary Treatment of Biologically Treated Distillery Spentwash

Authors: Pinki Sharma, Himanshu Joshi

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Distillery spentwash contains high chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), color, total dissolved solids (TDS) and other contaminants even after biological treatment. The effluent can’t be discharged as such in the surface water bodies or land without further treatment. Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment plants have been installed in many of the distilleries at tertiary level. But at most of the places these plants are not properly working due to high concentration of organic matter and other contaminants in biologically treated spentwash. To make the membrane treatment proven and reliable technology, proper pre-treatment is mandatory. In the present study, ultra-filtration (UF) as pre-treatment of RO at tertiary stage was performed. Operating parameters namely initial pH (pHo: 2–10), trans-membrane pressure (TMP: 4-20 bars) and temperature (T: 15- 43°C) used for conducting experiments with UF system. Experiments were optimized at different operating parameters in terms of COD, color, TDS and TOC removal by using response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design. The results showed that removal of COD, color and TDS by 62%, 93.5% and 75.5%, with UF, respectively at optimized conditions with increased permeate flux from 17.5 l/m2/h (RO) to 38 l/m2/h (UF-RO). The performance of the RO system was greatly improved both in term of pollutant removal as well as water recovery.

Keywords: bio-digested distillery spentwash, reverse osmosis, response surface methodology, ultra-filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 250