Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3878

Search results for: hybrid metal injection molding

3878 Development of Swing Valve for Gasoline Turbocharger Using Hybrid Metal Injection Molding

Authors: B. S. So, Y. H. Yoon, J. O. Jung, K. S. Bae

Abstract:

Metal Injection Molding (MIM) is a technology that combines powder metallurgy and injection molding. Particularly, it is widely applied to the manufacture of precision mobile parts and automobile turbocharger parts because compact precision parts with complicated three-dimensional shapes that are difficult to machining are formed into a large number of finished products. The swing valve is a valve that adjusts the boost pressure of the turbocharger. Since the head portion is exposed to the harsh temperature condition of about 900 degrees in the gasoline GDI engine, it is necessary to use Inconel material with excellent heat resistance and abrasion resistance, resulting in high manufacturing cost. In this study, we developed a swing valve using a metal powder injection molding based hybrid material (Inconel 713C material with heat resistance is applied to the head part, and HK30 material with low price is applied to the rest of the body part). For this purpose, the process conditions of the metal injection molding were optimized to minimize the internal defects, and the effectiveness was confirmed by the fracture strength and fatigue test.

Keywords: hybrid metal injection molding, swing valve, turbocharger, double injection

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
3877 Molding Properties of Cobalt-Chrome-Based Feedstocks Used in Low-Pressure Powder Injection Molding

Authors: Ehsan Gholami, Vincent Demers

Abstract:

Low-pressure powder injection molding is an emerging technology for cost-effectively producing complex shape metallic parts with the proper dimensional tolerances, either in high or in low production volumes. In this study, the molding properties of cobalt-chrome-based feedstocks were evaluated for use in a low-pressure powder injection molding process. The rheological properties of feedstock formulations were obtained by mixing metallic powder with a proprietary wax-based binder system. Rheological parameters such as reference viscosity, shear rate sensitivity index, and activation energy for viscous flow, were extracted from the viscosity profiles and introduced into the Weir model to calculate the moldability index. Feedstocks were experimentally injected into a spiral mold cavity to validate the injection performance calculated with the model.

Keywords: binder, feedstock, moldability, powder injection molding, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
3876 Carbon Nanotubes Based Porous Framework for Filtration Applications Using Industrial Grinding Waste

Authors: V. J. Pillewan, D. N. Raut, K. N. Patil, D. K. Shinde

Abstract:

Forging, milling, turning, grinding and shaping etc. are the various industrial manufacturing processes which generate the metal waste. Grinding is extensively used in the finishing operation. The waste generated contains significant impurities apart from the metal particles. Due to these significant impurities, it becomes difficult to process and gets usually dumped in the landfills which create environmental problems. Therefore, it becomes essential to reuse metal waste to create value added products. Powder injection molding process is used for producing the porous metal matrix framework. This paper discusses the presented design of the porous framework to be used for the liquid filter application. Different parameters are optimized to obtain the better strength framework with variable porosity. Carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcing materials to enhance the strength of the metal matrix framework.

Keywords: grinding waste, powder injection molding (PIM), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), matrix composites (MMCs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
3875 Optimization of Plastic Injection Molding Parameters by Altering Gate and Runner of Feeding System

Authors: Ali Ramezani

Abstract:

Balancing feeding system of plastic injection molding has overriding importance as it minimizes the process’s product defects such as weld line, shrinkage, sink marks and warpage. This article presents the difference between optimization of feeding system in identical multi-cavity molding and family molding using Moldflow Plastic Insight software. In this work, the effect of dimension, shape, position and type of gates and runners on the products quality was studied. The optimization was carried out by analyzing plastic injection molding process parameters, including melt temperature, mold temperature, cooling time, cooling temperature packing time and packing pressure. It was found that symmetrical feeding system is the most efficient shape for diminishing defects in identical multi-cavity molding. However, the same results were not concluded for family molding due to the differences between volume, mass, thickness and shape of cavities.

Keywords: balancing feeding system, family molding, multi-cavity, Moldflow, plastic injection

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
3874 Online Monitoring Rheological Property of Polymer Melt during Injection Molding

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Chien-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The detection of the polymer melt state during manufacture process is regarded as an efficient way to control the molded part quality in advance. Online monitoring rheological property of polymer melt during processing procedure provides an approach to understand the melt state immediately. Rheological property reflects the polymer melt state at different processing parameters and is very important in injection molding process especially. An approach that demonstrates how to calculate rheological property of polymer melt through in-process measurement, using injection molding as an example, is proposed in this study. The system consists of two sensors and a data acquisition module can process the measured data, which are used for the calculation of rheological properties of polymer melt. The rheological properties of polymer melt discussed in this study include shear rate and viscosity which are investigated with respect to injection speed and melt temperature. The results show that the effect of injection speed on the rheological properties is apparent, especially for high melt temperature and should be considered for precision molding process.

Keywords: injection molding, melt viscosity, shear rate, monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
3873 Optimization for the Hydraulic Clamping System of an Internal Circulation Two-Platen Injection Molding Machine

Authors: Jian Wang, Lu Yang, Jiong Peng

Abstract:

Internal circulation two-platen clamping system for injection molding machine (IMM) has many potential advantages on energy-saving. In order to estimate its properties, experiments in this paper were carried out. Displacement and pressure of the components were measured. In comparison, the model of hydraulic clamping system was established by using AMESim. The related parameters as well as the energy consumption could be calculated. According to the analysis, the hydraulic system was optimized in order to reduce the energy consumption.

Keywords: AMESim, energy-saving, injection molding machine, internal circulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
3872 Investigation of Cylindrical Multi-Layer Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguides

Authors: Prateeksha Sharma, V. Dinesh Kumar

Abstract:

Performances of cylindrical multilayer hybrid plasmonic waveguides have been investigated in detail considering their structural and material aspects. Characteristics of hybrid metal insulator metal (HMIM) and hybrid insulator metal insulator (HIMI) waveguides have been compared on the basis of propagation length and confinement factor. Necessity of this study is to understand newer kind of waveguides that overcome the limitations of conventional waveguides. Investigation reveals that sub wavelength confinement can be obtained in two low dielectric spacer layers. This study provides gateway for many applications such as nano lasers, interconnects, bio sensors and optical trapping etc.

Keywords: hybrid insulator metal insulator, hybrid metal insulator metal, nano laser, surface plasmon polariton

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
3871 Six Sigma-Based Optimization of Shrinkage Accuracy in Injection Molding Processes

Authors: Sky Chou, Joseph C. Chen

Abstract:

This paper focuses on using six sigma methodologies to reach the desired shrinkage of a manufactured high-density polyurethane (HDPE) part produced by the injection molding machine. It presents a case study where the correct shrinkage is required to reduce or eliminate defects and to improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for an injection molding process. To improve this process and keep the product within specifications, the six sigma methodology, design, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) approach, was implemented in this study. The six sigma approach was paired with the Taguchi methodology to identify the optimized processing parameters that keep the shrinkage rate within the specifications by our customer. An L9 orthogonal array was applied in the Taguchi experimental design, with four controllable factors and one non-controllable/noise factor. The four controllable factors identified consist of the cooling time, melt temperature, holding time, and metering stroke. The noise factor is the difference between material brand 1 and material brand 2. After the confirmation run was completed, measurements verify that the new parameter settings are optimal. With the new settings, the process capability index has improved dramatically. The purpose of this study is to show that the six sigma and Taguchi methodology can be efficiently used to determine important factors that will improve the process capability index of the injection molding process.

Keywords: injection molding, shrinkage, six sigma, Taguchi parameter design

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
3870 Optimization of Two Quality Characteristics in Injection Molding Processes via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Joseph C. Chen, Venkata Karthik Jakka

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to optimize tensile strength and dimensional accuracy in injection molding processes using Taguchi Parameter Design. An L16 orthogonal array (OA) is used in Taguchi experimental design with five control factors at four levels each and with non-controllable factor vibration. A total of 32 experiments were designed to obtain the optimal parameter setting for the process. The optimal parameters identified for the shrinkage are shot volume, 1.7 cubic inch (A4); mold term temperature, 130 ºF (B1); hold pressure, 3200 Psi (C4); injection speed, 0.61 inch3/sec (D2); and hold time of 14 seconds (E2). The optimal parameters identified for the tensile strength are shot volume, 1.7 cubic inch (A4); mold temperature, 160 ºF (B4); hold pressure, 3100 Psi (C3); injection speed, 0.69 inch3/sec (D4); and hold time of 14 seconds (E2). The Taguchi-based optimization framework was systematically and successfully implemented to obtain an adjusted optimal setting in this research. The mean shrinkage of the confirmation runs is 0.0031%, and the tensile strength value was found to be 3148.1 psi. Both outcomes are far better results from the baseline, and defects have been further reduced in injection molding processes.

Keywords: injection molding processes, taguchi parameter design, tensile strength, high-density polyethylene(HDPE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
3869 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Powder Injection Molded Alumina Nano-Powder

Authors: Mostafa Rezaee Saraji, Ali Keshavarz Panahi

Abstract:

In this work, the processing steps for producing alumina parts using powder injection molding (PIM) technique and nano-powder were investigated and the thermal conductivity and flexural strength of samples were determined as a function of sintering temperature and holding time. In the first step, the feedstock with 58 vol. % of alumina nano-powder with average particle size of 100nm was prepared using Extrumixing method to obtain appropriate homogeneity. This feedstock was injection molded into the two cavity mold with rectangular shape. After injection molding step, thermal and solvent debinding methods were used for debinding of molded samples and then these debinded samples were sintered in different sintering temperatures and holding times. From the results, it was found that the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of samples increased by increasing sintering temperature and holding time; in sintering temperature of 1600ºC and holding time of 5h, the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of sintered samples reached to maximum values of 488MPa and 40.8 W/mK, respectively.

Keywords: alumina nano-powder, thermal conductivity, flexural strength, powder injection molding

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
3868 Assessment and Characterization of Dual-Hardening Adhesion Promoter for Self-Healing Mechanisms in Metal-Plastic Hybrid System

Authors: Anas Hallak, Latifa Seblini, Juergen Wilde

Abstract:

In mechatronics or sensor technology, plastic housings are used to protect sensitive components from harmful environmental influences, such as moisture, media, or reactive substances. Connections, preferably in the form of metallic lead-frame structures, through the housing wall are required for their electrical supply or control. In this system, an insufficient connection between the plastic component, e.g., Polyamide66, and the metal surface, e.g., copper, due to the incompatibility is dominating. As a result, leakage paths can occur along with the plastic-metal interface. Since adhesive bonding has been established as one of the most important joining processes and its use has expanded significantly, driven by the development of improved high-performance adhesives and bonding techniques, this technology has been involved in metal-plastic hybrid structures. In this study, an epoxy bonding agent from DELO (DUALBOND LT2266) has been used to improve the mechanical and chemical binding between the metal and the polymer. It is an adhesion promoter with two reaction stages. In these, the first stage provides fixation to the lead frame directly after the coating step, which can be done by UV-Exposure for a few seconds. In the second stage, the material will be thermally hardened during injection molding. To analyze the two reaction stages of the primer, dynamic DSC experiments were carried out and correlated with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. Furthermore, the number of crosslinking bonds formed in the system in each reaction stage has also been estimated by a rheological characterization. Those investigations have been performed with different times of UV exposure: 12, 96 s and in an industrial preferred temperature range from -20 to 175°C. The shear viscosity values of primer have been measured as a function of temperature and exposure times. For further interpretation, the storage modulus values have been calculated, and the so-called Booij–Palmen plot has been sketched. The next approach in this study is the self-healing mechanisms in the hydride system in which the primer should flow into micro-damage such as interface, cracks, inhibit them from growing, and close them. The ability of the primer to flow in and penetrate defined capillaries made in Ultramid was investigated. Holes with a diameter of 0.3 mm were produced in injection-molded A3EG7 plates with 4 mm thickness. A copper substrate coated with the DUALBOND was placed on the A3EG7 plate and pressed with a certain force. Metallographic analyses were carried out to verify the filling grade, which showed an almost 95% filling ratio of the capillaries. Finally, to estimate the self-healing mechanism in metal-plastic hybrid systems, characterizations have been done on a simple geometry with a metal inlay developed by the Institute of Polymer Technology in Friedrich-Alexander-University. The specimens have been modified with tungsten wire which was to be pulled out after the injection molding to create a micro-hole in the specimen at the interface between the primer and the polymer. The capability of the primer to heal those micro-cracks upon heating, pressing, and thermal aging has been characterized through metallographic analyses.

Keywords: hybrid structures, self-healing, thermoplastic housing, adhesive

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
3867 Developing an Online Library for Faster Retrieval of Mold Base and Standard Parts of Injection Molding

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Ricky N. Joevan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on developing a system to transfer mold base plates and standard parts faster during the stage of injection mold design. This system not only provides a way to compare the file version, but also it utilizes Siemens NX 10 to isolate the updated information into a single executable file (.dll), and then, the file can be transferred without the need of transferring the whole file. By this way, the system can help the user to download only necessary mold base plates and standard parts, and those parts downloaded are only the updated portions.

Keywords: CAD, injection molding, mold base, data retrieval

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
3866 Investigation on the Cooling Performance of Cooling Channels Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting for Injection Molding

Authors: Changyong Liu, Junda Tong, Feng Xu, Ninggui Huang

Abstract:

In the injection molding process, the performance of cooling channels is crucial to the part quality. Through the application of conformal cooling channels fabricated via metal additive manufacturing, part distortion, warpage can be greatly reduced and cycle time can be greatly shortened. However, the properties of additively manufactured conformal cooling channels are quite different from conventional drilling processes such as the poorer dimensional accuracy and larger surface roughness. These features have significant influences on its cooling performance. In this study, test molds with the cooling channel diameters of φ2 mm, φ3 mm and φ4 mm were fabricated via selective laser melting and conventional drilling process respectively. A test system was designed and manufactured to measure the pressure difference between the channel inlet and outlet, the coolant flow rate and the temperature variation during the heating process. It was found that the cooling performance of SLM-fabricated channels was poorer than drilled cooling channels due to the smaller sectional area of cooling channels resulted from the low dimensional accuracy and the unmolten particles adhered to the channel surface. Theoretical models were established to determine the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient of SLM-fabricated cooling channels. These findings may provide guidance to the design of conformal cooling channels.

Keywords: conformal cooling channels, selective laser melting, cooling performance, injection molding

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3865 Effect of Particle Size on Sintering Characteristics of Injection Molded 316L Powder

Authors: H. Özkan Gülsoy, Antonyraj Arockiasamy

Abstract:

The application of powder injection molding technology for the fabrication of metallic and non-metallic components is of growing interest as the process considerably saves time and cost. Utilizing this fabrication method, full dense components are being prepared in various sizes. In this work, our effort is focused to study the densification behavior of the parts made using different size 316L stainless steel powders. The metal powders were admixed with an adequate amount of polymeric compounds and molded as standard tensile bars. Solvent and thermal debinding was carried out followed by sintering in ultra pure hydrogen atmosphere based on the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) cycle. Mechanical property evaluation and microstructural characterization of the sintered specimens was performed using universal Instron tensile testing machine, Vicker’s microhardness tester, optical (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction were used. The results are compared and analyzed to predict the strength and weakness of the test conditions.

Keywords: powder injection molding, sintering, particle size, stainless steels

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
3864 Reducing Component Stress during Encapsulation of Electronics: A Simulative Examination of Thermoplastic Foam Injection Molding

Authors: Constantin Ott, Dietmar Drummer

Abstract:

The direct encapsulation of electronic components is an effective way of protecting components against external influences. In addition to achieving a sufficient protective effect, there are two other big challenges for satisfying the increasing demand for encapsulated circuit boards. The encapsulation process should be both suitable for mass production and offer a low component load. Injection molding is a method with good suitability for large series production but also with typically high component stress. In this article, two aims were pursued: first, the development of a calculation model that allows an estimation of the occurring forces based on process variables and material parameters. Second, the evaluation of a new approach for stress reduction by means of thermoplastic foam injection molding. For this purpose, simulation-based process data was generated with the Moldflow simulation tool. Based on this, component stresses were calculated with the calculation model. At the same time, this paper provided a model for estimating the forces occurring during overmolding and derived a solution method for reducing these forces. The suitability of this approach was clearly demonstrated and a significant reduction in shear forces during overmolding was achieved. It was possible to demonstrate a process development that makes it possible to meet the two main requirements of direct encapsulation in addition to a high protective effect.

Keywords: encapsulation, stress reduction, foam-injection-molding, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
3863 Experimental and Theoretical Study of Melt Viscosity in Injection Process

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Wen-Teng Wang, Chin-Chiuan Kuo, Chieh-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The state of melt viscosity in injection process is significantly influenced by the setting parameters due to that the shear rate of injection process is higher than other processes. How to determine plastic melt viscosity during injection process is important to understand the influence of setting parameters on the melt viscosity. An apparatus named as pressure sensor bushing (PSB) module that is used to evaluate the melt viscosity during injection process is developed in this work. The formulations to coupling melt viscosity with fill time and injection pressure are derived and then the melt viscosity is determined. A test mold is prepared to evaluate the accuracy on viscosity calculations between the PSB module and the conventional approaches. The influence of melt viscosity on the tensile strength of molded part is proposed to study the consistency of injection quality.

Keywords: injection molding, melt viscosity, tensile test, pressure sensor bushing (PSB)

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
3862 Modeling Study of Short Fiber Orientation in Simple Injection Molding Processes

Authors: Ihsane Modhaffar, Kamal Gueraoui, Abouelkacem Qais, Abderrahmane Maaouni, Samir Men-La-Yakhaf, Hamid Eltourroug

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate and characterize the fiber suspension in flow in rectangular cavities. The model is intended to describe the velocity profile and to predict the fiber orientation. The flow was considered to be incompressible, and behave as Newtonian fluid containing suspensions of short-fibers. The numerical model for determination of velocity profile and fiber orientation during mold-filling stage of injection molding process was solved using finite volume method. The governing equations of this problem are: the continuity, the momentum and the energy. The obtained results were compared to available experimental findings. A good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data was achieved.

Keywords: injection, composites, short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, fiber orientation, incompressible fluid, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
3861 Effect of Temperature Condition in Extracting Carbon Fibers on Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded Polypropylene Reinforced by Recycled Carbon Fibers

Authors: Shota Nagata, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the proper condition in extracting carbon fibers as the reinforcement of composite molded by injection method. Recycled carbon fibers were extracted from wasted CFRP by pyrolyzing epoxy matrix of CFRP under air atmosphere at different temperature conditions 400, 600 and 800°C in this study. Recycled carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene (RCF/PP) pellets were prepared using twin screw extruder. The RCF/PP specimens were molded into dumbbell shaped specimens using injection molding machine. The tensile strength of recycled carbon fiber was decreased with rising pyrolysis temperature from 400 to 800°C. However, superior mechanical properties of tensile strength, tensile modulus and fracture strain of RCF/PP specimen were obtained when the extracting temperature was 600°C. Almost fibers in RCF/PP specimens were aligned in the mold filling direction in this study when the extracting temperature was 600°C. To discuss the results, the failure mechanisms of RCF/PP specimens was shown schematically. Finally, it was concluded that the temperature condition at 600°C should be selected in extracting carbon fibers as the reinforcement of RCF/PP composite molded by injection method.

Keywords: CFRP, recycled carbon fiber, injection molding, mechanical properties, fiber orientation, failure mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
3860 The Analysis of Defects Prediction in Injection Molding

Authors: Mehdi Moayyedian, Kazem Abhary, Romeo Marian

Abstract:

This paper presents an evaluation of a plastic defect in injection molding before it occurs in the process; it is known as the short shot defect. The evaluation of different parameters which affect the possibility of short shot defect is the aim of this paper. The analysis of short shot possibility is conducted via SolidWorks Plastics and Taguchi method to determine the most significant parameters. Finite Element Method (FEM) is employed to analyze two circular flat polypropylene plates of 1 mm thickness. Filling time, part cooling time, pressure holding time, melt temperature and gate type are chosen as process and geometric parameters, respectively. A methodology is presented herein to predict the possibility of the short-shot occurrence. The analysis determined melt temperature is the most influential parameter affecting the possibility of short shot defect with a contribution of 74.25%, and filling time with a contribution of 22%, followed by gate type with a contribution of 3.69%. It was also determined the optimum level of each parameter leading to a reduction in the possibility of short shot are gate type at level 1, filling time at level 3 and melt temperature at level 3. Finally, the most significant parameters affecting the possibility of short shot were determined to be melt temperature, filling time, and gate type.

Keywords: injection molding, plastic defects, short shot, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
3859 A Molding Surface Auto-inspection System

Authors: Ssu-Han Chen, Der-Baau Perng

Abstract:

Molding process in IC manufacturing secures chips against the harms done by hot, moisture or other external forces. While a chip was being molded, defects like cracks, dilapidation, or voids may be embedding on the molding surface. The molding surfaces the study poises to treat and the ones on the market, though, differ in the surface where texture similar to defects is everywhere. Manual inspection usually passes over low-contrast cracks or voids; hence an automatic optical inspection system for molding surface is necessary. The proposed system is consisted of a CCD, a coaxial light, a back light as well as a motion control unit. Based on the property of statistical textures of the molding surface, a series of digital image processing and classification procedure is carried out. After training of the parameter associated with above algorithm, result of the experiment suggests that the accuracy rate is up to 93.75%, contributing to the inspection quality of IC molding surface.

Keywords: molding surface, machine vision, statistical texture, discrete Fourier transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
3858 Mechanical and Thermal Characterization of Washout Tooling for Resin Transfer Molding

Authors: Zachary N. Wing

Abstract:

Compared to autoclave based processes, Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) offers several key advantages. This includes high internal and external complexity, less waste, lower volatile emissions, higher production rates, and excellent surface finish. However, the injection of high pressure-high temperature resin presents a tooling challenge in cases where trapped geometries exist. Tooling materials that can sustain these conditions and be easily removed would expand the use of RTM. We have performed research on developing an RTM suitable tooling material called 'RTMCore' for use in forming trapped geometries. RTMCore tooling materials can withstand the injection of high temperature-high pressure resin but be easily removed with tap water. RTM properties and performance capabilities are reviewed against other washout systems. Our research will cover the preliminary characterization of tooling system properties, mechanical behavior, and initial results from an RTM manufacturing trial. Preliminary results show the material can sustain pressures greater than 13 MPa and temperatures greater than 150°C.

Keywords: RTM, resin transfer molding, trapped geometries, washout tooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
3857 Investigation on the Effect of Sugarcane Bagasse/HDPE Composition on the Screw Withdrawal Resistance of Injection Molded Parts

Authors: Seyed Abdol Mohammad Rezavand, Mohammad Nikbakhsh

Abstract:

Withdrawal resistance of screws driven into HDPE/Sugarcane Bagasse injection molded parts was investigated. After chemical treatment and drying, SCB was pre-mixed with HDPE using twin extruder. The resulting granules are used in producing samples in injection molding machine. SCB with the quantity of %10, %20, and %30 was used. By using a suitable fixture, screw heads can take with tensile test machine grips. Parts with screws in the center and edge were fasten together. Then, withdrawal resistance was measured with tensile test machine. Injection gate is at the one edge of the part. The results show that by increasing SCB content in composite, the withdrawal resistance is decreased. Furthermore, the withdrawal resistance at the edges (near injection gate and the end of the filling path of mold cavity) is more than that of the center.

Keywords: polyethylene, sugarcane bagasse, wood plastic, screw, withdrawal resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
3856 Cladding Technology for Metal-Hybrid Composites with Network-Structure

Authors: Ha-Guk Jeong, Jong-Beom Lee

Abstract:

Cladding process is very typical technology for manufacturing composite materials by the hydrostatic extrusion. Because there is no friction between the metal and the container, it can be easily obtained in uniform flow during the deformation. The general manufacturing process for a metal-matrix composite in the solid state, mixing metal powders and ceramic powders with a suited volume ratio, prior to be compressed or extruded at the cold or hot condition in a can. Since through a plurality of unit processing steps of dispersing the materials having a large difference in their characteristics and physical mixing, the process is complicated and leads to non-uniform dispersion of ceramics. It is difficult and hard to reach a uniform ideal property in the coherence problems at the interface between the metal and the ceramic reinforcements. Metal hybrid composites, which presented in this report, are manufactured through the traditional plastic deformation processes like hydrostatic extrusion, caliber-rolling, and drawing. By the previous process, the realization of uniform macro and microstructure is surely possible. In this study, as a constituent material, aluminum, copper, and titanium have been used, according to the component ratio, excellent characteristics of each material were possible to produce a metal hybrid composite that appears to maximize. MgB₂ superconductor wire also fabricated via the same process. It will be introduced to their unique artistic and thermal characteristics.

Keywords: cladding process, metal-hybrid composites, hydrostatic extrusion, electronic/thermal characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
3855 Efficient Mercury Sorbent: Activated Carbon and Metal Organic Framework Hybrid

Authors: Yongseok Hong, Kurt Louis Solis

Abstract:

In the present study, a hybrid sorbent using the metal organic framework (MOF), UiO-66, and powdered activated carbon (pAC) is synthesized to remove cationic and anionic metals simultaneously. UiO-66 is an octahedron-shaped MOF with a Zr₆O₄(OH)₄ metal node and 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid (BDC) organic linker. Zr-based MOFs are attractive for trace element remediation in wastewaters, because Zr is relatively non-toxic as compared to other classes of MOF and, therefore, it will not cause secondary pollution. Most remediation studies with UiO-66 target anions such as fluoride, but trace element oxyanions such as arsenic, selenium, and antimony have also been investigated. There have also been studies involving mercury removal by UiO-66 derivatives, however these require post-synthetic modifications or have lower effective surface areas. Activated carbon is known for being a readily available, well-studied, effective adsorbent for metal contaminants. Solvothermal method was employed to prepare hybrid sorbent from UiO66 and activated carbon, which could be used to remove mercury and selenium simultaneously. The hybrid sorbent was characterized using FSEM-EDS, FT-IR, XRD, and TGA. The results showed that UiO66 and activated carbon are successfully composited. From BET studies, the hybrid sorbent has a SBET of 1051 m² g⁻¹. Adsorption studies were performed, where the hybrid showed maximum adsorption of 204.63 mg g⁻¹ and 168 mg g⁻¹ for Hg (II) and selenite, respectively, and follows the Langmuir model for both species. Kinetics studies have revealed that the Hg uptake of the hybrid is pseudo-2nd order and has rate constant of 5.6E-05 g mg⁻¹ min⁻¹ and the selenite uptake follows the simplified Elovich model with α = 2.99 mg g⁻¹ min⁻¹, β = 0.032 g mg⁻¹.

Keywords: adsorption, flue gas wastewater, mercury, selenite, metal organic framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
3854 Study on the Thermal Mixing of Steam and Coolant in the Hybrid Safety Injection Tank

Authors: Sung Uk Ryu, Byoung Gook Jeon, Sung-Jae Yi, Dong-Jin Euh

Abstract:

In such passive safety injection systems in the nuclear power plant as Core Makeup Tank (CMT) and Hybrid Safety Injection Tank, various thermal-hydraulic phenomena including the direct contact condensation of steam and the thermal stratification of coolant occur. These phenomena are also closely related to the performance of the system. Depending on the condensation rate of the steam injected to the tank, the injection of the coolant and pressure equalizing timings of the tank are decided. The steam injected to the tank from the upper nozzle penetrates the coolant and induces a direct contact condensation. In the present study, the direct contact condensation of steam and the thermal mixing between the steam and coolant were examined by using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Especially, by altering the size of the nozzle from which the steam is injected, the influence of steam injection velocity on the thermal mixing with coolant and condensation shall be comprehended, while also investigating the influence of condensation on the pressure variation inside the tank. Even though the amounts of steam inserted were the same in three different nozzle size conditions, it was found that the velocity of pressure rise becomes lower as the steam injection area decreases. Also, as the steam injection area increases, the thickness of the zone within which the coolant’s temperature decreases. Thereby, the amount of steam condensed by the direct contact condensation also decreases. The results derived from the present study can be utilized for the detailed design of a passive safety injection system, as well as for modeling the direct contact condensation triggered by the steam jet’s penetration into the coolant.

Keywords: passive safety injection systems, steam penetration, direct contact condensation, particle image velocimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
3853 Reduction of Residual Stress by Variothermal Processing and Validation via Birefringence Measurement Technique on Injection Molded Polycarbonate Samples

Authors: Christoph Lohr, Hanna Wund, Peter Elsner, Kay André Weidenmann

Abstract:

Injection molding is one of the most commonly used techniques in the industrial polymer processing. In the conventional process of injection molding, the liquid polymer is injected into the cavity of the mold, where the polymer directly starts hardening at the cooled walls. To compensate the shrinkage, which is caused predominantly by the immediate cooling, holding pressure is applied. Through that whole process, residual stresses are produced by the temperature difference of the polymer melt and the injection mold and the relocation of the polymer chains, which were oriented by the high process pressures and injection speeds. These residual stresses often weaken or change the structural behavior of the parts or lead to deformation of components. One solution to reduce the residual stresses is the use of variothermal processing. Hereby the mold is heated – i.e. near/over the glass transition temperature of the polymer – the polymer is injected and before opening the mold and ejecting the part the mold is cooled. For the next cycle, the mold gets heated again and the procedure repeats. The rapid heating and cooling of the mold are realized indirectly by convection of heated and cooled liquid (here: water) which is pumped through fluid channels underneath the mold surface. In this paper, the influences of variothermal processing on the residual stresses are analyzed with samples in a larger scale (500 mm x 250 mm x 4 mm). In addition, the influence on functional elements, such as abrupt changes in wall thickness, bosses, and ribs, on the residual stress is examined. Therefore the polycarbonate samples are produced by variothermal and isothermal processing. The melt is injected into a heated mold, which has in our case a temperature varying between 70 °C and 160 °C. After the filling of the cavity, the closed mold is cooled down varying from 70 °C to 100 °C. The pressure and temperature inside the mold are monitored and evaluated with cavity sensors. The residual stresses of the produced samples are illustrated by birefringence where the effect on the refractive index on the polymer under stress is used. The colorful spectrum can be uncovered by placing the sample between a polarized light source and a second polarization filter. To show the achievement and processing effects on the reduction of residual stress the birefringence images of the isothermal and variothermal produced samples are compared and evaluated. In this comparison to the variothermal produced samples have a lower amount of maxima of each color spectrum than the isothermal produced samples, which concludes that the residual stress of the variothermal produced samples is lower.

Keywords: birefringence, injection molding, polycarbonate, residual stress, variothermal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
3852 Experimental Study on Hardness and Impact Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Composites

Authors: Armin Najipour, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM: D6110 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels and injection pressure in 2 levels on the hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the impact strength and hardness of the samples improved to 74% and 46.7% respectively. Also, according to the results, the effect of injection pressure on the results was much less than that of carbon nanotube weight percentage.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, injection molding, mechanical properties, nanocomposite, polyethylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
3851 Porous Titanium Scaffolds Fabricated by Metal Injection Moulding Using Potassium-Chloride and Space Holder

Authors: Ali Dehghan Manshadi, David H. StJohn, Matthew S. Dargusch, M. Qian

Abstract:

Biocompatible, highly porous titanium scaffolds were manufactured by metal injection moulding of spherical titanium powder (powder size: -45 µm) with potassium chloride (powder size: -250 µm) as a space holder. Property evaluation of scaffolds confirmed a high level of compatibility between their mechanical properties and those of human cortical bone. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 1250°C producing scaffolds with more than 90% interconnected pores in the size range of 200-250 µm, yield stress of 220 MPa and Young’s modulus of 7.80 GPa, all of which are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Increasing the sintering temperature to 1300°C increased the Young’s modulus to 22.0 GPa while reducing the temperature to 1150°C reduced the yield stress to 120 MPa due to incomplete sintering. The residual potassium chloride was determined vs. sintering temperature. A comparison was also made between the porous titanium scaffolds fabricated in this study and the additively manufactured titanium lattices of similar porosity reported in the literature.

Keywords: titanium, metal injection moulding, mechanical properties, scaffolds

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
3850 Development and Characterization of Wear Properties of Aluminum 8011 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: H. K. Shivanand, A. Yogananda

Abstract:

The objective of present investigation is to study the effect of reinforcements on the wear properties of E-Glass short fibers and Flyash reinforced Al 8011 hybrid metal matrix composites. The alloy of Al 8011 reinforced with E-glass and fly ash particulates are prepared by simple stir casting method. The MMC is obtained for different composition of E-glass and flyash particulates (varying E-glass with constant fly ash and varying flyash with constant E-glass percentage). The wear results of ascast hybrid composites with different compositions of reinforcements at varying sliding speeds and different loads are discussed. The results reveals that as the percentage of reinforcement increases wear rate will decrease.

Keywords: metal matrix composites, aluminum alloy 8011, stir casting, wear test

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
3849 Optimization of the Transfer Molding Process by Implementation of Online Monitoring Techniques for Electronic Packages

Authors: Burcu Kaya, Jan-Martin Kaiser, Karl-Friedrich Becker, Tanja Braun, Klaus-Dieter Lang

Abstract:

Quality of the molded packages is strongly influenced by the process parameters of the transfer molding. To achieve a better package quality and a stable transfer molding process, it is necessary to understand the influence of the process parameters on the package quality. This work aims to comprehend the relationship between the process parameters, and to identify the optimum process parameters for the transfer molding process in order to achieve less voids and wire sweep. To achieve this, a DoE is executed for process optimization and a regression analysis is carried out. A systematic approach is represented to generate models which enable an estimation of the number of voids and wire sweep. Validation experiments are conducted to verify the model and the results are presented.

Keywords: dielectric analysis, electronic packages, epoxy molding compounds, transfer molding process

Procedia PDF Downloads 260