Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1157

Search results for: retaining wall

1157 Dynamic Active Earth Pressure on Flexible Cantilever Retaining Wall

Authors: Snehal R. Pathak, Sachin S. Munnoli

Abstract:

Evaluation of dynamic earth pressure on retaining wall is a topic of primary importance. In present paper, dynamic active earth pressure and displacement of flexible cantilever retaining wall has been evaluated analytically using 2-DOF mass-spring-dashpot model by incorporating both wall and backfill properties. The effect of wall flexibility on dynamic active earth pressure and wall displacement are studied and presented in graphical form. The obtained results are then compared with the various conventional methods, experimental analysis and also with PLAXIS analysis. It is observed that the dynamic active earth pressure decreases with increase in the wall flexibility while wall displacement increases linearly with flexibility of the wall. The results obtained by proposed 2-DOF analytical model are found to be more realistic and economical.

Keywords: earth pressure, earthquake, 2-DOF model, Plaxis, retaining walls, wall movement

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
1156 A Study on Finite Element Modelling of Earth Retaining Wall Anchored by Deadman Anchor

Authors: K. S. Chai, S. H. Chan

Abstract:

In this paper, the earth retaining wall anchored by discrete deadman anchor to support excavations in sand is modelled and analysed by finite element analysis. A study is conducted to examine how deadman anchorage system helps in reducing the deflection of earth retaining wall. A simplified numerical model is suggested in order to reduce the simulation duration. A comparison between 3-D and 2-D finite element analyses is illustrated.

Keywords: finite element, earth retaining wall, deadman anchor, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
1155 Probabilistic and Stochastic Analysis of a Retaining Wall for C-Φ Soil Backfill

Authors: André Luís Brasil Cavalcante, Juan Felix Rodriguez Rebolledo, Lucas Parreira de Faria Borges

Abstract:

A methodology for the probabilistic analysis of active earth pressure on retaining wall for c-Φ soil backfill is described in this paper. The Rosenblueth point estimate method is used to measure the failure probability of a gravity retaining wall. The basic principle of this methodology is to use two point estimates, i.e., the standard deviation and the mean value, to examine a variable in the safety analysis. The simplicity of this framework assures to its wide application. For the calculation is required 2ⁿ repetitions during the analysis, since the system is governed by n variables. In this study, a probabilistic model based on the Rosenblueth approach for the computation of the overturning probability of failure of a retaining wall is presented. The obtained results have shown the advantages of this kind of models in comparison with the deterministic solution. In a relatively easy way, the uncertainty on the wall and fill parameters are taken into account, and some practical results can be obtained for the retaining structure design.

Keywords: retaining wall, active earth pressure, backfill, probabilistic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
1154 Numerical Modeling of a Retaining Wall in Soil Reinforced by Layers of Geogrids

Authors: M. Mellas, S. Baaziz, A. Mabrouki, D. Benmeddour

Abstract:

The reinforcement of massifs of backfill with horizontal layers of geosynthetics is an interesting economic solution, which ensures the stability of retaining walls. The mechanical behavior of reinforced soil by geosynthetic is complex, and requires studies and research to understand the mechanisms of rupture. The behavior of reinforcements in the soil and the behavior of the main elements of the system: reinforcement-wall-soil. The present study is interested in numerical modeling of a retaining wall in soil reinforced by horizontal layers of geogrids. This modeling makes use of the software FLAC3D. This work aims to analyze the effect of the length of the geogrid "L" where the soil massif is supporting a uniformly distributed surcharge "Q", taking into account the fixing elements rather than the layers of geogrids to the wall.

Keywords: retaining wall, geogrid, reinforced soil, numerical modeling, FLAC3D

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
1153 Strength of the Basement Wall Combined with a Temporary Retaining Wall for Excavation

Authors: Soo-yeon Seo, Su-jin Jung

Abstract:

In recent years, the need for remodeling of many apartments built 30 years ago is increasing. Therefore, researches on the structural reinforcement technology of existing apartments have been conducted. On the other hand, there is a growing need for research on the existing underground space expansion technology to expand the parking space required for remodeling. When expanding an existing underground space, for earthworks, an earth retaining wall must be installed between the existing apartment building and it. In order to maximize the possible underground space, it is necessary to minimize the thickness of the portion of earth retaining wall and underground basement wall. In this manner, the calculation procedure is studied for the evaluation of shear strength of the composite basement wall corresponding to shear span-to-depth ratio in this study. As a result, it was shown that the proposed calculation procedure can be used to evaluate the shear strength of the composite basement wall as safe. On the other hand, when shear span-to-depth ratio is small, shear strength is very underestimated.

Keywords: underground space expansion, combined structure, temporary retaining wall, basement wall, shear connectors

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
1152 Sustainability in Retaining Wall Construction with Geosynthetics

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Darshini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

This paper seeks to present a research study on sustainability in construction of retaining wall using geosynthetics. Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Geotechnical engineering, being very resource intensive, warrants an environmental sustainability study, but a quantitative framework for assessing the sustainability of geotechnical practices, particularly at the planning and design stages, does not exist. In geotechnical projects, major economic issues to be addressed are in the design and construction of stable slopes and retaining structures within space constraints. In this paper, quantitative indicators for assessing the environmental sustainability of retaining wall with geosynthetics are compared with conventional concrete retaining wall through life cycle assessment (LCA). Geosynthetics can make a real difference in sustainable construction techniques and contribute to development in developing countries in particular. Their imaginative application can result in considerable cost savings over the use of conventional designs and materials. The acceptance of geosynthetics in reinforced retaining wall construction has been triggered by a number of factors, including aesthetics, reliability, simple construction techniques, good seismic performance, and the ability to tolerate large deformations without structural distress. Reinforced retaining wall with geosynthetics is the best cost-effective and eco-friendly solution as compared with traditional concrete retaining wall construction. This paper presents an analysis of the theme of sustainability applied to the design and construction of traditional concrete retaining wall and presenting a cost-effective and environmental solution using geosynthetics.

Keywords: sustainability, retaining wall, geosynthetics, life cycle assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
1151 Dilation Effect on 3D Passive Earth Pressure Coefficients for Retaining Wall

Authors: Khelifa Tarek, Benmebarek Sadok

Abstract:

The 2D passive earth pressures acting on rigid retaining walls problem has been widely treated in the literature using different approaches (limit equilibrium, limit analysis, slip line and numerical computation), however, the 3D passive earth pressures problem has received less attention. This paper is concerned with the numerical study of 3D passive earth pressures induced by the translation of a rigid rough retaining wall for associated and non-associated soils. Using the explicit finite difference code FLAC3D, the increase of the passive earth pressures due to the decrease of the wall breadth is investigated. The results given by the present numerical analysis are compared with other investigation. The influence of the angle of dilation on the coefficients is also studied.

Keywords: numerical modeling, FLAC3D, retaining wall, passive earth pressures, angle of dilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
1150 Behavior Evaluation of an Anchored Wall

Authors: Polo G. Yohn Edison, Rocha F. Pedricto

Abstract:

This work presents a study about a retaining structure designed for the duplication of the rail FEPASA on the 74th km between Santos and São Paulo. This structure, an anchored retaining wall, was instrumented in the anchors heads with strain gauges in order to monitor its loads. The load measurements occurred during the performance test, locking and also after the works were concluded. A decrease on anchors loads is noticed at the moment immediately after the locking, during construction and after the works finished. It was observed that a loss of load in the anchors occurred to a maximum of 54%.

Keywords: instrumentation, strain gauges, retaining wall, anchors

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
1149 Experimental Investigation of the Failure Behavior of a Retaining Wall Constructed with Soil Bags

Authors: Kewei Fan, Sihong Liu, Yi Pik Cheng

Abstract:

This paper aims to analyse the failure behaviour of the retaining wall constructed with soil bags that are formed by filling river sand into woven bags (geosynthetics). Model tests were conducted to obtain the failure mode of the wall, and shear tests on two-layers and five-layers of soil bags were designed to investigate the mechanical characteristics of the interface of soil bags. The test results show that the slip surface in the soil bags-constructed retaining wall is ladder-like due to the inter-layer insertion of soil bags, and the wall above the ladder-like surface undergoes a rigid body translation. The insertion strengthens the shear strength of two-layer staggered-stacked soil bags. Meanwhile, it affects the shape of the slip surface of the five-layer staggered-stacked soil bags. Finally, the interlayer resisting friction of soil bags is found to be related to the shape of the slip surface.

Keywords: geosynthetics, retaining wall, soil bag, failure mode, interface, shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
1148 Design of Rigid L-Shaped Retaining Walls

Authors: Ahmed Rouili

Abstract:

Cantilever L-shaped walls are known to be relatively economical as retaining solution. The design starts by proportioning the wall dimensions for which the stability is checked for. A ratio between the lengths of the base and the stem, falling between 0,5 to 0,7, ensure the stability requirements in most cases. However, the displacement pattern of the wall in terms of rotations and translations, and the lateral pressure profile, do not have the same figure for all wall’s proportioning, as it is usually assumed. In the present work, the results of a numerical analysis are presented, different wall geometries were considered. The results show that the proportioning governs the equilibrium between the instantaneous rotation and the translation of the wall-toe, also, the lateral pressure estimation based on the average value between the at-rest and the active pressure, recommended by most design standards, is found to be not applicable for all walls.

Keywords: cantilever wall, proportioning, numerical analysis, lateral pressure estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
1147 Studying the Impact of Soil Characteristics in Displacement of Retaining Walls Using Finite Element

Authors: Mojtaba Ahmadabadi, Akbar Masoudi, Morteza Rezai

Abstract:

In this paper, using the finite element method, the effect of soil and wall characteristics was investigated. Thirty and two different models were studied by different parameters. These studies could calculate displacement at any height of the wall for frictional-cohesive soils. The main purpose of this research is to determine the most effective soil characteristics in reducing the wall displacement. Comparing different models showed that the overall increase in internal friction angle, angle of friction between soil and wall and modulus of elasticity reduce the replacement of the wall. In addition, increase in special weight of soil will increase the wall displacement. Based on results, it can be said that all wall displacements were overturning and in the backfill, soil was bulging. Results show that the highest impact is seen in reducing wall displacement, internal friction angle, and the angle friction between soil and wall. One of the advantages of this study is taking into account all the parameters of the soil and walls replacement distribution in wall and backfill soil. In this paper, using the finite element method and considering all parameters of the soil, we investigated the impact of soil parameter in wall displacement. The aim of this study is to provide the best conditions in reducing the wall displacement and displacement wall and soil distribution.

Keywords: retaining wall, fem, soil and wall interaction, angle of internal friction of the soil, wall displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
1146 Evaluation of Minimization of Moment Ratio Method by Physical Modeling

Authors: Amin Eslami, Jafar Bolouri Bazaz

Abstract:

Under active stress conditions, a rigid cantilever retaining wall tends to rotate about a pivot point located within the embedded depth of the wall. For purely granular and cohesive soils, a methodology was previously reported called minimization of moment ratio to determine the location of the pivot point of rotation. The usage of this new methodology is to estimate the rotational stability safety factor. Moreover, the degree of improvement required in a backfill to get a desired safety factor can be estimated by the concept of the shear strength demand. In this article, the accuracy of this method for another type of cantilever walls called Contiguous Bored Pile (CBP) retaining wall is evaluated by using physical modeling technique. Based on observations, the results of moment ratio minimization method are in good agreement with the results of the carried out physical modeling.

Keywords: cantilever retaining wall, physical modeling, minimization of moment ratio method, pivot point

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1145 Study of Bored Pile Retaining Wall Using Physical Modeling

Authors: Amin Eslami, Jafar Bolouri Bazaz

Abstract:

Excavation and retaining walls are of challenging issues in civil engineering. In this study, the behavior of one the important type of supporting systems called Contiguous Bored Pile (CBP) retaining wall is investigated using a physical model. Besides, a comparison is made between two modes of free end piles(soft bed) and fixed end piles (stiff bed). Also a back calculation of effective length (the real free length of pile) is done by measuring lateral deflection of piles in different stages of excavation in both a forementioned cases. Based on observed results, for the fixed end mode, the effective length to free length ratio (Leff/L0) is equal to unity in initial stages of excavation and less than 1 in its final stages in a decreasing manner. While this ratio for free end mode, remains constant during all stages of excavation and is always less than unity.

Keywords: contiguous bored pile wall, effective length, fixed end, free end, free length

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1144 Settlement Analysis of Back-To-Back Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls

Authors: Akhila Palat, B. Umashankar

Abstract:

Back-to-back Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) walls are cost-effective soil-retaining structures that can tolerate large settlements compared to conventional gravity retaining walls. They are also an economical way to meet everyday earth retention needs for highway and bridge grade separations, railroads, commercial and residential developments. But, existing design guidelines (FHWA/BS/ IS codes) do not provide a mechanistic approach for the design of back-to-back reinforced retaining walls. The settlement analysis of such structures is limited in the literature. A better understanding of the deformations of this wall system requires an analytical tool that incorporates the properties of backfill material, foundation soil, and geosynthetic reinforcement, and account for the soil–structure interactions in a realistic manner. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of reinforced back-to-back MSE walls on wall settlements and facing deformations. Back-to-back reinforced retaining walls were modeled and compared using commercially available finite difference package FLAC 2D. Parametric studies were carried out for various angles of shearing resistance of backfill material and foundation soil, and the axial stiffness of the reinforcement. A 6m-high wall was modeled, and the facing panels were taken as full-length panels with nominal thickness. Reinforcement was modeled as cable elements (two-dimensional structural elements). Interfaces were considered between soil and wall, and soil and reinforcement.

Keywords: back-to-back walls, numerical modeling, reinforced wall, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1143 Evaluation of the Mechanical Behavior of a Retaining Wall Structure on a Weathered Soil through Probabilistic Methods

Authors: P. V. S. Mascarenhas, B. C. P. Albuquerque, D. J. F. Campos, L. L. Almeida, V. R. Domingues, L. C. S. M. Ozelim

Abstract:

Retaining slope structures are increasingly considered in geotechnical engineering projects due to extensive urban cities growth. These kinds of engineering constructions may present instabilities over the time and may require reinforcement or even rebuilding of the structure. In this context, statistical analysis is an important tool for decision making regarding retaining structures. This study approaches the failure probability of the construction of a retaining wall over the debris of an old and collapsed one. The new solution’s extension length will be of approximately 350 m and will be located over the margins of the Lake Paranoá, Brasilia, in the capital of Brazil. The building process must also account for the utilization of the ruins as a caisson. A series of in situ and laboratory experiments defined local soil strength parameters. A Standard Penetration Test (SPT) defined the in situ soil stratigraphy. Also, the parameters obtained were verified using soil data from a collection of masters and doctoral works from the University of Brasília, which is similar to the local soil. Initial studies show that the concrete wall is the proper solution for this case, taking into account the technical, economic and deterministic analysis. On the other hand, in order to better analyze the statistical significance of the factor-of-safety factors obtained, a Monte Carlo analysis was performed for the concrete wall and two more initial solutions. A comparison between the statistical and risk results generated for the different solutions indicated that a Gabion solution would better fit the financial and technical feasibility of the project.

Keywords: economical analysis, probability of failure, retaining walls, statistical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
1142 Influence of Surface Fault Rupture on Dynamic Behavior of Cantilever Retaining Wall: A Numerical Study

Authors: Partha Sarathi Nayek, Abhiparna Dasgupta, Maheshreddy Gade

Abstract:

Earth retaining structure plays a vital role in stabilizing unstable road cuts and slopes in the mountainous region. The retaining structures located in seismically active regions like the Himalayas may experience moderate to severe earthquakes. An earthquake produces two kinds of ground motion: permanent quasi-static displacement (fault rapture) on the fault rupture plane and transient vibration, traveling a long distance. There has been extensive research work to understand the dynamic behavior of retaining structures subjected to transient ground motions. However, understanding the effect caused by fault rapture phenomena on retaining structures is limited. The presence of shallow crustal active faults and natural slopes in the Himalayan region further highlights the need to study the response of retaining structures subjected to fault rupture phenomena. In this paper, an attempt has been made to understand the dynamic response of the cantilever retaining wall subjected to surface fault rupture. For this purpose, a 2D finite element model consists of a retaining wall, backfill and foundation have been developed using Abaqus 6.14 software. The backfill and foundation material are modeled as per the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, and the wall is modeled as linear elastic. In this present study, the interaction between backfill and wall is modeled as ‘surface-surface contact.’ The entire simulation process is divided into three steps, i.e., the initial step, gravity load step, fault rupture step. The interaction property between wall and soil and fixed boundary condition to all the boundary elements are applied in the initial step. In the next step, gravity load is applied, and the boundary elements are allowed to move in the vertical direction to incorporate the settlement of soil due to the gravity load. In the final step, surface fault rupture has been applied to the wall-backfill system. For this purpose, the foundation is divided into two blocks, namely, the hanging wall block and the footwall block. A finite fault rupture displacement is applied to the hanging wall part while the footwall bottom boundary is kept as fixed. Initially, a numerical analysis is performed considering the reverse fault mechanism with a dip angle of 45°. The simulated result is presented in terms of contour maps of permanent displacements of the wall-backfill system. These maps highlighted that surface fault rupture can induce permanent displacement in both horizontal and vertical directions, which can significantly influence the dynamic behavior of the wall-backfill system. Further, the influence of fault mechanism, dip angle, and surface fault rupture position is also investigated in this work.

Keywords: surface fault rupture, retaining wall, dynamic response, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
1141 Examination of the Reinforcement Forces Generated in Pseudo-Static and Dynamic Status in Retaining Walls

Authors: K. Passbakhsh

Abstract:

Determination of reinforcement forces is one of the most important and main discussions in designing retaining walls. By determining these forces we refrain from conservative planning. By numerically modeling the reinforced soil retaining walls under dynamic loading reinforcement forces can be calculated. In this study we try to approach the gained forces by pseudo-static method according to FHWA code and gained forces from numerical modeling by finite element method, by selecting seismic horizontal coefficient for different wall height. PLAXIS software was used for numerical analysis. Then the effect of reinforcement stiffness and soil type on reinforcement forces is examined.

Keywords: reinforced soil, PLAXIS, reinforcement forces, retaining walls

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1140 Biogeography Based CO2 and Cost Optimization of RC Cantilever Retaining Walls

Authors: Ibrahim Aydogdu, Alper Akin

Abstract:

In this study, the development of minimizing the cost and the CO2 emission of the RC retaining wall design has been performed by Biogeography Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm. This has been achieved by developing computer programs utilizing BBO algorithm which minimize the cost and the CO2 emission of the RC retaining walls. Objective functions of the optimization problem are defined as the minimized cost, the CO2 emission and weighted aggregate of the cost and the CO2 functions of the RC retaining walls. In the formulation of the optimum design problem, the height and thickness of the stem, the length of the toe projection, the thickness of the stem at base level, the length and thickness of the base, the depth and thickness of the key, the distance from the toe to the key, the number and diameter of the reinforcement bars are treated as design variables. In the formulation of the optimization problem, flexural and shear strength constraints and minimum/maximum limitations for the reinforcement bar areas are derived from American Concrete Institute (ACI 318-14) design code. Moreover, the development length conditions for suitable detailing of reinforcement are treated as a constraint. The obtained optimum designs must satisfy the factor of safety for failure modes (overturning, sliding and bearing), strength, serviceability and other required limitations to attain practically acceptable shapes. To demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the presented BBO algorithm, the optimum design example for retaining walls is presented and the results are compared to the previously obtained results available in the literature.

Keywords: bio geography, meta-heuristic search, optimization, retaining wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
1139 Pull-Out Analysis of Composite Loops Embedded in Steel Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall Panels

Authors: Pierre van Tonder, Christoff Kruger

Abstract:

Modular concrete elements are used for retaining walls to provide lateral support. Depending on the retaining wall layout, these precast panels may be interlocking and may be tied into the soil backfill via geosynthetic strips. This study investigates the ultimate pull-out load increase, which is possible by adding varied diameter supplementary reinforcement through embedded anchor loops within concrete retaining wall panels. Full-scale panels used in practice have four embedded anchor points. However, only one anchor loop was embedded in the center of the experimental panels. The experimental panels had the same thickness but a smaller footprint (600mm x 600mm x 140mm) area than the full-sized panels to accommodate the space limitations of the laboratory and experimental setup. The experimental panels were also cast without any bending reinforcement as would typically be obtained in the full-scale panels. The exclusion of these reinforcements was purposefully neglected to evaluate the impact of a single bar reinforcement through the center of the anchor loops. The reinforcement bars had of 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 12 mm. 30 samples of concrete panels with embedded anchor loops were tested. The panels were supported on the edges and the anchor loops were subjected to an increasing tensile force using an Instron piston. Failures that occurred were loop failures and panel failures and a mixture thereof. There was an increase in ultimate load vs. increasing diameter as expected, but this relationship persisted until the reinforcement diameter exceeded 10 mm. For diameters larger than 10 mm, the ultimate failure load starts to decrease due to the dependency of the reinforcement bond strength to the concrete matrix. Overall, the reinforced panels showed a 14 to 23% increase in the factor of safety. Using anchor loops of 66kN ultimate load together with Y10 steel reinforcement with bent ends had shown the most promising results in reducing concrete panel pull-out failure. The Y10 reinforcement had shown, on average, a 24% increase in ultimate load achieved. Previous research has investigated supplementary reinforcement around the anchor loops. This paper extends this investigation by evaluating supplementary reinforcement placed through the panel anchor loops.

Keywords: supplementary reinforcement, anchor loops, retaining panels, reinforced concrete, pull-out failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
1138 Study on Seismic Performance of Reinforced Soil Walls in Order to Offer Modified Pseudo Static Method

Authors: Majid Yazdandoust

Abstract:

This study, tries to suggest a design method based on displacement using finite difference numerical modeling in reinforcing soil retaining wall with steel strip. In this case, dynamic loading characteristics such as duration, frequency, peak ground acceleration, geometrical characteristics of reinforced soil structure and type of the site are considered to correct the pseudo static method and finally introduce the pseudo static coefficient as a function of seismic performance level and peak ground acceleration. For this purpose, the influence of dynamic loading characteristics, reinforcement length, height of reinforced system and type of the site are investigated on seismic behavior of reinforcing soil retaining wall with steel strip. Numerical results illustrate that the seismic response of this type of wall is highly dependent to cumulative absolute velocity, maximum acceleration, and height and reinforcement length so that the reinforcement length can be introduced as the main factor in shape of failure. Considering the loading parameters, mechanically stabilized earth wall parameters and type of the site showed that the used method in this study leads to most efficient designs in comparison with other methods which are generally suggested in cods that are usually based on limit-equilibrium concept. The outputs show the over-estimation of equilibrium design methods in comparison with proposed displacement based methods here.

Keywords: pseudo static coefficient, seismic performance design, numerical modeling, steel strip reinforcement, retaining walls, cumulative absolute velocity, failure shape

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
1137 Challenges in the Material and Action-Resistance Factor Design for Embedded Retaining Wall Limit State Analysis

Authors: Kreso Ivandic, Filip Dodigovic, Damir Stuhec

Abstract:

The paper deals with the proposed 'Material' and 'Action-resistance factor' design methods in designing the embedded retaining walls. The parametric analysis of evaluating the differences of the output values mutually and compared with classic approach computation was performed. There is a challenge with the criteria for choosing the proposed calculation design methods in Eurocode 7 with respect to current technical regulations and regular engineering practice. The basic criterion for applying a particular design method is to ensure minimum an equal degree of reliability in relation to the current practice. The procedure of combining the relevant partial coefficients according to design methods was carried out. The use of mentioned partial coefficients should result in the same level of safety, regardless of load combinations, material characteristics and problem geometry. This proposed approach of the partial coefficients related to the material and/or action-resistance should aimed at building a bridge between calculations used so far and pure probability analysis. The measure to compare the results was to determine an equivalent safety factor for each analysis. The results show a visible wide span of equivalent values of the classic safety factors.

Keywords: action-resistance factor design, classic approach, embedded retaining wall, Eurocode 7, limit states, material factor design

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1136 Wall Shear Stress Under an Impinging Planar Jet Using the Razor Blade Technique

Authors: A. Ritcey, J. R. Mcdermid, S. Ziada

Abstract:

Wall shear stress was experimentally measured under a planar impinging air jet as a function of jet Reynolds number (Rejet = 5000, 8000, 11000) and different normalized impingement distances (H/D = 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) using the razor blade technique to complete a parametric study. The wall pressure, wall pressure gradient, and wall shear stress information were obtained.

Keywords: experimental fluid mechanics, impinging planar jets, skin friction factor, wall shear stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1135 Deflection Behaviour of Retaining Wall with Pile for Pipeline on Slope of Soft Soil

Authors: Mutadi

Abstract:

Pipes laying on an unstable slope of soft soil are prone to movement. Pipelines that are buried in unstable slope areas will move due to lateral loads from soil movement, which can cause damage to the pipeline. A small-scale laboratory model of the reinforcement system of piles supported by retaining walls was conducted to investigate the effect of lateral load on the reinforcement. In this experiment, the lateral forces of 0.3 kN, 0.35 kN, and 0.4 kN and vertical force of 0.05 kN, 0.1 kN, and 0.15 kN were used. Lateral load from the electric jack is equipped with load cell and vertical load using the cement-steel box. To validate the experimental result, a finite element program named 2-D Plaxis was used. The experimental results showed that with an increase in lateral loading, the displacement of the reinforcement system increased. For a Vertical Load, 0.1 kN and versus a lateral load of 0.3 kN causes a horizontal displacement of 0.35 mm and an increase of 2.94% for loading of 0.35 kN and an increase of 8.82% for loading 0.4 kN. The pattern is the same in the finite element method analysis, where there was a 6.52% increase for 0.35 kN loading and an increase to 23.91 % for 0.4 kN loading. In the same Load, the Reinforcement System is reliable, as shown in Safety Factor on dry conditions were 3.3, 2.824 and 2.474, and on wet conditions were 2.98, 2.522 and 2.235.

Keywords: soft soil, deflection, wall, pipeline

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
1134 The Effect of Opening on Mode Shapes and Frequencies of Composite Shear Wall

Authors: A. Arabzadeh, H. R. Kazemi Nia Korrani

Abstract:

Composite steel plate shear wall is a lateral loading resistance system, which is used especially in tall buildings. This wall is made of a thin steel plate with reinforced a concrete cover, which is attached to one or both sides of the steel plate. This system is similar to stiffened steel plate shear wall, in which reinforced concrete replaces the steel stiffeners. Composite shear wall have in-plane and out-plane significant strength. Also, they have appropriate ductility. The present numerical investigations were focused on the effects of opening on wall mode shapes. In addition, frequencies of composite shear wall with and without opening are compared. For analyzing composite shear wall, a new program will be developed using of finite element theory and the effects of shape, size and position openings on the behavior of composite shear wall will be studied. Results indicated that the existence of opening decreases wall frequency.

Keywords: composite shear wall, opening, finite element method, modal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
1133 Effect of Boundary Retaining Walls Properties on the Raft Foundations Behaviour

Authors: Mohamed Hussein

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of boundary retaining walls properties on the behavior of the raft foundation. Commercial software program Sap2000 was used in this study. The soil was presented as continuous media (follows the Winkler assumption). Shell elements were employed to model the raft plate. A parametric study has been carried out to examine the effect of boundary retaining walls properties on the behavior of raft plate. These parameters namely, height of the boundary retaining walls, thickness of the boundary retaining walls, flexural rigidity of raft plate, bearing capacity of supporting soil and the earth pressure of boundary soil. The main results which were obtained from this study are positive, negative bending moment, shear stress and deflection in raft plate, where these parameters are considered the main parameters used in design of raft foundation. It was concluded that the boundary retaining walls have a significant effect on the straining actions in raft plate.

Keywords: Sap2000, boundary retaining walls, raft foundations, Winkler model, flexural rigidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1132 A Study on the Reinforced Earth Walls Using Sandwich Backfills under Seismic Loads

Authors: Kavitha A.S., L.Govindaraju

Abstract:

Reinforced earth walls offer excellent solution to many problems associated with earth retaining structures especially under seismic conditions. Use of cohesive soils as backfill material reduces the cost of reinforced soil walls if proper drainage measures are taken. This paper presents a numerical study on the application of a new technique called sandwich technique in reinforced earth walls. In this technique, a thin layer of granular soil is placed above and below the reinforcement layer to initiate interface friction and the remaining portion of the backfill is filled up using the existing insitu cohesive soil. A 6 m high reinforced earth wall has been analysed as a two-dimensional plane strain finite element model. Three types of reinforcing elements such as geotextile, geogrid and metallic strips were used. The horizontal wall displacements and the tensile loads in the reinforcement were used as the criteria to evaluate the results at the end of construction and dynamic excitation phases. Also to verify the effectiveness of sandwich layer on the performance of the wall, the thickness of sand fill surrounding the reinforcement was varied. At the end of construction stage it is found that the wall with sandwich type backfill yielded lower displacements when compared to the wall with cohesive soil as backfill. Also with sandwich backfill, the reinforcement loads reduced substantially when compared to the wall with cohesive soil as backfill. Further, it is found that sandwich technique as backfill and geogrid as reinforcement is a good combination to reduce the deformations of geosynthetic reinforced walls during seismic loading.

Keywords: geogrid, geotextile, reinforced earth, sandwich technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1131 Case Study: Hybrid Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall System Built on Basal Reinforced Raft

Authors: S. Kaymakçı, D. Gündoğdu, H. Özçelik

Abstract:

The truck park of a warehouse for a chain of supermarket was going to be constructed on a poor ground. Rather than using a piled foundation, the client was convinced that a ground improvement using a reinforced foundation raft also known as “basal reinforcement” shall work. The retaining structures supporting the truck park area were designed using a hybrid structure made up of the Terramesh® Wall System and MacGrid™ high strength geogrids. The total wall surface area is nearly 2740 sq.m , reaching a maximum height of 13.00 meters. The area is located in the first degree seismic zone of Turkey and the design seismic acceleration is high. The design of walls has been carried out using pseudo-static method (limit equilibrium) taking into consideration different loading conditions using Eurocode 7. For each standard approach stability analysis in seismic condition were performed. The paper presents the detailed design of the reinforced soil structure, basal reinforcement and the construction methods; advantages of using such system for the project are discussed.

Keywords: basal reinforcement, geogrid, reinforced soil raft, reinforced soil wall, soil reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
1130 An Analytical Wall Function for 2-D Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions

Authors: X. Wang, T. J. Craft, H. Iacovides

Abstract:

When handling the near-wall regions of turbulent flows, it is necessary to account for the viscous effects which are important over the thin near-wall layers. Low-Reynolds- number turbulence models do this by including explicit viscous and also damping terms which become active in the near-wall regions, and using very fine near-wall grids to properly resolve the steep gradients present. In order to overcome the cost associated with the low-Re turbulence models, a more advanced wall function approach has been implemented within OpenFoam and tested together with a standard log-law based wall function in the prediction of flows which involve 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLIs). On the whole, from the calculation of the impinging shock interaction, the three turbulence modelling strategies, the Lauder-Sharma k-ε model with Yap correction (LS), the high-Re k-ε model with standard wall function (SWF) and analytical wall function (AWF), display good predictions of wall-pressure. However, the SWF approach tends to underestimate the tendency of the flow to separate as a result of the SWTBLI. The analytical wall function, on the other hand, is able to reproduce the shock-induced flow separation and returns predictions similar to those of the low-Re model, using a much coarser mesh.

Keywords: SWTBLIs, skin-friction, turbulence modeling, wall function

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1129 Influence of Wall Stiffness and Embedment Depth on Excavations Supported by Cantilever Walls

Authors: Muhammad Naseem Baig, Abdul Qudoos Khan, Jamal Ali

Abstract:

Ground deformations in deep excavations are affected by wall stiffness and pile embedment ratio. This paper presents the findings of a parametric study of 64ft deep excavation in mixed stiff soil conditions supported by a cantilever pile wall. A series of finite element analyses have been carried out in Plaxis 2D by varying pile embedment ratio and wall stiffness. It has been observed that maximum wall deflections decrease by increasing the embedment ratio up to 1.50; however, any further increase in pile length does not improve the performance of wall. Similarly, increasing wall stiffness reduces the wall deformations and affects the deflection patterns of wall. The finite element analysis results are compared with field data of 25 case studies of cantilever walls. Analysis results fall within the range of normalized wall deflections of 25 case studies. It has been concluded that deep excavations can be supported by cantilever walls provided the system stiffness is increased significantly.

Keywords: excavations, support systems, wall stiffness, cantilever walls

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1128 Cantilever Secant Pile Constructed in Sand: Numerical Comparative Study and Design Aids – Part II

Authors: Khaled R. Khater

Abstract:

All civil engineering projects include excavation work and therefore need some retaining structures. Cantilever secant pile walls are an economical supporting system up to 5.0-m depths. The parameters controlling wall tip displacement are the focus of this paper. So, two analysis techniques have been investigated and arbitrated. They are the conventional method and finite element analysis. Accordingly, two computer programs have been used, Excel sheet and Plaxis-2D. Two soil models have been used throughout this study. They are Mohr-Coulomb soil model and Isotropic Hardening soil models. During this study, two soil densities have been considered, i.e. loose and dense sand. Ten wall rigidities have been analyzed covering ranges of perfectly flexible to completely rigid walls. Three excavation depths, i.e. 3.0-m, 4.0-m and 5.0-m were tested to cover the practical range of secant piles. This work submits beneficial hints about secant piles to assist designers and specification committees. Also, finite element analysis, isotropic hardening, is recommended to be the fair judge when two designs conflict. A rational procedure using empirical equations has been suggested to upgrade the conventional method to predict wall tip displacement ‘δ’. Also, a reasonable limitation of ‘δ’ as a function of excavation depth, ‘h’ has been suggested. Also, it has been found that, after a certain penetration depth any further increase of it does not positively affect the wall tip displacement, i.e. over design and uneconomic.

Keywords: design aids, numerical analysis, secant pile, Wall tip displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 70