Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 790

Search results for: master-slave injection locking

790 Analysis of Injection-Lock in Oscillators versus Phase Variation of Injected Signal

Authors: M. Yousefi, N. Nasirzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, behavior of an oscillator under injection of another signal has been investigated. Also, variation of output signal amplitude versus injected signal phase variation, the effect of varying the amplitude of injected signal and quality factor of the oscillator has been investigated. The results show that the locking time depends on phase and the best locking time happens at 180-degrees phase. Also, the effect of injected lock has been discussed. Simulations show that the locking time decreases with signal injection to bulk. Locking time has been investigated versus various phase differences. The effect of phase and amplitude changes on locking time of a typical LC oscillator in 180 nm technology has been investigated.

Keywords: analysis, oscillator, injection-lock oscillator, phase modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
789 Optical Heterodyning of Injection-Locked Laser Sources: A Novel Technique for Millimeter-Wave Signal Generation

Authors: Subal Kar, Madhuja Ghosh, Soumik Das, Antara Saha

Abstract:

A novel technique has been developed to generate ultra-stable millimeter-wave signal by optical heterodyning of the output from two slave laser (SL) sources injection-locked to the sidebands of a frequency modulated (FM) master laser (ML). Precise thermal tuning of the SL sources is required to lock the particular slave laser frequency to the desired FM sidebands of the ML. The output signals from the injection-locked SL when coherently heterodyned in a fast response photo detector like high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), extremely stable millimeter-wave signal having very narrow line width can be generated. The scheme may also be used to generate ultra-stable sub-millimeter-wave/terahertz signal.

Keywords: FM sideband injection locking, master-slave injection locking, millimetre-wave signal generation, optical heterodyning

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
788 Study on the Effect of Bolt Locking Method on the Deformation of Bipolar Plate in PEMFC

Authors: Tao Chen, ShiHua Liu, JiWei Zhang

Abstract:

Assembly of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) has a very important influence on its performance and efficiency. The various components of PEMFC stack are usually locked and fixed by bolts. Locking bolt will cause the deformation of the bipolar plate and the other components, which will affect directly the deformation degree of the integral parts of the PEMFC as well as the performance of PEMFC. This paper focuses on the object of three-cell stack of PEMFC. Finite element simulation is used to investigate the deformation of bipolar plate caused by quantity and layout of bolts, bolt locking pressure, and bolt locking sequence, etc. Finally, we made a conclusion that the optimal combination packaging scheme was adopted to assemble the fuel cell stack. The scheme was in use of 3.8 MPa locking pressure imposed on the fuel cell stack, type Ⅱ of four locking bolts and longitudinal locking method. The scheme was obtained by comparatively analyzing the overall displacement contour of PEMFC stack, absolute displacement curve of bipolar plate along the given three paths in the Z direction and the polarization curve of fuel cell. The research results are helpful for the fuel cell stack assembly.

Keywords: bipolar plate, deformation, finite element simulation, fuel cell, locking bolt

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
787 Lockit: A Logic Locking Automation Software

Authors: Nemanja Kajtez, Yue Zhan, Basel Halak

Abstract:

The significant rise in the cost of manufacturing of nanoscale integrated circuits (IC) has led the majority of IC design companies to outsource the fabrication of their products to other companies, often located in different countries. This multinational nature of the hardware supply chain has led to a host of security threats, including IP piracy, IC overproduction, and Trojan insertion. To combat that, researchers have proposed logic locking techniques to protect the intellectual properties of the design and increase the difficulty of malicious modification of its functionality. However, the adoption of logic locking approaches is rather slow due to the lack of the integration with IC production process and the lack of efficacy of existing algorithms. This work automates the logic locking process by developing software using Python that performs the locking on a gate-level netlist and can be integrated with the existing digital synthesis tools. Analysis of the latest logic locking algorithms has demonstrated that the SFLL-HD algorithm is one of the most secure and versatile in trading-off levels of protection against different types of attacks and was thus selected for implementation. The presented tool can also be expanded to incorporate the latest locking mechanisms to keep up with the fast-paced development in this field. The paper also presents a case study to demonstrate the functionality of the tool and how it could be used to explore the design space and compare different locking solutions. The source code of this tool is available freely from (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/353195333_Source_Code_for_The_Lockit_Tool).

Keywords: design automation, hardware security, IP piracy, logic locking

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
786 Corporate Law and Its View Point of Locking in Capital

Authors: Saad Saeed Althiabi

Abstract:

This paper discusses the corporate positioning and how it became popular as a way to systematize production because of the unique manner in which incorporation legalized organizers to secure financial capital through locking it in. The power to lock in capital comes from the fact that a corporate exists as a separate legal entity, whose survival and governance are separated from any of its participants. The law essentially creates a different legal person when a corporation is created. Although this idea has been played down in the legal learning of the last decades in favor of the view that a corporation is purely something through which natural persons interrelate, recent legal research has begun to reassess the importance of entity status. Entity status, under the law and the related separation of governance from input of financial capital through the configuration of a corporation, sanctioned corporate participants to do somewhat more than connect in a series of business transactions.

Keywords: corporate law, entity status, locking in capital, financial capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
785 Field Scale Simulation Study of Miscible Water Alternating CO2 Injection Process in Fractured Reservoirs

Authors: Hooman Fallah

Abstract:

Vast amounts of world oil reservoirs are in natural fractured reservoirs. There are different methods for increasing recovery from fractured reservoirs. Miscible injection of water alternating CO2 is a good choice among this methods. In this method, water and CO2 slugs are injected alternatively in reservoir as miscible agent into reservoir. This paper studies water injection scenario and miscible injection of water and CO2 in a two dimensional, inhomogeneous fractured reservoir. The results show that miscible water alternating CO2¬ gas injection leads to 3.95% increase in final oil recovery and total water production decrease of 3.89% comparing to water injection scenario.

Keywords: simulation study, CO2, water alternating gas injection, fractured reservoirs

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
784 Evaluating the effects of Gas Injection on Enhanced Gas-Condensate Recovery and Reservoir Pressure Maintenance

Authors: F. S. Alavi, D. Mowla, F. Esmaeilzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, the Eclipse 300 simulator was used to perform compositional modeling of gas injection process for enhanced condensate recovery of a real gas condensate well in south of Iran here referred to as SA4. Some experimental data were used to tune the Peng-Robinson equation of state for this case. Different scenarios of gas injection at current reservoir pressure and at abandonment reservoir pressure had been considered with different gas compositions. Methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and two other gases with specified compositions were considered as potential gases for injection. According to the obtained results, nitrogen leads to highest pressure maintenance in the reservoir but methane results in highest condensate recovery among the selected injection gases. At low injection rates, condensate recovery percent is strongly affected by gas injection rate but this dependency shifts to zero at high injection rates. Condensate recovery is higher in all cases of injection at current reservoir pressure than injection at abandonment pressure. Using a constant injection rate, increasing the production well bottom hole pressure results in increasing the condensate recovery percent and time of gas breakthrough.

Keywords: gas-condensate reservoir, case-study, compositional modelling, enhanced condensate recovery, gas injection

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
783 Experimental and Theoretical Study of Melt Viscosity in Injection Process

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Wen-Teng Wang, Chin-Chiuan Kuo, Chieh-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The state of melt viscosity in injection process is significantly influenced by the setting parameters due to that the shear rate of injection process is higher than other processes. How to determine plastic melt viscosity during injection process is important to understand the influence of setting parameters on the melt viscosity. An apparatus named as pressure sensor bushing (PSB) module that is used to evaluate the melt viscosity during injection process is developed in this work. The formulations to coupling melt viscosity with fill time and injection pressure are derived and then the melt viscosity is determined. A test mold is prepared to evaluate the accuracy on viscosity calculations between the PSB module and the conventional approaches. The influence of melt viscosity on the tensile strength of molded part is proposed to study the consistency of injection quality.

Keywords: injection molding, melt viscosity, tensile test, pressure sensor bushing (PSB)

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
782 Laboratory Investigation of Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate Gas (ASAG) Injection – a Novel EOR Process for a Light Oil Sandstone Reservoir

Authors: Vidit Mohan, Ashwin P. Ramesh, Anirudh Toshniwal

Abstract:

Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(ASAG) injection, a novel EOR process has the potential to improve displacement efficiency over Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(SAG) by addressing the problem of surfactant adsorption by clay minerals in rock matrix. A detailed laboratory investigation on ASAG injection process was carried out with encouraging results. To further enhance recovery over WAG injection process, SAG injection was investigated at laboratory scale. SAG injection yielded marginal incremental displacement efficiency over WAG process. On investigation, it was found that, clay minerals in rock matrix adsorbed the surfactants and were detrimental for SAG process. Hence, ASAG injection was conceptualized using alkali as a clay stabilizer. The experiment of ASAG injection with surfactant concentration of 5000 ppm and alkali concentration of 0.5 weight% yields incremental displacement efficiency of 5.42% over WAG process. The ASAG injection is a new process and has potential to enhance efficiency of WAG/SAG injection process.

Keywords: alkali surfactant alternate gas (ASAG), surfactant alternate gas (SAG), laboratory investigation, EOR process

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
781 Broadband Platinum Disulfide Based Saturable Absorber Used for Optical Fiber Mode Locking Lasers

Authors: Hui Long, Chun Yin Tang, Ping Kwong Cheng, Xin Yu Wang, Wayesh Qarony, Yuen Hong Tsang

Abstract:

Two dimensional (2D) materials have recently attained substantial research interest since the discovery of graphene. However, the zero-bandgap feature of the graphene limits its nonlinear optical applications, e.g., saturable absorption for these applications require strong light-matter interaction. Nevertheless, the excellent optoelectronic properties, such as broad tunable bandgap energy and high carrier mobility of Group 10 transition metal dichalcogenides 2D materials, e.g., PtS2 introduce new degree of freedoms in the optoelectronic applications. This work reports our recent research findings regarding the saturable absorption property of PtS2 layered 2D material and its possibility to be used as saturable absorber (SA) for ultrafast mode locking fiber laser. The demonstration of mode locking operation by using the fabricated PtS2 as SA will be discussed. The PtS2/PVA SA used in this experiment is made up of some few layered PtS2 nanosheets fabricated via a simple ultrasonic liquid exfoliation. The operational wavelength located at ~1 micron is demonstrated from Yb-doped mode locking fiber laser ring cavity by using the PtS2 SA. The fabricated PtS2 saturable absorber offers strong nonlinear properties, and it is capable of producing regular mode locking laser pulses with pulse to pulse duration matched with the round-trip cavity time. The results confirm successful mode locking operation achieved by the fabricated PtS2 material. This work opens some new opportunities for these PtS2 materials for the ultrafast laser generation. Acknowledgments: This work is financially supported by Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission (JCYJ20170303160136888) and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, China (GRF 152109/16E, PolyU code: B-Q52T).

Keywords: platinum disulfide, PtS2, saturable absorption, saturable absorber, mode locking laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
780 Effect of Intraperitoneal Administration of Ghrelin on Serum Glucose and Insulin Levels in Turkey

Authors: Habib Aghdam Shahryar

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was investigation on the effect of intraperipheral (IP) injection of ghrelin on serum insulin and glucose levels in native turkey. Seventy-two 28 day (d)-old native turkey were assigned into three treatments and four replicate for 40 days experimental rearing period: group 1, intact without any injection, group 2, injected 50 ng ghrelin/kg body weight (BW), and group 3, injected 100 ng ghrelin/kg BW. Intraperitoneal injection of rat ghrelin was conducted on d 28 and before the onset of the experimental rearing period. Blood samples were taken 12 hr after injection and 40 days after injection. The result showed glucose concentrations have been affected by administered ghrelin and significant between groups (P<0.01). Injection of ghrelin at G 100 increased glucose level of serum in 12 hr after injection and 40 days after injection (276.6 and 260.0 mg/dl, respectively). Also, by increasing the dose of injected ghrelin, insulin levels than the control group showed an increase (P < 0.001). This study suggests roles of ghrelin in serum biochemical regulation may show a different effect of ghrelin on blood parameters in avian species.

Keywords: ghrelin injection, insulin, glucose, turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
779 Water Injection in One of the Southern Iranian Oil Field, a Case Study

Authors: Hooman Fallah

Abstract:

Seawater injection and produced water re-injection are presently the most commonly used approach to enhanced recovery. The dominant factors for total oil recovery are the reservoir temperature, reservoir pressure, crude oil and water composition. In this study, the production under water injection in Soroosh, one of the southern Iranian heavy oil field has been simulated (the fluid properties are focused). In order to reveal the dominant factors in this production process, the sensitivity analysis has been done for the following effective factors, fluid viscosity, initial water saturation, gravity force and injection well strategy. It is crystal clear that the study of the dominant factors in production processes will help the engineers to design the best production mechanisms in our numerous hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: water injection, initial water saturation, oil viscosity, gravity force, injection well strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
778 Surgical Management of Distal Femur Fracture Using Locking Compression Plate: Our Experience in a Rural Tertiary Care Centre in India

Authors: Pagadaplly Girish, P. V. Manohar

Abstract:

Introduction: Management of distal femur fractures is challenging. Recently, treatment has evolved towards indirect reduction and minimally invasive techniques. Objectives: To assess the fracture union and functional outcome following open reduction and internal fixation of distal femur fractures with locking compression plate and to achieve restoration of the anatomical alignment of fracture fragments and stable internal fixation. Methodology: Patients with distal femur fracture treated by locking compression during Oct 2011 to April 2013 were assessed prospectively. Patients below 18 years and those with neuro-vascular deficits were excluded. Age, sex of the patient, type of fracture, mechanism of injury, type of implant used, operative time and postoperative complications were analysed. The Neer’s scale was used to assess the outcome of the patients. Results: The total number of patients was 30; 28 males and 2 females; mean age was 41.53 years. Road traffic accidents were the major causes of injury followed by falls. The average duration of hospital stay was 21.3 days. The overall complication rate note was 23.33%. The mean range of movement around the knee joint after 6 months of follow-up was 114.330. The average time for the radiological union was 14 weeks. Excellent to good results were noted in 26 patients (86.6%) and average to poor results were observed in 4 (13.33%) patients. Conclusions: The locking compression plate gives a rigid fixation for the fracture. It also provides a good purchase in osteoporotic bones. LCP is simple and a reliable implant appropriate for fixation of femoral fractures with promising results.

Keywords: distal femur fractures, locking compression plate, Neer’s criteria, neuro-vascular deficits

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
777 Effects of Injector Nozzle Geometry on Spray Atomization Characteristics

Authors: Arya Pirooz

Abstract:

Air and fuel must be mixed correctly so that there is perfect combustion, which calls for fuel atomization by injection. In this study, the effects of different parameters such as number of orifices, length and diameter of orifices, diameter of nozzle sac and the angle of needle seat in injectors were investigated with the use of rate of injection and sac pressure. The unit pump of the OM-457 diesel engine was modelled on Avl-Hydsim. The results illustrate that the sac pressure decreased by 46% when the number of holes were doubled, although the rate of injection had an immense change. Also, the sac pressure increased up to 60% when the diameter of orifices decreased by 40% in spite of the semi-constant injection rate.

Keywords: injection, OM-457 engine, nozzle geometry, atomization

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
776 Experimental Investigation of Compressed Natural Gas Injector for Direct Injection System

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Grzegorz Baranski, Adam Majczak

Abstract:

This paper presents the bench research results on a CNG injector at steady state. The quantities measured included voltage and current in a solenoid, pressure of gas behind an injector and injector’s flow rate. Accordingly, injector’s operation parameters were determined according to needle’s lift and injection pressure. The discrepancies between the theoretical (electric) and actual time of injection were defined to specify injector’s opening and closing lag times and the uniqueness of these values in successive cycles of gas injection. It has been demonstrated that needle’s lift has got a stronger impact on injector’s operating parameters than injection pressure. With increasing injection pressure, the force increases and closes an injection valve, which adversely affects uniqueness of injector’s operation. The paper also describes the concept of an injector dedicated to direct CNG injection into a combustion chamber in a dual-fuel engine. The injector’s design enables us to replace 80% of diesel fuel in a dual-fuel engine with a maximum power of 85 kW. Minimum injection pressure is 1,4 MPa then. Simultaneously, injector’s characteristics for varied needle’s lifts and injector’s nonlinear operating points were developed. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, under Grant Agreement No. PBS1/A6/4/2012.

Keywords: CNG injector, diesel engine, direct injection, dual fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
775 Effect of Fuel Injection Discharge Curve and Injection Pressure on Upgrading Power and Combustion Parameters in HD Diesel Engine with CFD Simulation

Authors: Saeed Chamehsara, Seyed Mostafa Mirsalim, Mehdi Tajdari

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of fuel injection discharge curve and injection pressure simultaneously for upgrading power of heavy duty diesel engine by simulation of combustion process in AVL-Fire software are discussed. Hence, the fuel injection discharge curve was changed from semi-triangular to rectangular which is usual in common rail fuel injection system. Injection pressure with respect to amount of injected fuel and nozzle hole diameter are changed. Injection pressure is calculated by an experimental equation which is for heavy duty diesel engines with common rail fuel injection system. Upgrading power for 1000 and 2000 bar injection pressure are discussed. For 1000 bar injection pressure with 188 mg injected fuel and 3 mm nozzle hole diameter in compare with first state which is semi-triangular discharge curve with 139 mg injected fuel and 3 mm nozzle hole diameter, upgrading power is about 19% whereas the special change has not been observed in cylinder pressure. On the other hand, both the NOX emission and the Soot emission decreased about 30% and 6% respectively. Compared with first state, for 2000 bar injection pressure that injected fuel and nozzle diameter are 196 mg and 2.6 mm respectively, upgrading power is about 22% whereas cylinder pressure has been fixed and NOX emission and the Soot emissions are decreased 36% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: CFD simulation, HD diesel engine, upgrading power, injection pressure, fuel injection discharge curve, combustion process

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
774 Gas Lift Optimization to Improve Well Performance

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, Meisam Babaie

Abstract:

Gas lift optimization is becoming more important now a day in petroleum industry. A proper lift optimization can reduce the operating cost, increase the net present value (NPV) and maximize the recovery from the asset. A widely accepted definition of gas lift optimization is to obtain the maximum output under specified operating conditions. In addition, gas lift, a costly and indispensable means to recover oil from high depth reservoir entails solving the gas lift optimization problems. Gas lift optimization is a continuous process; there are two levels of production optimization. The total field optimization involves optimizing the surface facilities and the injection rate that can be achieved by standard tools softwares. Well level optimization can be achieved by optimizing the well parameters such as point of injection, injection rate, and injection pressure. All these aspects have been investigated and presented in this study by using experimental data and PROSPER simulation program. The results show that the well head pressure has a large influence on the gas lift performance and also proved that smart gas lift valve can be used to improve gas lift performance by controlling gas injection from down hole. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection reduces production rate and consequently increases the operation cost.

Keywords: optimization, production rate, reservoir pressure effect, gas injection rate effect, gas injection pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
773 Behavior Evaluation of an Anchored Wall

Authors: Polo G. Yohn Edison, Rocha F. Pedricto

Abstract:

This work presents a study about a retaining structure designed for the duplication of the rail FEPASA on the 74th km between Santos and São Paulo. This structure, an anchored retaining wall, was instrumented in the anchors heads with strain gauges in order to monitor its loads. The load measurements occurred during the performance test, locking and also after the works were concluded. A decrease on anchors loads is noticed at the moment immediately after the locking, during construction and after the works finished. It was observed that a loss of load in the anchors occurred to a maximum of 54%.

Keywords: instrumentation, strain gauges, retaining wall, anchors

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
772 Research on Steam Injection Technology of Extended Range Engine Cylinder for Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Zhiyuan Jia, Xiuxiu Sun, Yong Chen, Liu Hai, Shuangqing Li

Abstract:

The engine cooling water and exhaust gas contain a large amount of available energy. In order to improve energy efficiency, a steam injection technology based on waste heat recovery is proposed. The models of cooling water waste heat utilization, exhaust gas waste heat utilization, and exhaust gas-cooling water waste heat utilization were constructed, and the effects of the three modes on the performance of steam injection were analyzed, and then the feasibility of in-cylinder water injection steam technology based on waste heat recovery was verified. The research results show that when the injection water flow rate is 0.10 kg/s and the temperature is 298 K, at a cooling water temperature of 363 K, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the cooling water can reach 314.5 K; at an exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and an exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the exhaust gas can reach 430 K; Under the condition of cooling water temperature of 363 K, exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, after cooling water and exhaust gas heating, the maximum temperature of the injection water can reach 463 K. When the engine is 1200 rpm, the water injection volume is 30 mg, and the water injection time is 36°CA, the engine power increases by 2% and the fuel consumption is reduced by 2.6%.

Keywords: cooling water, exhaust gas, extended range engine, steam injection, waste heat recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
771 The Investigation of the Impact of Process and Location Parameters in Warpage Study of Semiconductor Packages

Authors: Wheyming Song, Ssu-Ping Lin

Abstract:

The primary advantage of package-on-package (PoP) packaging is that since it has less volume, it weighs less. But this is also related to its principal drawback, which is warpage. This research investigates how PoP package warpage patterns are affected by assembling process parameters, including substrate temperature, injection speed, injection temperature, and compound forces. We also investigate how warpage patterns are affected by the location of the silicon chip. The methodologies used in this research are design of experiment and warpage simulation via ANSYS. We propose a regression model to predict the warpage value as a function of substrate temperature, injection speed, injection temperature, and compound forces. Our results show that interaction effects exist between substrate temperature and compound forces and between injection speed and injection temperature. Therefore, determining the optimal values for substrate temperature, compound forces, injection speed, and injection temperature cannot be done individually. Also, our results show that the warpage patterns based on the location of silicon chips can be classified into 11 groups, with the largest warpage occurring at the left-most and right-most sides.

Keywords: package-on-package, warpage, design of experiment, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
770 Effect of Injection Strategy on the Performance and Emission of E85 in a Heavy-Duty Engine under Partially Premixed Combustion

Authors: Amir Aziz, Martin Tuner, Sebastian Verhelst, Oivind Andersson

Abstract:

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Extending the ignition delay to promote the premixing, has been recognized as one of the key factor to achieve PPC. Fuels with high octane number have been proven to be a good candidates to extend the ignition delay. In this work, E85 (85% ethanol) has been used as a PPC fuel. The aim of this work was to investigate a suitable injection strategy for PPC combustion fueled with E85 in a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine. Single and double injection strategy were applied with different injection timing and the ratio between different injection pulses was varied. The performance and emission were investigated at low load. The results show that the double injection strategy should be preferred for PPC fueled with E85 due to low emissions and high efficiency, while keeping the pressure raise rate at very low levels.

Keywords: E85, partially premixed combustion, injection strategy, performance and emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
769 A Tunable Long-Cavity Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on Nonlinear Amplifier Loop Mirror

Authors: Pinghe Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, we demonstrate a tunable long-cavity passive mode-locked fiber laser. The mode locker is a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). The cavity frequency of the laser is 465 kHz because that 404m SMF is inserted in the cavity. A tunable bandpass filter with ~1nm 3dB bandwidth is inserted into the cavity to realize tunable mode locking. The passive mode-locked laser at a fixed wavelength is investigated in detail. The experimental results indicate that the laser operates in dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser generates the rectangular pulses with 10.58 ns pulse duration, 70.28nJ single-pulse energy. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser keeps stable mode locking status in the range from 1523.4nm to 1575nm. During the whole tuning range, the SNR, the pulse duration, the output power and single pulse energy have a little fluctuation because that the gain of the EDF changes with the wavelength.

Keywords: fiber laser, dissipative soliton resonance, mode locking, tunable

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
768 Development of a Complete Single Jet Common Rail Injection System Gas Dynamic Model for Hydrogen Fueled Engine with Port Injection Feeding System

Authors: Mohammed Kamil, M. M. Rahman, Rosli A. Bakar

Abstract:

Modeling of hydrogen fueled engine (H2ICE) injection system is a very important tool that can be used for explaining or predicting the effect of advanced injection strategies on combustion and emissions. In this paper, a common rail injection system (CRIS) is proposed for 4-strokes 4-cylinders hydrogen fueled engine with port injection feeding system (PIH2ICE). For this system, a numerical one-dimensional gas dynamic model is developed considering single injection event for each injector per a cycle. One-dimensional flow equations in conservation form are used to simulate wave propagation phenomenon throughout the CR (accumulator). Using this model, the effect of common rail on the injection system characteristics is clarified. These characteristics include: rail pressure, sound velocity, rail mass flow rate, injected mass flow rate and pressure drop across injectors. The interaction effects of operational conditions (engine speed and rail pressure) and geometrical features (injector hole diameter) are illustrated; and the required compromised solutions are highlighted. The CRIS is shown to be a promising enhancement for PIH2ICE.

Keywords: common rail, hydrogen engine, port injection, wave propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
767 Simulation Study of Asphaltene Deposition and Solubility of CO2 in the Brine during Cyclic CO2 Injection Process in Unconventional Tight Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Sun Lu, Syed Jamal-Ud-Din, Xinzhe Zhao

Abstract:

A compositional reservoir simulation model (CMG-GEM) was used for cyclic CO2 injection process in unconventional tight reservoir. Cyclic CO2 injection is an enhanced oil recovery process consisting of injection, shut-in, and production. The study of cyclic CO2 injection and hydrocarbon recovery in ultra-low permeability reservoirs is mainly a function of rock, fluid, and operational parameters. CMG-GEM was used to study several design parameters of cyclic CO2 injection process to distinguish the parameters with maximum effect on the oil recovery and to comprehend the behavior of cyclic CO2 injection in tight reservoir. On the other hand, permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation is one of the major issues in the oil industry due to its plugging onto the porous media which reduces the oil productivity. In addition to asphaltene deposition, solubility of CO2 in the aquifer is one of the safest and permanent trapping techniques when considering CO2 storage mechanisms in geological formations. However, the effects of the above uncertain parameters on the process of CO2 enhanced oil recovery have not been understood systematically. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to study the most significant parameters which dominate the process. The main objective of this study is to improve techniques for designing cyclic CO2 injection process while considering the effects of asphaltene deposition and solubility of CO2 in the brine in order to prevent asphaltene precipitation, minimize CO2 emission, optimize cyclic CO2 injection, and maximize oil production.

Keywords: tight reservoirs, cyclic O₂ injection, asphaltene, solubility, reservoir simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
766 Intrarenal Injection of Pentobarbital Sodium for Euthanasia in Cats: 131 Cases, 2010-2011

Authors: Kathleen Cooney, Jennifer Coates, Lesley Leach, Kristin Hrenchir

Abstract:

The objective of this retrospective study was to determine whether intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium is a practicable method of euthanasia in client-owned cats. 131 Cats were anesthetized using a combination of tiletamine, zolazepam, and acepromazine given by of subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Once an appropriate plane of anesthesia was reached, 6 ml of pentobarbital sodium was injected into either the left or right kidney. The patient’s age, sex, estimated weight, presenting condition, estimated dehydration level, palpable characteristics of the kidney pre and post injection, physical response of the cat, and time to cardiopulmonary arrest were recorded. Analysis of 131 records revealed that cats receiving an intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium had an average time to cardiopulmonary arrest of 1 minute. The great majority (79%) experienced cardiopulmonary arrest in less than one minute with the remainder experiencing cardiopulmonary arrest between 1 and 8 minutes of the injection. 95% of cats had no observable reaction to intrarenal injection other than cardiopulmonary arrest. In the 19% of cases where kidney swelling was not palpable upon injection, average time to cardiopulmonary arrest increased from 0.9 to 1.6 min. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Intrarenal injections of pentobarbital sodium are similar in effect to intravenous methods of euthanasia. Veterinarians who elect to use intrarenal injections can expect cardiopulmonary arrest to occur quickly in the majority of patients with few agonal reactions. Intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium in anesthetized cats has ideally suited for cases of owner observed euthanasia when obtaining intravenous access would difficult or disruptive.

Keywords: euthanasia, injection, intrarenal, pentobarbital sodium

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
765 A Portable Miniature Syringe Needle Remover And Receptacle For Drug Injection Users

Authors: Fanjun Zhou

Abstract:

In today's drug-ridden society, drug injection is gradually becoming more popular and has hidden danger to IDUs (injection drug users) such as infectious diseases. According to reports, 67% of IDUs reported improper disposal at some point over the prior 30 days, leading to a proliferation of injection needles on the streets. In recent years, the number of cases of children or ordinary people unintentionally picking up needles have increased. Various needle remover inventions have begun to surface, but the existing ones are either expensive, unportable, or risky for IDUs. In order to effectively alleviate the proliferation of drug injection needles and improve the invention of needle removers, a miniature portable needle remover and receptacle is invented. The device for capturing and storing syringe needles contains an upper lid portion mounted tightly onto the lower box portion through an interlock system on the opposing sides of the device with a breaking-twisting mechanism to remove the needle. The invention is intended to be affordable to the general public, safe enough for IDUs to use, reliable enough not to harm others, and effective in breaking needles from the syringe. This report is conducted in the hope of spreading awareness of the dangers of drug injection and to provide a way to mitigate this drug rampant situation.

Keywords: needle remover, drug injection, injection drug users, portable, receptacle

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
764 Development of Swing Valve for Gasoline Turbocharger Using Hybrid Metal Injection Molding

Authors: B. S. So, Y. H. Yoon, J. O. Jung, K. S. Bae

Abstract:

Metal Injection Molding (MIM) is a technology that combines powder metallurgy and injection molding. Particularly, it is widely applied to the manufacture of precision mobile parts and automobile turbocharger parts because compact precision parts with complicated three-dimensional shapes that are difficult to machining are formed into a large number of finished products. The swing valve is a valve that adjusts the boost pressure of the turbocharger. Since the head portion is exposed to the harsh temperature condition of about 900 degrees in the gasoline GDI engine, it is necessary to use Inconel material with excellent heat resistance and abrasion resistance, resulting in high manufacturing cost. In this study, we developed a swing valve using a metal powder injection molding based hybrid material (Inconel 713C material with heat resistance is applied to the head part, and HK30 material with low price is applied to the rest of the body part). For this purpose, the process conditions of the metal injection molding were optimized to minimize the internal defects, and the effectiveness was confirmed by the fracture strength and fatigue test.

Keywords: hybrid metal injection molding, swing valve, turbocharger, double injection

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
763 Recombination Center Levels in Gold and Platinum Doped N-Type Silicon

Authors: Nam Chol Yu, Kyong Il Chu

Abstract:

Using DLTS measurement techniques, we determined the dominant recombination center levels (defects of both A and B) in gold and platinum doped n-type silicon. Also, the injection and temperature dependence of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) carrier lifetime was studied under low-level injection and high-level injection. Here measurements show that the dominant level under low-level injection located at EC-0.25eV(A) correlated to the Pt+G1 and the dominant level under high-level injection located at EC-0.54eV(B) correlated to the Au+G4. Finally, A and B are the same dominant levels for controlling the lifetime in gold-platinum doped n-silicon.

Keywords: recombination center level, lifetime, carrier lifetime control, gold, platinum, silicon

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
762 Searching for Forensic Evidence in a Compromised Virtual Web Server against SQL Injection Attacks and PHP Web Shell

Authors: Gigih Supriyatno

Abstract:

SQL injection is one of the most common types of attacks and has a very critical impact on web servers. In the worst case, an attacker can perform post-exploitation after a successful SQL injection attack. In the case of forensics web servers, web server analysis is closely related to log file analysis. But sometimes large file sizes and different log types make it difficult for investigators to look for traces of attackers on the server. The purpose of this paper is to help investigator take appropriate steps to investigate when the web server gets attacked. We use attack scenarios using SQL injection attacks including PHP backdoor injection as post-exploitation. We perform post-mortem analysis of web server logs based on Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) POST and HTTP GET method approaches that are characteristic of SQL injection attacks. In addition, we also propose structured analysis method between the web server application log file, database application, and other additional logs that exist on the webserver. This method makes the investigator more structured to analyze the log file so as to produce evidence of attack with acceptable time. There is also the possibility that other attack techniques can be detected with this method. On the other side, it can help web administrators to prepare their systems for the forensic readiness.

Keywords: web forensic, SQL injection, investigation, web shell

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
761 Effect of Variation of Injection Timing on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine: A CFD Approach

Authors: N. Balamurugan, N. V. Mahalakshmi

Abstract:

Compression ignition (CI) engines are known for their high thermal efficiency in comparison with spark-ignited (SI) engines. This makes CI engines a potential candidate for the future prime source of power for transportation sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to shrink carbon footprint. However, CI engines produce high levels of NOx and soot emissions. Conventional methods to reduce NOx and soot emissions often result in the infamous NOx-soot trade-off. The injection parameters are one of the most important factors in the working of CI engines. The engine performance, power output, economy etc., is greatly dependent on the effectiveness of the injection parameters. The injection parameter has their direct impact on combustion process and pollutant formation. The injection parameter’s values are required to be optimised according to the application of the engine. Control of fuel injection mode is one method for reduction of NOx and soot emissions that is achievable. This study aims to assess, compare and analyse the influence of the effect of injection characteristics that is SOI timing studied on combustion and emissions in in-cylinder combustion processes with that of conventional DI Diesel Engine system using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) package STAR- CD ES-ICE.

Keywords: variation of injection timing, compression ignition engine, spark-ignited, Computational Fluid Dynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 215