Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1330

Search results for: deformation modulus

1330 On Definition of Modulus of Deformation of Ground by Laboratory Method

Authors: Olgha Giorgishvili


The work is mainly concerned with the determination of modulus of deformation by laboratory method. It is known that a modulus of deformation is defining by laboratory and field methods. By laboratory method the modulus of deformation is defined in the compressive devices. Our goal is to conduct experiments by both methods and finally make to interpret the obtained results. In this article is considered the definition by new offered laboratory method of deformation modulus that is closer to the real deformation modulus. Finally, the obtained results gives the possibility to us to raise the issue of change the state norms for determining ground by laboratory method.

Keywords: building, soil mechanic, deformation moulus, compression methods

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1329 Ground Deformation Module for the New Laboratory Methods

Authors: O. Giorgishvili


For calculation of foundations one of the important characteristics is the module of deformation (E0). As we all know, the main goal of calculation of the foundations of buildings on deformation is to arrange the base settling and difference in settlings in such limits that do not cause origination of cracks and changes in design levels that will be dangerous to standard operation in the buildings and their individual structures. As is known from the literature and the practical application, the modulus of deformation is determined by two basic methods: laboratory method, soil test on compression (without the side widening) and soil test in field conditions. As we know, the deformation modulus of soil determined by field method is closer to the actual modulus deformation of soil, but the complexity of the tests to be carried out and the financial concerns did not allow determination of ground deformation modulus by field method. Therefore, we determine the ground modulus of deformation by compression method without side widening. Concerning this, we introduce a new way for determination of ground modulus of deformation by laboratory order that occurs by side widening and more accurately reflects the ground modulus of deformation and more accurately reflects the actual modulus of deformation and closer to the modulus of deformation determined by the field method. In this regard, we bring a new approach on the ground deformation detection laboratory module, which is done by widening sides. The tests and the results showed that the proposed method of ground deformation modulus is closer to the results that are obtained in the field, which reflects the foundation's work in real terms more accurately than the compression of the ground deformation module.

Keywords: build, deformation modulus, foundations, ground, laboratory research

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1328 Numerical Modeling of Determination of in situ Rock Mass Deformation Modulus Using the Plate Load Test

Authors: A. Khodabakhshi, A. Mortazavi


Accurate determination of rock mass deformation modulus, as an important design parameter, is one of the most controversial issues in most engineering projects. A 3D numerical model of standard plate load test (PLT) using the FLAC3D code was carried to investigate the mechanism governing the test process. Five objectives were the focus of this study. The first goal was to employ 3D modeling in the interpretation of PLT conducted at the Bazoft dam site, Iran. The second objective was to investigate the effect of displacements measuring depth from the loading plates on the calculated moduli. The magnitude of rock mass deformation modulus calculated from PLT depends on anchor depth, and in practice, this may be a cause of error in the selection of realistic deformation modulus for the rock mass. The third goal of the study was to investigate the effect of testing plate diameter on the calculated modulus. Moreover, a comparison of the calculated modulus from ISRM formula, numerical modeling and calculated modulus from the actual PLT carried out at right abutment of the Bazoft dam site was another objective of the study. Finally, the effect of plastic strains on the calculated moduli in each of the loading-unloading cycles for three loading plates was investigated. The geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions on the constructed 3D model were selected based on the in-situ conditions of PLT at Bazoft dam site. A good agreement was achieved between numerical model results and the field tests results.

Keywords: deformation modulus, numerical model, plate loading test, rock mass

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1327 The Elastic Field of a Nano-Pore, and the Effective Modulus of Composites with Nano-Pores

Authors: Xin Chen, Moxiao Li, Xuechao Sun, Fei Ti, Shaobao Liu, Feng Xu, Tian Jian Lu


The composite materials with pores have the characteristics of light weight, sound insulation, and heat insulation, and have broad prospects in many fields, including aerospace. In general, the stiffness of such composite is less than the stiffness of the matrix material, limiting their applications. In this paper, we establish a theoretical model to analyze the deformation mechanism of a nano-pore. The interface between the pores and matrix material is described by the Gurtin-Murdoch model. By considering scale effect related with current deformation, we estimate the effective mechanical properties (e.g., effective shear modulus and bulk modulus) of a composite with nano-pores. Due to the scale effect, the elastic field in the composite was changed and local hardening was observed around the nano-pore, and the effective shear modulus and effective bulk modulus were found to be a function of the surface energy. The effective shear modulus increase with the surface energy and decrease with the size of the nano-pores, and the effective bulk modulus decrease with the surface energy and increase with the size of the nano-pores. These results have potential applications in the nanocomposite mechanics and aerospace field.

Keywords: composite mechanics, nano-inhomogeneity, nano-pores, scale effect

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1326 Calcium Silicate Bricks – Ultrasonic Pulse Method: Effects of Natural Frequency of Transducers on Measurement Results

Authors: Jiri Brozovsky


Modulus of elasticity is one of the important parameters of construction materials, which considerably influence their deformation properties and which can also be determined by means of non-destructive test methods like ultrasonic pulse method. However, measurement results of ultrasonic pulse methods are influenced by various factors, one of which is the natural frequency of the transducers. The paper states knowledge about influence of natural frequency of the transducers (54; 82 and 150kHz) on ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Young's Dynamic modulus of elasticity). Differences between ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity were found with the same smallest dimension of test specimen in the direction of sounding and density their value decreases as the natural frequency of transducers grew.

Keywords: calcium silicate brick, ultrasonic pulse method, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity

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1325 Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Large Deformation Characteristics of Magnetic Responsive Hydrogel Nanocomposites Membranes

Authors: Mallikarjunachari Gangapuram


Stimuli-responsive hydrogel nanocomposite membranes are gaining significant attention these days due to their potential applications in various engineering fields. For example, sensors, soft actuators, drug delivery, remote controlled therapy, water treatment, shape morphing, and magnetic refrigeration are few advanced applications of hydrogel nanocomposite membranes. In this work, hydrogel nanocomposite membranes are synthesized by embedding nanometer-sized (diameter - 300 nm) Fe₃O₄ magnetic particles into the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. To understand the large deformation characteristics of these membranes, a well-known experimental method ball indentation technique is used. Different designing parameters such as membrane thickness, the concentration of magnetic particles and ball diameter on the viscoelastic properties are studied. All the experiments are carried out without and with a static magnetic field. Finite element simulations are carried out to validate the experimental results. It is observed, the creep response decreases and Young’s modulus increases as the thickness and concentration of magnetic particles increases. Image analysis revealed the hydrogel membranes are undergone global deformation for ball diameter 18 mm and local deformation when the diameter decreases from 18 mm to 0.5 mm.

Keywords: ball indentation, hydrogel membranes, nanocomposites, Young's modulus

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1324 Effect of Saturation and Deformation Rate on Split Tensile Strength for Various Sedimentary Rocks

Authors: D. K. Soni


A study of engineering properties of stones, i.e. compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, density, hardness were carried out to explore the possibility of optimum utilization of stone. The laboratory test results on equally dimensioned discs of the stone show a considerable variation in computed split tensile strength with varied rates of deformation. Hence, the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of a sand stone and lime stone under wet and dry conditions has been studied experimentally using the split tensile strength test technique. It has been observed that the tensile strength of these stone is very much dependent on the rate of deformation particularly in a dry state. On saturation the value of split tensile strength reduced considerably depending upon the structure of rock and amount of water absorption.

Keywords: sedimentary rocks, split tensile test, deformation rate, saturation rate, sand stone, lime stone

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1323 Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Smart Beams Based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Veiskarami


This paper studies free vibration of simply supported functionally graded beams with piezoelectric layers based on the first order shear deformation theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded continuously across the beam thickness. The governing equation is established. Resulting equation is solved using the Euler's equation. The effects of the constituent volume fractions, the influences of applied voltage on the vibration frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: mechanical buckling, functionally graded beam, first order shear deformation theory, free vibration

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1322 Numerical Study on Ultimate Capacity of Bi-Modulus Beam-Column

Authors: Zhiming Ye, Dejiang Wang, Huiling Zhao


Development of the technology demands a higher-level research on the mechanical behavior of materials. Structural members made of bi-modulus materials have different elastic modulus when they are under tension and compression. The stress and strain states of the point effect on the elastic modulus and Poisson ratio of every point in the bi-modulus material body. Accompanied by the uncertainty and nonlinearity of the elastic constitutive relation is the complicated nonlinear problem of the bi-modulus members. In this paper, the small displacement and large displacement finite element method for the bi-modulus members have been proposed. Displacement nonlinearity is considered in the elastic constitutive equation. Mechanical behavior of slender bi-modulus beam-column under different boundary conditions and loading patterns has been simulated by the proposed method. The influence factors on the ultimate bearing capacity of slender beam and columns have been studied. The results show that as the ratio of tensile modulus to compressive modulus increases, the error of the simulation employing the same elastic modulus theory exceeds the engineering permissible error.

Keywords: bi-modulus, ultimate capacity, beam-column, nonlinearity

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1321 An Atomic Finite Element Model for Mechanical Properties of Graphene Sheets

Authors: Win-Jin Chang, Haw-Long Lee, Yu-Ching Yang


In this study, we use the atomic-scale finite element method to investigate the mechanical behavior of the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets with the clamped-free-free-free boundary condition under tension and shear loadings. The effect of porosity on Young’s modulus and shear modulus of nanoporous graphene sheets is obvious. For the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets, Young’s modulus and shear modulus decreases with increasing porosity. Young’s modulus and shear modulus of zigzag graphene are larger than that of armchair one for the same porosity. The results are useful for application in the design of nanoporous graphene sheets.

Keywords: graphene, nanoporous, Young's modulus, shear modulus

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1320 Effects of Sn and Al on Phase Stability and Mechanical Properties of Metastable Beta Ti Alloys

Authors: Yonosuke Murayama


We have developed and studied a metastable beta Ti alloy, which shows super-elasticity and low Young’s modulus according to the phase stability of its beta phase. The super-elasticity and low Young’s modulus are required in a wide range of applications in various industrial fields. For example, the metallic implant with low Young’s modulus and non-toxicity is desirable because the large difference of Young’s modulus between the human bone and the implant material may cause a stress-shielding phenomenon. We have investigated the role of Sn and Al in metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys. The metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys form during quenching from the beta field at high temperature. While Cr and V act as beta stabilizers, Sn and Al are considered as elements to suppress the athermal omega phase produced during quenching. The athermal omega phase degrades the properties of super-elasticity and Young’s modulus. Although Al and Sn as single elements are considered as an alpha stabilizer and neutral, respectively, Sn and Al acted also as beta stabilizers when added simultaneously with beta stabilized element of Cr or V in this experiment. The quenched microstructure of Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys shifts from martensitic structure to beta single-phase structure with increasing Cr or V. The Young’s modulus of Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys decreased and then increased with increasing Cr or V, each showing its own minimum value of Young's modulus respectively. The composition of the alloy with the minimum Young’s modulus is a near border composition where the quenched microstructure shifts from martensite to beta. The border composition of Ti-Cr-Sn and Ti-V-Sn alloys required only less amount of each beta stabilizer, Cr or V, than Ti-Cr-Al and Ti-V-Al alloys. This indicates that the effect of Sn as a beta stabilizer is stronger than Al. Sn and Al influenced the competitive relation between stress-induced martensitic transformation and slip deformation. Thus, super-elastic properties of metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys varied depending on the alloyed element, Sn or Al.

Keywords: metastable beta Ti alloy, super-elasticity, low Young’s modulus, stress-induced martensitic transformation, beta stabilized element

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1319 Evaluation of Static Modulus of Elasticity Depending on Concrete Compressive Strength

Authors: Klara Krizova, Rudolf Hela


The paper is focused on monitoring of dependencies of different composition concretes on elastic modulus values. To obtain a summary of elastic modulus development independence of concrete composition design variability was the objective of the experiment. Essential part of this work was initiated as a reaction to building practice when questions of elastic moduli arose at the same time and which mostly did not obtain the required and expected values from concrete constructions. With growing interest in this theme the elastic modulus questions have been developing further.

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, EuroCode 2

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1318 Experimental Research on the Elastic Modulus of Bones at the Lamellar Level under Fatigue Loading

Authors: Xianjia Meng, Chuanyong Qu


Compact bone produces fatigue damage under the inevitable physiological load. The accumulation of fatigue damage can change the bone’s micro-structure at different scales and cause the catastrophic failure eventually. However, most tests were limited to the macroscopic modulus of bone and there is a need to assess the microscopic modulus during fatigue progress. In this paper, nano-identation was used to investigate the bone specimen subjected to four point bending. The microscopic modulus of the same area were measured at different degrees of damage including fracture. So microscopic damage can be divided into three stages: first, the modulus decreased rapidly and then They fell slowly, before fracture the decline became fast again. After fracture, the average modulus decreased by 20%. The results of inner and outer planes explained the influence of compressive and tensile loads on modulus. Both the compressive and tensile moduli decreased with the accumulation of damage. They reached the minimum at ending and increased after fracture. The modulus evolution under different strains were revealed by the side. They all fell slowly and then fast with the accumulation of damage. The fractured results indicated that the elastic modulus decreased obviously at the high strain while decreased less at the low strain. During the fatigue progress, there was a significant difference in modulus at low degree of damage. However, the dispersed modulus tended to be similar at high degree of damage, but they became different again after the failure.

Keywords: fatigue damage, fracture, microscopic modulus, bone, nano-identation

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1317 Study on the Application of Lime to Improve the Rheological Properties of Polymer Modified Bitumen

Authors: A. Chegenizadeh, M. Keramatikerman, H. Nikraz


Bitumen is one of the most applicable materials in pavement engineering. It is a binding material with unique viscoelastic properties, especially when it mixes with polymer. In this study, to figure out the viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer modified with bitumen (PMB), a series of dynamic shearing rheological (DSR) tests were conducted. Four percentages of lime (i.e. 1%, 2%, 4% and 5%) were mixed with PMB and tested under four different temperatures including 64ºC, 70ºC, 76ºC and 82ºC. The results indicated that complex shearing modulus (G*) increased by increasing the frequency due to raised resistance against deformation. The phase angle (δ) showed a decreasing trend by incrementing the frequency. The addition of lime percentages increased the complex modulus value and declined phase angle parameter. Increasing the temperature decreased the complex modulus and increased the phase angle until 70ºC. The decreasing trend of rutting factor with increasing temperature revealed that rutting factor improved by the addition of the lime to the PMB.

Keywords: rheological properties, DSR test, polymer mixed with bitumen (PMB), complex modulus, lime

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1316 Selected Technological Factors Influencing the Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

Authors: Klara Krizova, Rudolf Hela


The topic of the article focuses on the evaluation of selected technological factors and their influence on resulting elasticity modulus of concrete. A series of various factors enter into the manufacturing process which, more or less, influences the elasticity modulus. This paper presents the results of concrete in which the influence of water coefficient and the size of maximum fraction of the aggregate on the static elasticity modulus were monitored. Part of selected results of the long-term programme was discussed in which a wide scope of various variants of proposals for the composition of concretes was evaluated.

Keywords: mix design, water-cement ratio, aggregate, modulus of elasticity

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1315 Elastic Behaviour of Graphene Nanoplatelets Reinforced Epoxy Resin Composites

Authors: V. K. Srivastava


Graphene has recently attracted an increasing attention in nanocomposites applications because it has 200 times greater strength than steel, making it the strongest material ever tested. Graphene, as the fundamental two-dimensional (2D) carbon structure with exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, has emerged as a rapidly rising star in the field of material science. Graphene, as defined, as a 2D crystal, is composed of monolayers of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycombed network with six-membered rings, which is the interest of both theoretical and experimental researchers worldwide. The name comes from graphite and alkene. Graphite itself consists of many graphite-sheets stacked together by weak van der Waals forces. This is attributed to the monolayer of carbon atoms densely packed into honeycomb structure. Due to superior inherent properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) over other nanofillers, GnP particles were added in epoxy resin with the variation of weight percentage. It is indicated that the DMA results of storage modulus, loss modulus and tan δ, defined as the ratio of elastic modulus and imaginary (loss) modulus versus temperature were affected with addition of GnP in the epoxy resin. In epoxy resin, damping (tan δ) is usually caused by movement of the molecular chain. The tan δ of the graphene nanoplatelets/epoxy resin composite is much lower than that of epoxy resin alone. This finding suggests that addition of graphene nanoplatelets effectively impedes movement of the molecular chain. The decrease in storage modulus can be interpreted by an increasing susceptibility to agglomeration, leading to less energy dissipation in the system under viscoelastic deformation. The results indicates the tan δ increased with the increase of temperature, which confirms that tan δ is associated with magnetic field strength. Also, the results show that the nanohardness increases with increase of elastic modulus marginally. GnP filled epoxy resin gives higher value than the epoxy resin, because GnP improves the mechanical properties of epoxy resin. Debonding of GnP is clearly observed in the micrograph having agglomeration of fillers and inhomogeneous distribution. Therefore, DMA and nanohardness studies indiacte that the elastic modulus of epoxy resin is increased with the addition of GnP fillers.

Keywords: agglomeration, elastic modulus, epoxy resin, graphene nanoplatelet, loss modulus, nanohardness, storage modulus

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1314 Aggregate Angularity on the Permanent Deformation Zones of Hot Mix Asphalt

Authors: Lee P. Leon, Raymond Charles


This paper presents a method of evaluating the effect of aggregate angularity on hot mix asphalt (HMA) properties and its relationship to the Permanent Deformation resistance. The research concluded that aggregate particle angularity had a significant effect on the Permanent Deformation performance, and also that with an increase in coarse aggregate angularity there was an increase in the resistance of mixes to Permanent Deformation. A comparison between the measured data and predictive data of permanent deformation predictive models showed the limits of existing prediction models. The numerical analysis described the permanent deformation zones and concluded that angularity has an effect of the onset of these zones. Prediction of permanent deformation help road agencies and by extension economists and engineers determine the best approach for maintenance, rehabilitation, and new construction works of the road infrastructure.

Keywords: aggregate angularity, asphalt concrete, permanent deformation, rutting prediction

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1313 Assessment of Analytical Equations for the Derivation of Young’s Modulus of Bonded Rubber Materials

Authors: Z. N. Haji, S. O. Oyadiji, H. Samami, O. Farrell


The prediction of the vibration response of rubber products by analytical or numerical method depends mainly on the predefined intrinsic material properties such as Young’s modulus, damping factor and Poisson’s ratio. Such intrinsic properties are determined experimentally by subjecting a bonded rubber sample to compression tests. The compression tests on such a sample yield an apparent Young’s modulus which is greater in magnitude than the intrinsic Young’s modulus of the rubber. As a result, many analytical equations have been developed to determine Young’s modulus from an apparent Young’s modulus of bonded rubber materials. In this work, the applicability of some of these analytical equations is assessed via experimental testing. The assessment is based on testing of vulcanized nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR70) samples using tensile test and compression test methods. The analytical equations are used to determine the intrinsic Young’s modulus from the apparent modulus that is derived from the compression test data of the bonded rubber samples. Then, these Young’s moduli are compared with the actual Young’s modulus that is derived from the tensile test data. The results show significant discrepancy between the Young’s modulus derived using the analytical equations and the actual Young’s modulus.

Keywords: bonded rubber, quasi-static test, shape factor, apparent Young’s modulus

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1312 Continuous Manufacturing of Ultra Fine Grained Materials by Severe Plastic Deformation Methods

Authors: Aslı Günay Bulutsuz, Mehmet Emin Yurci


Severe plastic deformation techniques are top-down deformation methods which enable superior mechanical properties by decreasing grain size. Different kind severe plastic deformation methods have been widely being used at various process temperature and geometries. Besides manufacturing advantages of severe plastic deformation technique, most of the types are being used only at the laboratory level. They cannot be adapted to industrial usage due to their continuous manufacturability and manufacturing costs. In order to enhance these manufacturing difficulties and enable widespread usage, different kinds of methods have been developed. In this review, a comprehensive literature research was fulfilled in order to highlight continuous severe plastic deformation methods.

Keywords: continuous manufacturing, severe plastic deformation, ultrafine grains, grain size refinement

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1311 A Novel Cold Asphalt Concrete Mixture for Heavily Trafficked Binder Course

Authors: Anmar Dulaimi, Hassan Al Nageim, Felicite Ruddock, Linda Seton


Cold bituminous asphalt mixture (CBEM) provide a sustainable, cost effective and energy efficiency alternative to traditional hot mixtures. However, these mixtures have a comparatively low initial strength and as it is considered as evolutionary materials, mainly in the early life where the initial cohesion is low and builds up slowly. On the other hand, asphalt concrete is, by far, the most common mixtures in use as binder course and base in road pavement in the UK having a continuous grade offer a good aggregate interlock results in this material having very good load-spreading properties as well as a high resistance to permanent deformation. This study aims at developing a novel fast curing cold asphalt concrete binder course mixtures by using Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a replacement to conventional mineral filler (0%-100%) while new by-product material (LJMU-A2) was used as a supplementary cementitious material. With this purpose, cold asphalt concrete binder course mixtures with cationic emulsions were studied by means of stiffness modulus whereas water sensitivity was approved by assessing the stiffness modulus ratio before and after sample conditioning. The results indicate that a substantial enhancement in the stiffness modulus and a considerable improvement of water sensitivity resistance by adding of LJMU-A2 to the cold asphalt mixtures as a supplementary cementitious material. Moreover, the addition of LJMU-A2 to those mixtures leads to stiffness modulus after 2- day curing comparable to those obtained with Portland cement after 7-day curing.

Keywords: cold mix asphalt, binder course, cement, stiffness modulus, water sensitivity

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1310 Resilient Modulus and Deformation Responses of Waste Glass in Flexible Pavement System

Authors: M. Al-Saedi, A. Chegenizadeh, H. Nikraz


Experimental investigations are conducted to assess a layered structure of glass (G) - rock (R) blends under the impact of repeated loading. Laboratory tests included sieve analyses, modified compaction test and repeated load triaxial test (RLTT) is conducted on different structures of stratified GR samples to reach the objectives of this study. Waste materials are such essential components in the climate system, and also commonly used in minimising the need for natural materials in many countries. Glass is one of the most widely used groups of waste materials which have been extensively using in road applications. Full range particle size and colours of glass are collected and mixed at different ratios with natural rock material trying to use the blends in pavement layers. Whole subsurface specimen sequentially consists of a single layer of R and a layer of G-R blend. 12G/88R and 45G/55R mix ratios are employed in this research, the thickness of G-R layer was changed, and the results were compared between the pure rock and the layered specimens. The relations between resilient module (Mr) and permanent deformation with sequence number are presented. During the earlier stages of RLTT, the results indicated that the 45G/55R specimen shows higher moduli than R specimen.

Keywords: Rock base course, Layered Structure, Glass, Resilient Modulus

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1309 Shear Modulus Degradation of a Liquefiable Sand Deposit by Shaking Table Tests

Authors: Henry Munoz, Muhammad Mohsan, Takashi Kiyota


Strength and deformability characteristics of a liquefiable sand deposit including the development of earthquake-induced shear stress and shear strain as well as soil softening via the progressive degradation of shear modulus were studied via shaking table experiments. To do so, a model of a liquefiable sand deposit was constructed and densely instrumented where accelerations, pressures, and displacements at different locations were continuously monitored. Furthermore, the confinement effects on the strength and deformation characteristics of the liquefiable sand deposit due to an external surcharge by placing a heavy concrete slab (i.e. the model of an actual structural rigid pavement) on the ground surface were examined. The results indicate that as the number of seismic-loading cycles increases, the sand deposit softens progressively as large shear strains take place in different sand elements. Liquefaction state is reached after the combined effects of the progressive degradation of the initial shear modulus associated with the continuous decrease in the mean principal stress, and the buildup of the excess of pore pressure takes place in the sand deposit. Finally, the confinement effects given by a concrete slab placed on the surface of the sand deposit resulted in a favorable increasing in the initial shear modulus, an increase in the mean principal stress and a decrease in the softening rate (i.e. the decreasing rate in shear modulus) of the sand, thus making the onset of liquefaction to take place at a later stage. This is, only after the sand deposit having a concrete slab experienced a higher number of seismic loading cycles liquefaction took place, in contrast to an ordinary sand deposit having no concrete slab.

Keywords: liquefaction, shear modulus degradation, shaking table, earthquake

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1308 Effect of Rolling Shear Modulus and Geometric Make up on the Out-Of-Plane Bending Performance of Cross-Laminated Timber Panel

Authors: Md Tanvir Rahman, Mahbube Subhani, Mahmud Ashraf, Paul Kremer


Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is made from layers of timber boards orthogonally oriented in the thickness direction, and due to this, CLT can withstand bi-axial bending in contrast with most other engineered wood products such as laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and glued laminated timber (GLT). Wood is cylindrically anisotropic in nature and is characterized by significantly lower elastic modulus and shear modulus in the planes perpendicular to the fibre direction, and is therefore classified as orthotropic material and is thus characterized by 9 elastic constants which are three elastic modulus in longitudinal direction, tangential direction and radial direction, three shear modulus in longitudinal tangential plane, longitudinal radial plane and radial tangential plane and three Poisson’s ratio. For simplification, timber materials are generally assumed to be transversely isotropic, reducing the number of elastic properties characterizing it to 5, where the longitudinal plane and radial planes are assumed to be planes of symmetry. The validity of this assumption was investigated through numerical modelling of CLT with both orthotropic mechanical properties and transversely isotropic material properties for three softwood species, which are Norway spruce, Douglas fir, Radiata pine, and three hardwood species, namely Victorian ash, Beech wood, and Aspen subjected to uniformly distributed loading under simply supported boundary condition. It was concluded that assuming the timber to be transversely isotropic results in a negligible error in the order of 1 percent. It was also observed that along with longitudinal elastic modulus, ratio of longitudinal shear modulus (GL) and rolling shear modulus (GR) has a significant effect on a deflection for CLT panels of lower span to depth ratio. For softwoods such as Norway spruce and Radiata pine, the ratio of longitudinal shear modulus, GL to rolling shear modulus GR is reported to be in the order of 12 to 15 times in literature. This results in shear flexibility in transverse layers leading to increased deflection under out-of-plane loading. The rolling shear modulus of hardwoods has been found to be significantly higher than those of softwoods, where the ratio between longitudinal shear modulus to rolling shear modulus as low as 4. This has resulted in a significant rise in research into the manufacturing of CLT from entirely from hardwood, as well as from a combination of softwood and hardwoods. The commonly used beam theory to analyze the performance of CLT panels under out-of-plane loads are the Shear analogy method, Gamma method, and k-method. The shear analogy method has been found to be the most effective method where shear deformation is significant. The effect of the ratio of longitudinal shear modulus and rolling shear modulus of cross-layer on the deflection of CLT under uniformly distributed load with respect to its length to depth ratio was investigated using shear analogy method. It was observed that shear deflection is reduced significantly as the ratio of the shear modulus of the longitudinal layer and rolling shear modulus of cross-layer decreases. This indicates that there is significant room for improvement of the bending performance of CLT through developing hybrid CLT from a mix of softwood and hardwood.

Keywords: rolling shear modulus, shear deflection, ratio of shear modulus and rolling shear modulus, timber

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1307 Simulation of Hydrogenated Boron Nitride Nanotube’s Mechanical Properties for Radiation Shielding Applications

Authors: Joseph E. Estevez, Mahdi Ghazizadeh, James G. Ryan, Ajit D. Kelkar


Radiation shielding is an obstacle in long duration space exploration. Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) have attracted attention as an additive to radiation shielding material due to B10’s large neutron capture cross section. The B10 has an effective neutron capture cross section suitable for low energy neutrons ranging from 10-5 to 104 eV and hydrogen is effective at slowing down high energy neutrons. Hydrogenated BNNTs are potentially an ideal nanofiller for radiation shielding composites. We use Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation via Material Studios Accelrys 6.0 to model the Young’s Modulus of Hydrogenated BNNTs. An extrapolation technique was employed to determine the Young’s Modulus due to the deformation of the nanostructure at its theoretical density. A linear regression was used to extrapolate the data to the theoretical density of 2.62g/cm3. Simulation data shows that the hydrogenated BNNTs will experience a 11% decrease in the Young’s Modulus for (6,6) BNNTs and 8.5% decrease for (8,8) BNNTs compared to non-hydrogenated BNNT’s. Hydrogenated BNNTs are a viable option as a nanofiller for radiation shielding nanocomposite materials for long range and long duration space exploration.

Keywords: boron nitride nanotube, radiation shielding, young modulus, atomistic modeling

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1306 Jump-Like Deformation of Ultrafinegrained AZ31 at Temperature 4,2 - 0,5 K

Authors: Pavel Zabrodin


The drawback of magnesium alloys is poor plasticity, which complicates the forming. Effective way of improving the properties of the cast magnesium alloy AZ31 (3 wt. % Al, 0.8 wt. % Zn, 0.2 wt. % Mn)) is to combine hot extrusion at 350°C and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 180°C. Because of reduced grain sizes, changes in the nature of the grain boundaries, and enhancement of a texture that favors basal dislocation glide, after this kind of processing, increase yield stress and ductility. For study of the effect of microstructure on the mechanisms for plastic deformation, there is some interest in investigating the mechanical properties of the ultrafinegrained (UFG) Mg alloy at low temperatures, before and after annealing. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation the Mg alloy of dependent on microstructure. Reduction of the average density of dislocations and grain growth during annealing causing a reduction in the amplitude of the jump-like deformation and changes in the distribution of surges in amplitude. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation UFG alloy dependent on temperature of deformation. Plastic deformation of UFG alloy at a temperature of 10 K occurs uniformly - peculiarities is not observed. Increasing of the temperature of deformation from 4,2 to 0,5 K is causing a reduction in the amplitude and increasing the frequency of the jump-like deformation.

Keywords: jump-like deformation, low temperature, plasticity, magnesium alloy

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1305 A Study on Shear Field Test Method in Timber Shear Modulus Determination Using Stereo Vision System

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang


In the structural timber design, the shear modulus of the timber beam is an important factor that needs to be determined accurately. According to BS EN 408, shear modulus can be determined using torsion test or shear field test method. Although torsion test creates pure shear status in the beam, it does not represent the real-life situation when the beam is in the service. On the other hand, shear field test method creates similar loading situation as in reality. The latter method is based on shear distortion measurement of the beam at the zone with the constant transverse load in the standardized four-point bending test as indicated in BS EN 408. Current testing practice code advised using two metallic arms act as an instrument to measure the diagonal displacement of the constructing square. Timber is not a homogenous material, but a heterogeneous and this characteristic makes timber to undergo a non-uniform deformation. Therefore, the dimensions and the location of the constructing square in the area with the constant transverse force might alter the shear modulus determination. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the shape, size, and location of the square in the shear field test method. A binocular stereo vision system was developed to capture the 3D displacement of a grid of target points. This approach is an accurate and non-contact method to extract the 3D coordination of targeted object using two cameras. Two group of three glue laminated beams were produced and tested by the mean of four-point bending test according to BS EN 408. Group one constructed using two materials, laminated bamboo lumber and structurally graded C24 timber and group two consisted only structurally graded C24 timber. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed on the acquired data to evaluate the significance of size and location of the square in the determination of shear modulus of the beam. The results have shown that the size of the square is an affecting factor in shear modulus determination. However, the location of the square in the area with the constant shear force does not affect the shear modulus.

Keywords: shear field test method, BS EN 408, timber shear modulus, photogrammetry approach

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1304 Impact of the Quality of Aggregate on the Elasticity Modulus of Concrete

Authors: K. Krizova


This objective of this article is to present concrete that differs by the size of the aggregate used. The set of concrete contained six concrete recipes manufactured as traditional vibrated concrete containing identical basic components of concrete. The experiment focused on monitoring the resulting properties of hardened concrete, specifically the primary strength and modulus of the concrete elasticity and the developing parameters from 7 to 180 days were assessed.

Keywords: aggregate, cement, concrete, elasticity modulus

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1303 First-Principles Calculations and Thermo-Calc Study of the Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Ti-Nb-ZR-Ta Alloy for Biomedical Applications

Authors: M. Madigoe, R. Modiba


High alloyed beta (β) phase-stabilized titanium alloys are known to have a low elastic modulus comparable to that of the human bone (≈30 GPa). The β phase in titanium alloys exhibits an elastic Young’s modulus of about 60-80 GPa, which is nearly half that of α-phase (100-120 GPa). In this work, a theoretical investigation of structural stability and thermodynamic stability, as well as the elastic properties of a quaternary Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy, will be presented with an attempt to lower Young’s modulus. The structural stability and elastic properties of the alloy were evaluated using the first-principles approach within the density functional theory (DFT) framework implemented in the CASTEP code. The elastic properties include bulk modulus B, elastic Young’s modulus E, shear modulus cʹ and Poisson’s ratio v. Thermodynamic stability, as well as the fraction of β phase in the alloy, was evaluated using the Thermo-Calc software package. Thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy (Δ𝐺⁰𝒻) and enthalpy of formation will be presented in addition to phase proportion diagrams. The stoichiometric compositions of the alloy is Ti-Nbx-Ta5-Zr5 (x = 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 at.%). An optimum alloy composition must satisfy the Born stability criteria and also possess low elastic Young’s modulus. In addition, the alloy must be thermodynamically stable, i.e., Δ𝐺⁰𝒻 < 0.

Keywords: elastic modulus, phase proportion diagram, thermo-calc, titanium alloys

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1302 Climate Change Effect on the Dynamic Modulus Property of Asphalt Concrete in Southern England Using UKCP09

Authors: David Idiata


This paper is directed at using the UKCP09 climate change projection tool to predict the effect of climate change on the dynamic modulus of asphalt concrete is Southern England knowing that there is a pressing challenge directly facing infrastructure in the urban cities in the world today due to climate change. Climate change causes change in the environment which in turn impacts on the long-term structural performance of structures. From the projection values obtained, it was discovered that as the temperature increases, the dynamic modulus reduces and this effect was more on the South West which have temperature range of 36.8 oC to 48.3 oC and dynamic modulus range of 2,212 MPa to 1256 MPa.

Keywords: dynamic modulus, asphalt concrete, UKCP09, Southern England

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1301 An Improved Mesh Deformation Method Based on Radial Basis Function

Authors: Xuan Zhou, Litian Zhang, Shuixiang Li


Mesh deformation using radial basis function interpolation method has been demonstrated to produce quality meshes with relatively little computational cost using a concise algorithm. However, it still suffers from the limited deformation ability, especially in large deformation. In this paper, a pre-displacement improvement is proposed to improve the problem that illegal meshes always appear near the moving inner boundaries owing to the large relative displacement of the nodes near inner boundaries. In this improvement, nodes near the inner boundaries are first associated to the near boundary nodes, and a pre-displacement based on the displacements of associated boundary nodes is added to the nodes near boundaries in order to make the displacement closer to the boundary deformation and improve the deformation capability. Several 2D and 3D numerical simulation cases have shown that the pre-displacement improvement for radial basis function (RBF) method significantly improves the mesh quality near inner boundaries and deformation capability, with little computational burden increasement.

Keywords: mesh deformation, mesh quality, background mesh, radial basis function

Procedia PDF Downloads 238