Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Gábor Székely

44 Warning about the Risk of Blood Flow Stagnation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

Authors: Aymen Laadhari, Gábor Székely


In this work, the hemodynamics in the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation is numerically examined. We focus on the physical results in the two-dimensional case. We use a finite element methodology based on a Lagrange multiplier technique that enables to couple the dynamics of blood flow and the leaflets’ movement. A massively parallel implementation of a monolithic and fully implicit solver allows more accuracy and significant computational savings. The elastic properties of the aortic valve are disregarded, and the numerical computations are performed under physiologically correct pressure loads. Computational results depict that blood flow may be subject to stagnation in the lower domain of the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Keywords: hemodynamics, simulations, stagnation, valve

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43 2.5D Face Recognition Using Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Ali Cheraghian, Farshid Hajati, Soheila Gheisari, Yongsheng Gao


In this paper, we present a novel 2.5D face recognition method based on Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform (GDCT). In the proposed method, the Gabor filter is applied to extract feature vectors from the texture and the depth information. Then, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used for dimensionality and redundancy reduction to improve computational efficiency. The system is combined texture and depth information in the decision level, which presents higher performance compared to methods, which use texture and depth information, separately. The proposed algorithm is examined on publically available Bosphorus database including models with pose variation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a higher performance compared to the benchmark.

Keywords: Gabor filter, discrete cosine transform, 2.5d face recognition, pose

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42 Implicit Eulerian Fluid-Structure Interaction Method for the Modeling of Highly Deformable Elastic Membranes

Authors: Aymen Laadhari, Gábor Székely


This paper is concerned with the development of a fully implicit and purely Eulerian fluid-structure interaction method tailored for the modeling of the large deformations of elastic membranes in a surrounding Newtonian fluid. We consider a simplified model for the mechanical properties of the membrane, in which the surface strain energy depends on the membrane stretching. The fully Eulerian description is based on the advection of a modified surface tension tensor, and the deformations of the membrane are tracked using a level set strategy. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved by a Newton-Raphson method, featuring a quadratic convergence behavior. A monolithic solver is implemented, and we report several numerical experiments aimed at model validation and illustrating the accuracy of the presented method. We show that stability is maintained for significantly larger time steps.

Keywords: finite element method, implicit, level set, membrane, Newton method

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41 Dynamic Gabor Filter Facial Features-Based Recognition of Emotion in Video Sequences

Authors: T. Hari Prasath, P. Ithaya Rani


In the world of visual technology, recognizing emotions from the face images is a challenging task. Several related methods have not utilized the dynamic facial features effectively for high performance. This paper proposes a method for emotions recognition using dynamic facial features with high performance. Initially, local features are captured by Gabor filter with different scale and orientations in each frame for finding the position and scale of face part from different backgrounds. The Gabor features are sent to the ensemble classifier for detecting Gabor facial features. The region of dynamic features is captured from the Gabor facial features in the consecutive frames which represent the dynamic variations of facial appearances. In each region of dynamic features is normalized using Z-score normalization method which is further encoded into binary pattern features with the help of threshold values. The binary features are passed to Multi-class AdaBoost classifier algorithm with the well-trained database contain happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, and neutral expressions to classify the discriminative dynamic features for emotions recognition. The developed method is deployed on the Ryerson Multimedia Research Lab and Cohn-Kanade databases and they show significant performance improvement owing to their dynamic features when compared with the existing methods.

Keywords: detecting face, Gabor filter, multi-class AdaBoost classifier, Z-score normalization

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40 Hybrid Approach for Face Recognition Combining Gabor Wavelet and Linear Discriminant Analysis

Authors: A: Annis Fathima, V. Vaidehi, S. Ajitha


Face recognition system finds many applications in surveillance and human computer interaction systems. As the applications using face recognition systems are of much importance and demand more accuracy, more robustness in the face recognition system is expected with less computation time. In this paper, a hybrid approach for face recognition combining Gabor Wavelet and Linear Discriminant Analysis (HGWLDA) is proposed. The normalized input grayscale image is approximated and reduced in dimension to lower the processing overhead for Gabor filters. This image is convolved with bank of Gabor filters with varying scales and orientations. LDA, a subspace analysis techniques are used to reduce the intra-class space and maximize the inter-class space. The techniques used are 2-dimensional Linear Discriminant Analysis (2D-LDA), 2-dimensional bidirectional LDA ((2D)2LDA), Weighted 2-dimensional bidirectional Linear Discriminant Analysis (Wt (2D)2 LDA). LDA reduces the feature dimension by extracting the features with greater variance. k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) classifier is used to classify and recognize the test image by comparing its feature with each of the training set features. The HGWLDA approach is robust against illumination conditions as the Gabor features are illumination invariant. This approach also aims at a better recognition rate using less number of features for varying expressions. The performance of the proposed HGWLDA approaches is evaluated using AT&T database, MIT-India face database and faces94 database. It is found that the proposed HGWLDA approach provides better results than the existing Gabor approach.

Keywords: face recognition, Gabor wavelet, LDA, k-NN classifier

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39 A Simple Adaptive Atomic Decomposition Voice Activity Detector Implemented by Matching Pursuit

Authors: Thomas Bryan, Veton Kepuska, Ivica Kostanic


A simple adaptive voice activity detector (VAD) is implemented using Gabor and gammatone atomic decomposition of speech for high Gaussian noise environments. Matching pursuit is used for atomic decomposition, and is shown to achieve optimal speech detection capability at high data compression rates for low signal to noise ratios. The most active dictionary elements found by matching pursuit are used for the signal reconstruction so that the algorithm adapts to the individual speakers dominant time-frequency characteristics. Speech has a high peak to average ratio enabling matching pursuit greedy heuristic of highest inner products to isolate high energy speech components in high noise environments. Gabor and gammatone atoms are both investigated with identical logarithmically spaced center frequencies, and similar bandwidths. The algorithm performs equally well for both Gabor and gammatone atoms with no significant statistical differences. The algorithm achieves 70% accuracy at a 0 dB SNR, 90% accuracy at a 5 dB SNR and 98% accuracy at a 20dB SNR using 30dB SNR as a reference for voice activity.

Keywords: atomic decomposition, gabor, gammatone, matching pursuit, voice activity detection

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38 Feature Extraction Based on Contourlet Transform and Log Gabor Filter for Detection of Ulcers in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Nimisha Elsa Koshy, Varun P. Gopi, V. I. Thajudin Ahamed


The entire visualization of GastroIntestinal (GI) tract is not possible with conventional endoscopic exams. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a low risk, painless, noninvasive procedure for diagnosing diseases such as bleeding, polyps, ulcers, and Crohns disease within the human digestive tract, especially the small intestine that was unreachable using the traditional endoscopic methods. However, analysis of massive images of WCE detection is tedious and time consuming to physicians. Hence, researchers have developed software methods to detect these diseases automatically. Thus, the effectiveness of WCE can be improved. In this paper, a novel textural feature extraction method is proposed based on Contourlet transform and Log Gabor filter to distinguish ulcer regions from normal regions. The results show that the proposed method performs well with a high accuracy rate of 94.16% using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in HSV colour space.

Keywords: contourlet transform, log gabor filter, ulcer, wireless capsule endoscopy

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37 Early Recognition and Grading of Cataract Using a Combined Log Gabor/Discrete Wavelet Transform with ANN and SVM

Authors: Hadeer R. M. Tawfik, Rania A. K. Birry, Amani A. Saad


Eyes are considered to be the most sensitive and important organ for human being. Thus, any eye disorder will affect the patient in all aspects of life. Cataract is one of those eye disorders that lead to blindness if not treated correctly and quickly. This paper demonstrates a model for automatic detection, classification, and grading of cataracts based on image processing techniques and artificial intelligence. The proposed system is developed to ease the cataract diagnosis process for both ophthalmologists and patients. The wavelet transform combined with 2D Log Gabor Wavelet transform was used as feature extraction techniques for a dataset of 120 eye images followed by a classification process that classified the image set into three classes; normal, early, and advanced stage. A comparison between the two used classifiers, the support vector machine SVM and the artificial neural network ANN were done for the same dataset of 120 eye images. It was concluded that SVM gave better results than ANN. SVM success rate result was 96.8% accuracy where ANN success rate result was 92.3% accuracy.

Keywords: cataract, classification, detection, feature extraction, grading, log-gabor, neural networks, support vector machines, wavelet

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
36 Atomic Decomposition Audio Data Compression and Denoising Using Sparse Dictionary Feature Learning

Authors: T. Bryan , V. Kepuska, I. Kostnaic


A method of data compression and denoising is introduced that is based on atomic decomposition of audio data using “basis vectors” that are learned from the audio data itself. The basis vectors are shown to have higher data compression and better signal-to-noise enhancement than the Gabor and gammatone “seed atoms” that were used to generate them. The basis vectors are the input weights of a Sparse AutoEncoder (SAE) that is trained using “envelope samples” of windowed segments of the audio data. The envelope samples are extracted from the audio data by performing atomic decomposition with Gabor or gammatone seed atoms. This process identifies segments of audio data that are locally coherent with the seed atoms. Envelope samples are extracted by identifying locally coherent audio data segments with Gabor or gammatone seed atoms, found by matching pursuit. The envelope samples are formed by taking the kronecker products of the atomic envelopes with the locally coherent data segments. Oracle signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) verses data compression curves are generated for the seed atoms as well as the basis vectors learned from Gabor and gammatone seed atoms. SNR data compression curves are generated for speech signals as well as early American music recordings. The basis vectors are shown to have higher denoising capability for data compression rates ranging from 90% to 99.84% for speech as well as music. Envelope samples are displayed as images by folding the time series into column vectors. This display method is used to compare of the output of the SAE with the envelope samples that produced them. The basis vectors are also displayed as images. Sparsity is shown to play an important role in producing the highest denoising basis vectors.

Keywords: sparse dictionary learning, autoencoder, sparse autoencoder, basis vectors, atomic decomposition, envelope sampling, envelope samples, Gabor, gammatone, matching pursuit

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35 Automatic Detection and Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: A. Biran, P. Sobhe Bidari, A. Almazroe, V. Lakshminarayanan, K. Raahemifar


Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a severe retinal disease which is caused by diabetes mellitus. It leads to blindness when it progress to proliferative level. Early indications of DR are the appearance of microaneurysms, hemorrhages and hard exudates. In this paper, an automatic algorithm for detection of DR has been proposed. The algorithm is based on combination of several image processing techniques including Circular Hough Transform (CHT), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Gabor filter and thresholding. Also, Support Vector Machine (SVM) Classifier is used to classify retinal images to normal or abnormal cases including non-proliferative or proliferative DR. The proposed method has been tested on images selected from Structured Analysis of the Retinal (STARE) database using MATLAB code. The method is perfectly able to detect DR. The sensitivity specificity and accuracy of this approach are 90%, 87.5%, and 91.4% respectively.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, fundus images, STARE, Gabor filter, support vector machine

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34 Periodicity Analysis of Long-Term Waterquality Data Series of the Hungarian Section of the River Tisza Using Morlet Wavelet Spectrum Estimation

Authors: Péter Tanos, József Kovács, Angéla Anda, Gábor Várbíró, Sándor Molnár, István Gábor Hatvani


The River Tisza is the second largest river in Central Europe. In this study, Morlet wavelet spectrum (periodicity) analysis was used with chemical, biological and physical water quality data for the Hungarian section of the River Tisza. In the research 15, water quality parameters measured at 14 sampling sites in the River Tisza and 4 sampling sites in the main artificial changes were assessed for the time period 1993 - 2005. Results show that annual periodicity was not always to be found in the water quality parameters, at least at certain sampling sites. Periodicity was found to vary over space and time, but in general, an increase was observed in the company of higher trophic states of the river heading downstream.

Keywords: annual periodicity water quality, spatiotemporal variability of periodic behavior, Morlet wavelet spectrum analysis, River Tisza

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33 Labview-Based System for Fiber Links Events Detection

Authors: Bo Liu, Qingshan Kong, Weiqing Huang


With the rapid development of modern communication, diagnosing the fiber-optic quality and faults in real-time is widely focused. In this paper, a Labview-based system is proposed for fiber-optic faults detection. The wavelet threshold denoising method combined with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is applied to denoise the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) signal. Then the method based on Gabor representation is used to detect events. Experimental measurements show that signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the OTDR signal is improved by 1.34dB on average, compared with using the wavelet threshold denosing method. The proposed system has a high score in event detection capability and accuracy. The maximum detectable fiber length of the proposed Labview-based system can be 65km.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition, events detection, Gabor transform, optical time domain reflectometer, wavelet threshold denoising

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32 Automatic Target Recognition in SAR Images Based on Sparse Representation Technique

Authors: Ahmet Karagoz, Irfan Karagoz


Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a radar mechanism that can be integrated into manned and unmanned aerial vehicles to create high-resolution images in all weather conditions, regardless of day and night. In this study, SAR images of military vehicles with different azimuth and descent angles are pre-processed at the first stage. The main purpose here is to reduce the high speckle noise found in SAR images. For this, the Wiener adaptive filter, the mean filter, and the median filters are used to reduce the amount of speckle noise in the images without causing loss of data. During the image segmentation phase, pixel values are ordered so that the target vehicle region is separated from other regions containing unnecessary information. The target image is parsed with the brightest 20% pixel value of 255 and the other pixel values of 0. In addition, by using appropriate parameters of statistical region merging algorithm, segmentation comparison is performed. In the step of feature extraction, the feature vectors belonging to the vehicles are obtained by using Gabor filters with different orientation, frequency and angle values. A number of Gabor filters are created by changing the orientation, frequency and angle parameters of the Gabor filters to extract important features of the images that form the distinctive parts. Finally, images are classified by sparse representation method. In the study, l₁ norm analysis of sparse representation is used. A joint database of the feature vectors generated by the target images of military vehicle types is obtained side by side and this database is transformed into the matrix form. In order to classify the vehicles in a similar way, the test images of each vehicle is converted to the vector form and l₁ norm analysis of the sparse representation method is applied through the existing database matrix form. As a result, correct recognition has been performed by matching the target images of military vehicles with the test images by means of the sparse representation method. 97% classification success of SAR images of different military vehicle types is obtained.

Keywords: automatic target recognition, sparse representation, image classification, SAR images

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31 High Sensitivity Crack Detection and Locating with Optimized Spatial Wavelet Analysis

Authors: A. Ghanbari Mardasi, N. Wu, C. Wu


In this study, a spatial wavelet-based crack localization technique for a thick beam is presented. Wavelet scale in spatial wavelet transformation is optimized to enhance crack detection sensitivity. A windowing function is also employed to erase the edge effect of the wavelet transformation, which enables the method to detect and localize cracks near the beam/measurement boundaries. Theoretical model and vibration analysis considering the crack effect are first proposed and performed in MATLAB based on the Timoshenko beam model. Gabor wavelet family is applied to the beam vibration mode shapes derived from the theoretical beam model to magnify the crack effect so as to locate the crack. Relative wavelet coefficient is obtained for sensitivity analysis by comparing the coefficient values at different positions of the beam with the lowest value in the intact area of the beam. Afterward, the optimal wavelet scale corresponding to the highest relative wavelet coefficient at the crack position is obtained for each vibration mode, through numerical simulations. The same procedure is performed for cracks with different sizes and positions in order to find the optimal scale range for the Gabor wavelet family. Finally, Hanning window is applied to different vibration mode shapes in order to overcome the edge effect problem of wavelet transformation and its effect on the localization of crack close to the measurement boundaries. Comparison of the wavelet coefficients distribution of windowed and initial mode shapes demonstrates that window function eases the identification of the cracks close to the boundaries.

Keywords: edge effect, scale optimization, small crack locating, spatial wavelet

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30 Scar Removal Stretegy for Fingerprint Using Diffusion

Authors: Mohammad A. U. Khan, Tariq M. Khan, Yinan Kong


Fingerprint image enhancement is one of the most important step in an automatic fingerprint identification recognition (AFIS) system which directly affects the overall efficiency of AFIS. The conventional fingerprint enhancement like Gabor and Anisotropic filters do fill the gaps in ridge lines but they fail to tackle scar lines. To deal with this problem we are proposing a method for enhancing the ridges and valleys with scar so that true minutia points can be extracted with accuracy. Our results have shown an improved performance in terms of enhancement.

Keywords: fingerprint image enhancement, removing noise, coherence, enhanced diffusion

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29 Source Separation for Global Multispectral Satellite Images Indexing

Authors: Aymen Bouzid, Jihen Ben Smida


In this paper, we propose to prove the importance of the application of blind source separation methods on remote sensing data in order to index multispectral images. The proposed method starts with Gabor Filtering and the application of a Blind Source Separation to get a more effective representation of the information contained on the observation images. After that, a feature vector is extracted from each image in order to index them. Experimental results show the superior performance of this approach.

Keywords: blind source separation, content based image retrieval, feature extraction multispectral, satellite images

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28 Absence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Amongst Urban and Rural Hooded Crows in Hungary

Authors: Isma Benmazouz, Bálint Joszef Nagy, Bence Bálacs, Gábor Kardos, László Kővér


Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are among the major nosocomial threats, which have a potential for zoonotic transmission due to the ubiquity of enterococci in the environment and in animal microbiota, e.g., wild birds. . In order to assess the prevalence in an urbanized bird species, 221 fecal samples were collected from Hooded crows (Corvus cornix) in 2020. Fecal samples were screened using VRE agar plates. None of the samples yielded VRE. The absence of VRE isolates in sampled urban hooded crows indicates that crows residing in the city do not necessarily constitute a reservoir of VREs.

Keywords: resistance, crows, Enterococci, wild birds

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27 Highly Accurate Tennis Ball Throwing Machine with Intelligent Control

Authors: Ferenc Kovács, Gábor Hosszú


The paper presents an advanced control system for tennis ball throwing machines to improve their accuracy according to the ball impact points. A further advantage of the system is the much easier calibration process involving the intelligent solution of the automatic adjustment of the stroking parameters according to the ball elasticity, the self-calibration, the use of the safety margin at very flat strokes and the possibility to placing the machine to any position of the half court. The system applies mathematical methods to determine the exact ball trajectories and special approximating processes to access all points on the aimed half court.

Keywords: control system, robot programming, robot control, sports equipment, throwing machine

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26 Defining of the Shape of the Spine Using Moiré Method in Case of Patients with Scheuermann Disease

Authors: Petra Balla, Gabor Manhertz, Akos Antal


Nowadays spinal deformities are very frequent problems among teenagers. Scheuermann disease is a one dimensional deformity of the spine, but it has prevalence over 11% of the children. A traditional technology, the moiré method was used by us for screening and diagnosing this type of spinal deformity. A LabVIEW program has been developed to evaluate the moiré pictures of patients with Scheuermann disease. Two different solutions were tested in this computer program, the extreme and the inflexion point calculation methods. Effects using these methods were compared and according to the results both solutions seemed to be appropriate. Statistical results showed better efficiency in case of the extreme search method where the average difference was only 6,09⁰.

Keywords: spinal deformity, picture evaluation, Moiré method, Scheuermann disease, curve detection, Moiré topography

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25 Keyframe Extraction Using Face Quality Assessment and Convolution Neural Network

Authors: Rahma Abed, Sahbi Bahroun, Ezzeddine Zagrouba


Due to the huge amount of data in videos, extracting the relevant frames became a necessity and an essential step prior to performing face recognition. In this context, we propose a method for extracting keyframes from videos based on face quality and deep learning for a face recognition task. This method has two steps. We start by generating face quality scores for each face image based on the use of three face feature extractors, including Gabor, LBP, and HOG. The second step consists in training a Deep Convolutional Neural Network in a supervised manner in order to select the frames that have the best face quality. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to the methods of the state of the art.

Keywords: keyframe extraction, face quality assessment, face in video recognition, convolution neural network

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24 The Use of Microorganisms in the Bioleaching of Soils Polluted with Heavy Metals

Authors: I. M. Sur, A. M. Chirila-Babau, T. Gabor, V. Micle


This paper shows researches in order to extract Cr, Cu and Ni from the polluted soils. Research is based on preliminary studies regarding the usage of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacterium (9K medium) for bioleaching of soil polluted with heavy metal (Cu, Cr and Ni). The microorganisms (Thiobacillus ferooxidans) selected directly from polluted soil samples were used in this experimental work. Soil samples used in the experimental research were taken from an area polluted with heavy metals from Romania. The soil samples are subjected to the cleaning process using the 9K medium solution (20 mL and 40 mL, respectively), stirred 200 rpm for 20 hours at a controlled temperature (30 ˚C). During the experiment (0, 2, 4, 8 and 20 h), liquid samples have been extracted and analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer AA-6800 (AAS) in order to determine the Cr, Cu and Ni concentration. Experiments led to the conclusion that these soils can be depolluted by bioleaching, being a biological treatment method involving the use of microorganisms to favor the extraction of Cr, Cu and Ni from polluted soils.

Keywords: bioleaching, extraction, microorganisms, soil, polluted, Thiobacillus ferooxidans

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23 A 3Y/3Y Pole-Changing Winding of High-Power Asynchronous Motors

Authors: Gábor Kovács


Requirement for pole-changing motors emerged at the very early times of asynchronous motor design. Different solutions have been elaborated and some of them are generally used. An alternative is the so called 3 Y/3 Y pole-changing winding. This paper deals with high power application of this solution. A complete and comprehensive study is introduced, including features and design guidelines. The method presented in this paper is especially suitable for pole numbers being close to each other. The study also reveals that the method is more advantageous then the existing solutions for high power motors with 1:3 pole ratio. Using this motor, a new and complete drive supply system has been proposed as most appropriate arrangement of high power main naval propulsion drive. Further, the method makes possible to extend the pole ratio to 1:6, 1:9, 1:12, etc. At the end, the proposal is further extended to the here so far missing 1:4, 1:5, 1:7 etc. pole ratios. A complete proposal for the theoretically infinite range has been given in this way.

Keywords: induction motor, pole changing 3Y/3Y, pole phase modulation, pole changing 1:3, 1:6

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22 Smartphone Based Wound Assessment System for Diabetes Patients

Authors: Vaibhav V. Dixit, Shubham Ajay Karwa


Diabetic foot ulcers speak to a critical medical problem. Right now, clinicians and medical caretakers primarily construct their injury evaluation in light of visual examination of wound size and mending status, while the patients themselves rarely have a chance to play a dynamic part. Henceforth, love quantitative and practical examination technique that empowers the patients and their parental figures to take a more dynamic part in every day wound care possibly can quicken wound recuperating, spare travel cost and diminish human services costs. Considering the commonness of cell phones with a high-determination computerized camera, evaluating wounds by breaking down pictures of ceaseless foot ulcers is an alluring choice. In this paper, we propose a novel injury picture examination framework actualized using feature extraction and color segmentation. Here we are using the Normalized minimum distance classifier for classifying the output.

Keywords: diabetic, Gabor wavelet, normalized minimum distance classifier, quantiable parameters

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21 Automatic Method for Exudates and Hemorrhages Detection from Fundus Retinal Images

Authors: A. Biran, P. Sobhe Bidari, K. Raahemifar


Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is an eye disease that leads to blindness. The earliest signs of DR are the appearance of red and yellow lesions on the retina called hemorrhages and exudates. Early diagnosis of DR prevents from blindness; hence, many automated algorithms have been proposed to extract hemorrhages and exudates. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented to extract hemorrhages and exudates separately from retinal fundus images using different image processing techniques including Circular Hough Transform (CHT), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Gabor filter and thresholding. Since Optic Disc is the same color as the exudates, it is first localized and detected. The presented method has been tested on fundus images from Structured Analysis of the Retina (STARE) and Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction (DRIVE) databases by using MATLAB codes. The results show that this method is perfectly capable of detecting hard exudates and the highly probable soft exudates. It is also capable of detecting the hemorrhages and distinguishing them from blood vessels.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, fundus, CHT, exudates, hemorrhages

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20 Memories of Lost Fathers: The Unfinished Transmission of Generational Values in Hungarian Cinema by Peter Falanga

Authors: Peter Falanga


During the process of de-Stalinization that began in 1956 with the Twentieth Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, many filmmakers in Hungary chose to explore their country’s political discomforts by using Socialist Realism as a negative model against which they could react to the dominating ideology. A renewed national film industry and a more permissive political regime would allow filmmakers to take to task the plight of the preceding generation who had experienced the fatal political turmoil of both World Wars and the purges of Stalin. What follows is no longer the multigenerational unity found in Socialist Realism wherein both the old and the young embrace Stalin’s revolutionary optimism; instead, the protagonists are parentless, and thus their connection to the previous generation is partially severed. In these films, violent historical forces leave one generation to search for both a connection with their family’s past, and for moral guidance to direct their future. István Szabó’s Father (1966), Márta Mészáros Diary for My Children (1984), and Pál Gábor’s Angi Vera (1978) each consider the fraught relationship between successive generations through the lens of postwar youth. A characteristic each of their protagonist’s share is that they are all missing one or both parents, and cope with familial loss either through recalling memories of their parents in dream-like sequences, or, in the case of Angi Vera, through embracing the surrogate paternalism that the Communist Party promises to provide. This paper considers the argument these films present about the progress of Hungarian history, and how this topic is explored in more recent films that similarly focus on the transmission of generational values. Scholars such as László Strausz and John Cunningham have written on the continuous concern with the transmission of generational values in more recent films such as István Szabó’s Sunshine (1999), Béla Tarr’s Werckmeister Harmonies (2000), György Pálfi’s Taxidermia (2006), Ágnes Kocsis’ Pál Adrienn (2010), and Kornél Mundruczó’s Evolution (2021). These films, they argue, make intimate portrayals of the various sweeping political changes in Hungary’s history and question how these epochs or events have impacted Hungarian identities. If these films attempt to personalize historical shifts of Hungary, then what is the significance of featuring characters who have lost one or both parents? An attempt to understand this coherent trend in Hungarian cinema will profit from examining the earlier, celebrated films of Szabó, Mészáros, and Gábor, who inaugurated this preoccupation with generational values. The pervasive interplay of dreams and memory in their films invites an additional element to their argument concerning historical progression. This paper incorporates Richard Teniman’s notion of the “dialectics of memory” in which memory is in a constant process of negation and reinvention to explain why these Directors prefer to explore Hungarian identity through the disarranged form of psychological realism over the linear causality structure of historical realism.

Keywords: film theory, Eastern European Studies, film history, Eastern European History

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19 Preparation of Polylactide Nanoparticles by Supercritical Fluid Technology

Authors: Jakub Zágora, Daniela Plachá, Karla Čech Barabaszová, Sylva Holešová, Roman Gábor, Alexandra Muñoz Bonilla, Marta Fernández García


The development of new antimicrobial materials that are not toxic to higher living organisms is a major challenge today. Newly developed materials can have high application potential in biomedicine, coatings, packaging, etc. A combination of commonly used biopolymer polylactide with cationic polymers seems to be very successful in the fight against antimicrobial resistance [1].PLA will play a key role in fulfilling the intention set out in the New Deal announced by the EU commission, as it is a bioplastic that is easily degradable, recyclable, and mass-produced. Also, the development of 3D printing in the context of this initiative, and the actual use of PLA as one of the main materials used for this printing, make the technology around the preparation and modification of PLA quite logical. Moreover, theenvironmentally friendly and energy saving technology like supercritical fluid process (SFP) will be used for their preparation. In a first approach, polylactide nano- and microparticles and structures were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction. The RESS (rapid expansion supercritical fluid solution) method is easier to optimize and shows better particle size control. On the contrary, a highly porous structure was obtained using the SAS (supercritical antisolvent) method. In a second part, the antimicrobial biobased polymer was introduced by SFP.

Keywords: polylactide, antimicrobial polymers, supercritical fluid technology, micronization

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18 Perspectives on Sustainable Bioeconomy in the Baltic Sea Region

Authors: Susanna Vanhamäki, Gabor Schneider, Kati Manskinen


‘Bioeconomy’ is a complex concept that cuts across many sectors and covers several policy areas. To achieve an overall understanding and support a successful bioeconomy, a cross-sectorial approach is necessary. In practice, due to the concept’s wide scope and varying international approaches, fully understanding bioeconomy is challenging on policy level. This paper provides a background of the topic through an analysis of bioeconomy strategies in the Baltic Sea region. Expert interviews and a small survey were conducted to discover the current and intended focuses of these countries’ bioeconomy sectors. The research shows that supporting sustainability is one of the keys in developing the future bioeconomy. The results highlighted that the bioeconomy has to be sustainable and based on circular economy principles. Currently, traditional bioeconomy sectors like food, wood, fish & waters as well as fuel & energy, which are in the core of national bioeconomy strategies, are best known and are considered more relevant than other bioeconomy industries. However, there is increasing potential for novel sectors, such as textiles and pharmaceuticals. The present research indicates that the opportunities presented by these bioeconomy sectors should be recognised and promoted. Education, research and innovation can play key roles in developing transformative and sustainable improvements in primary production and renewable resources. Furthermore, cooperation between businesses and educators is important.

Keywords: bioeconomy, circular economy, policy, strategy

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17 Vine Growers' Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Hungary

Authors: Gabor Kiraly


Wine regions are based on equilibria between climate, soil, grape varieties, and farming expertise that define the special character and quality of local vine farming and wine production. Changes in climate conditions may increase risk of destabilizing this equilibrium. Adaptation decisions, including adjusting practices, processes and capitals in response to climate change stresses – may reduce this risk. However, farmers’ adaptive behavior are subject to a wide range of factors and forces such as links between climate change implications and production, farm - scale adaptive capacity and other external forces that might hinder them to make efficient response to climate change challenges. This paper will aim to study climate change adaptation practices and strategies of grape growers in a way of applying a complex and holistic approach involving theories, methods and tools both from environmental and social sciences. It will introduce the field of adaptation studies as an evidence - based discourse by presenting an overview of examples from wine regions where adaptation studies have already reached an advanced stage. This will serve as a theoretical background for a preliminary research with the aim to examine the feasibility and applicability of such a research approach in the Hungarian context.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, viticulture, Hungary

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16 Artificial Intelligence-Based Chest X-Ray Test of COVID-19 Patients

Authors: Dhurgham Al-Karawi, Nisreen Polus, Shakir Al-Zaidi, Sabah Jassim


The management of COVID-19 patients based on chest imaging is emerging as an essential tool for evaluating the spread of the pandemic which has gripped the global community. It has already been used to monitor the situation of COVID-19 patients who have issues in respiratory status. There has been increase to use chest imaging for medical triage of patients who are showing moderate-severe clinical COVID-19 features, this is due to the fast dispersal of the pandemic to all continents and communities. This article demonstrates the development of machine learning techniques for the test of COVID-19 patients using Chest X-Ray (CXR) images in nearly real-time, to distinguish the COVID-19 infection with a significantly high level of accuracy. The testing performance has covered a combination of different datasets of CXR images of positive COVID-19 patients, patients with viral and bacterial infections, also, people with a clear chest. The proposed AI scheme successfully distinguishes CXR scans of COVID-19 infected patients from CXR scans of viral and bacterial based pneumonia as well as normal cases with an average accuracy of 94.43%, sensitivity 95%, and specificity 93.86%. Predicted decisions would be supported by visual evidence to help clinicians speed up the initial assessment process of new suspected cases, especially in a resource-constrained environment.

Keywords: COVID-19, chest x-ray scan, artificial intelligence, texture analysis, local binary pattern transform, Gabor filter

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15 Development and Validation of an Electronic Module in Linear Motion for First Year College Students of Iloilo City

Authors: Donna H. Gabor


This study aimed to develop and validate an electronic module in physics for first-year college students of Iloilo and find out if there would be a significant difference in the performance of students before and after using the electronic module. The e-module was composed of one topic with two sub-lessons in linear motion (kinematics). The participants of the study were classified into three groups: the subject matter experts who are physics instructors who suggested the content, physical appearance, and limitations of the e-module; the IT experts who are active both in teaching and developing computer programs; and 28 students divided into two groups, 15 in the pilot group and 13 in the final test group. A researcher created 30 items checklist form (difficulty of a sample problem, comprehension, application, and definition of terms) was prepared and validated by the experts in subject matter for gathering data. To test the difference in student performance in physics, the researcher prepared an achievement test containing 25 items, multiple choices. The findings revealed that there was an increase in the performance of students in the pretest and post-test. T-test results revealed that there was a significant difference in the test scores of the students before and after using the module which can be used as a future reference for linear motion as an additional teaching tool in physics.

Keywords: electronic module, kinematics, linear motion, physics

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