Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: atrophy

56 Memory Types in Hemodialysis (HD) Patients; A Study Based on Hemodialysis Duration, Zahedan: South East of Iran

Authors: Behnoush Sabayan, Ali Alidadi, Saeid Ebarhimi, N. M. Bakhshani

Abstract:

Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at a high risk of atherosclerotic and vascular disease; also little information is available for the HD impact on brain structure of these patients. We studied the brain abnormalities in HD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long term HD on brain structure of HD patients. Non-contrast MRI was used to evaluate imaging findings. Our study included 80 HD patients of whom 39 had less than six months of HD and 41 patients had a history of HD more than six months. The population had a mean age of 51.60 years old and 27.5% were female. According to study, HD patients who have been hemodialyzed for a long time (median time of HD was up to 4 years) had small vessel ischemia than the HD patients who underwent HD for a shorter term, which the median time was 3 to 5 months. Most of the small vessel ischemia was located in pre-ventricular, subcortical and white matter (1.33± .471, 1.23± .420 and 1.39±.490). However, the other brain damages like: central pons abnormality, global brain atrophy, thinning of corpus callosum and frontal lobe atrophy were found (P<0.01). The present study demonstrated that HD patients who were under HD for a longer time had small vessel ischemia and we conclude that this small vessel ischemia might be a causative mechanism of brain atrophy in chronic hemodialysis patients. However, additional researches are needed in this area.

Keywords: Hemodialysis Patients, Duration of Hemodialysis, MRI, Zahedan

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55 Structural Correlates of Reduced Malicious Pleasure in Huntington's Disease

Authors: Sandra Baez, Mariana Pino, Mildred Berrio, Hernando Santamaria-Garcia, Lucas Sedeno, Adolfo Garcia, Sol Fittipaldi, Agustin Ibanez

Abstract:

Schadenfreude refers to the perceiver’s experience of pleasure at another’s misfortune. This is a multidetermined emotion which can be evoked by hostile feelings and envy. The experience of Schadenfreude engages mechanisms implicated in diverse social cognitive processes. For instance, Schadenfreude involves heightened reward processing, accompanied by increased striatal engagement and it interacts with mentalizing and perspective-taking abilities. Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit reductions of Schadenfreude experience, suggesting a role of striatal degeneration in such an impairment. However, no study has directly assessed the relationship between regional brain atrophy in HD and reduced Schadenfreude. This study investigated whether gray matter (GM) atrophy in HD patients correlates with ratings of Schadenfreude. First, we compared the performance of 20 HD patients and 23 controls on an experimental task designed to trigger Schadenfreude and envy (another social emotion acting as a control condition). Second, we compared GM volume between groups. Third, we examined brain regions where atrophy might be associated with specific impairments in the patients. Results showed that while both groups showed similar ratings of envy, HD patients reported lower Schadenfreude. The latter pattern was related to atrophy in regions of the reward system (ventral striatum) and the mentalizing network (precuneus and superior parietal lobule). Our results shed light on the intertwining of reward and socioemotional processes in Schadenfreude, while offering novel evidence about their neural correlates. In addition, our results open the door to future studies investigating social emotion processing in other clinical populations characterized by striatal or mentalizing network impairments (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders).

Keywords: envy, Gray matter atrophy, Huntigton's disease, Schadenfreude, social emotions

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54 Combined Use of FMRI and Voxel-Based Morphometry in Assessment of Memory Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

Authors: A. V. Sokolov, S. V. Vorobyev, A. Yu. Efimtcev, V. Yu. Lobzin, I. A. Lupanov, O. A. Cherdakov, V. A. Fokin

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Different brain regions are involved to the pathological process of AD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate brain activation by visual memory task in patients with Alzheimer's disease and determine correlation between memory impairment and atrophy of memory specific brain regions of frontal and medial temporal lobes. To investigate the organization of memory and localize cortical areas activated by visual memory task we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and to evaluate brain atrophy of patients with Alzheimer's disease we used voxel-based morphometry. FMRI was performed on 1.5 T MR-scanner Siemens Magnetom Symphony with BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) technique, based on distinctions of magnetic properties of hemoglobin. For test stimuli we used series of 12 not related images for "Baseline" and 12 images with 6 presented before for "Active". Stimuli were presented 3 times with reduction of repeated images to 4 and 2. Patients with Alzheimer's disease showed less activation in hippocampal formation (HF) region and parahippocampal gyrus then healthy persons of control group (p<0.05). The study also showed reduced activation in posterior cingulate cortex (p<0.001). Voxel-based morphometry showed significant atrophy of grey matter in Alzheimer’s disease patients, especially of both temporal lobes (fusiform and parahippocampal gyri); frontal lobes (posterior cingulate and superior frontal gyri). The study showed correlation between memory impairment and atrophy of memory specific brain regions of frontal and medial temporal lobes. Thus, reduced activation in hippocampal formation and parahippocampal gyri, in posterior cingulate gyrus in patients with Alzheimer's disease correlates to significant atrophy of these regions, detected by voxel-based morphometry, and to deterioration of specific cognitive functions.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, functional MRI, voxel-based morphometry

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53 Granulomatous Mycoses Fungoides: A Case Report

Authors: Girum Tedla Assefa

Abstract:

Background: Granulomatous mycosis fungoides is an extremely rare type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (<55 cases reported worldwide). Case report: A 36-year-old female presented with soft tissue atrophy of right lower limb (dermis + hypodermis) of 22 years and plaques over trunk of 3 years duration. Histological examination of a biopsy taken from the atrophied tissue showed a granulomatous reaction with epidermotropic atypical lymphocytes. However, in other areas there were only findings of conventional MF without granuloma. Conclusion: The diagnosis of a granulomatous mycosis fungoides depends exclusively on the histological demonstration of granulomas. Distinct clinical characteristics are not present. This case highlights the importance of thorough investigation of lipoatrophic skin changes in the adult to exclude underlying causes, including MF.

Keywords: cutaneous lymphoma, granulomatous skin lymphoma, mycoses fungoides, skin atrophy

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52 The Role of Chemerin and Myostatin after Physical Activity

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, M. E. Bahram

Abstract:

Obesity and overweight is one of the most common metabolic disorders in industrialized countries and in developing countries. One consequence of pathological obesity is cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Chemerin is an adipocyne that plays a role in the regulation of the adipocyte function and the metabolism of glucose in the liver and musculoskeletal system. Most likely, chemerin is involved in obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercises reduce the level of chemerin and cause macrophage penetration into fat cells and inflammatory factors. Several efforts have been made to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. Myostatin, a new member of the TGF-β family, is a transforming growth factor β that its expression negatively regulates the growth of the skeletal muscle; and the increase of this hormone has been observed in conditions of muscular atrophy. While in response to muscle overload, its levels decrease after the atrophy period, TGF-β is the most important cytokine in the development of skeletal muscle. Myostatin plays an important role in muscle control, and animal and human studies show a negative role of myostatin in the growth of skeletal muscle. Separation of myostatin from Golgi begins on the ninth day of the onset period and continues until birth at all times of muscle growth. Higher levels of myostatin are found in obese people. Resistance training for 10 weeks could reduce levels of plasma myostatin.

Keywords: chemerin, myostatin, obesity, physical activity

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51 Altered Proteostasis Contributes to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy during Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia: An Insight into Signaling Mechanisms

Authors: Akanksha Agrawal, Richa Rathor, Geetha Suryakumar

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Muscle represents about ¾ of the body mass, and a healthy muscular system is required for human performance. A healthy muscular system is dynamically balanced via the catabolic and anabolic process. High altitude associated hypoxia altered this redox balance via producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that ultimately modulates protein structure and function, hence, disrupts proteostasis or protein homeostasis. The mechanism by which proteostasis is clinched includes regulated protein translation, protein folding, and protein degradation machinery. Perturbation in any of these mechanisms could increase proteome imbalance in the cellular processes. Altered proteostasis in skeletal muscle is likely to be responsible for contributing muscular atrophy in response to hypoxia. Therefore, we planned to elucidate the mechanism involving altered proteostasis leading to skeletal muscle atrophy under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods-Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing about 200-220 were divided into five groups - Control (Normoxic animals), 1d, 3d, 7d and 14d hypobaric hypoxia exposed animals. The animals were exposed to simulated hypoxia equivalent to 282 torr pressure (equivalent to an altitude of 7620m, 8% oxygen) at 25°C. On completion of chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) exposure, rats were sacrificed, muscle was excised and biochemical, histopathological and protein synthesis signaling were studied. Results-A number of changes were observed with the CHH exposure time period. ROS was increased significantly on 07 and 14 days which were attributed to protein oxidation via damaging muscle protein structure by oxidation of amino acids moiety. The oxidative damage to the protein further enhanced the various protein degradation pathways. Calcium activated cysteine proteases and other intracellular proteases participate in protein turnover in muscles. Therefore, we analysed calpain and 20S proteosome activity which were noticeably increased at CHH exposure as compared to control group representing enhanced muscle protein catabolism. Since inflammatory markers (myokines) affect protein synthesis and triggers degradation machinery. So, we determined inflammatory pathway regulated under hypoxic environment. Other striking finding of the study was upregulation of Akt/PKB translational machinery that was increased on CHH exposure. Akt, p-Akt, p70 S6kinase, and GSK- 3β expression were upregulated till 7d of CHH exposure. Apoptosis related markers, caspase-3, caspase-9 and annexin V was also increased on CHH exposure. Conclusion: The present study provides evidence of disrupted proteostasis under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. A profound loss of muscle mass is accompanied by the muscle damage leading to apoptosis and cell death under CHH. These cellular stress response pathways may play a pivotal role in hypobaric hypoxia induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Further research in these signaling pathways will lead to development of therapeutic interventions for amelioration of hypoxia induced muscle atrophy.

Keywords: Akt/PKB translational machinery, chronic hypobaric hypoxia, muscle atrophy, protein degradation

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50 Symmetric Corticobasal Degeneration: Case Report

Authors: Sultan Çağırıcı, Arsida Bajrami, Beyza Aslan, Hacı Ali Erdoğan, Nejla Sözer Topçular, Dilek Bozkurt, Vildan Yayla

Abstract:

Objective: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is phenotypically characterized by asymmetric rigidity, apraxia, alien-limb phenomenon, cortical sensory loss, dystonia and myoclonus. The underlying pathologies consists of corticobasal degeneration (CBD), progressive supra nuclear palsy, Alzheimer's, Creutzfeldt-Jakob and frontotemporal degeneration. CBD is a degenerative disease with clinical symptoms related to the prominent involvement of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. CBD is a pathological diagnosis and antemortem clinical diagnosis may change many times. In this paper, we described the clinical features and discussed a cases diagnosed with symmetric CBS because of its rarity. Case: Seventy-five-year-old woman presented with a three years history of difficulty in speaking and reading. Involuntary hand jerks and slowness of movement also had began in the last six months. In the neurological examination the patient was alert but not fully oriented. The speech was non-fluent, word finding difficulties were present. Bilateral limited upgaze, bradimimia, bilateral positive cogwheel' rigidity but prominent in the right side, postural tremor and negative myoclonus during action on the left side were detected. Receptive language was normal but expressive language and repetition were impaired. Acalculia, alexia, agraphia and apraxia were also present. CSF findings were unremarkable except for elevated protein level (75 mg/dL). MRI revealed bilateral symmetric cortical atrophy prominent in the frontoparietal region. PET showed hypometabolism in the left caudate nucleus. Conclusion: The increase of data related to neurodegenerative disorders associated with dementia, movement disorders and other findings results in an expanded range of diagnosis and transitions between clinical diagnosis. When considered the age of onset, clinical symptoms, imaging findings and prognosis of this patient, clinical diagnosis was CBS and pathologic diagnosis as probable CBD. Imaging of CBD usually consist of typical asymmetry between hemispheres. Still few cases with clinical appearance of CBD may show symmetrical cortical cerebral atrophy. It is presented this case who was diagnosed with CBD although we found symmetrical cortical cerebral atrophy in MRI.

Keywords: symmetric cortical atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, corticobasal syndrome

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49 Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Using a Combination of Images Processing and Brain Signals

Authors: E. Irankhah, M. Zarif, E. Mazrooei Rad, K. Ghandehari

Abstract:

Alzheimer's prevalence is on the rise, and the disease comes with problems like cessation of treatment, high cost of treatment, and the lack of early detection methods. The pathology of this disease causes the formation of protein deposits in the brain of patients called plaque amyloid. Generally, the diagnosis of this disease is done by performing tests such as a cerebrospinal fluid, CT scan, MRI, and spinal cord fluid testing, or mental testing tests and eye tracing tests. In this paper, we tried to use the Medial Temporal Atrophy (MTA) method and the Leave One Out (LOO) cycle to extract the statistical properties of the three Fz, Pz, and Cz channels of ERP signals for early diagnosis of this disease. In the process of CT scan images, the accuracy of the results is 81% for the healthy person and 88% for the severe patient. After the process of ERP signaling, the accuracy of the results for a healthy person in the delta band in the Cz channel is 81% and in the alpha band the Pz channel is 90%. In the results obtained from the signal processing, the results of the severe patient in the delta band of the Cz channel were 89% and in the alpha band Pz channel 92%.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, image and signal processing, LOO cycle, medial temporal atrophy

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48 Correlations between Folate, Homocysteine Levels, and Markers of Brain Atrophy in Elderly Male and Female Rats

Authors: Fatimah A. Alhomaid, Nadia H. Mahmoud, Maha A. Al-Qaraawi

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The present study was designed to induce hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in elderly male and female rats. Also,to evaluate, the effect of (HHcy) as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and brain atrophy and folate supplementation on serum levels of Hcy, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides, pyridoxal phosphate , folate also, histopathological examination of brain and cerebrovascular vessels In this work 50 male and 50 female elderly albino rats were used and divided into five groups. The first group served as control, the second and third group received two different dose of L-methionine, the fourth and fifth group received fortified diet with folate powder plus L-methionine. Our results showed that homocysteine levels in male and female rats that received low and high dose of methionine were higher than in the control group, while the levels of folate significantly decreased in male rats only. Induced hyperhomocysteinemia in elderly male and female rats led to significant increase in serum level of cholesterol, LDLc and triglycerides but serum level of HDLc were significantly lower in methionine treated male and female rats than in control. Our results showed that a strong positive correlation between all these parameters and homocysteine except HDLc levels which correlate negatively to Hcy levels. Administration of folate to methionine treated male rats led to insignificant changes in the level of cholesterol when compared to control group but this level was found to be significantly decrease in female rats received small dose of methionine. When the level of cholesterol compared to the same dose of methionine treated group we found a significant decrease in both male and female rats. LDLc and triglycerides level significantly decrease in male rats only versus the control rats, while when compared to low and high dose of methionine a significant decreased occurs. A significant increase in serum level of HDLc in male and female rats when compared to both control and methionine treated groups. In male and female rats supplemented with folate we found an increased serum levels of folate when compared to rats received both dose of methionine. The levels of pyridoxal phosphate significantly decreased in all treated rats compared to the control group and its level were increased with supplementation of folate versus the rats received small and large dose of methionine. It can be concluded that hyperhomocysteinemia may be an additional risk factor for cerebrovascular atherosclesosis and brain atrophy in elderly people and diatery supplementation with folate blocking the activity of homocysteine and may be considered as a therapeutic possibility.

Keywords: hyperhomocysteinemia, brain atrophy, cerebrovascular, L-methionine, pyridoxal phosphate

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47 The Contribution of the PCR-Enzymatic Digestion in the Positive Diagnosis of Proximal Spinal Muscular Atrophy in the Moroccan Population

Authors: H. Merhni, A. Sbiti, I. Ratbi, A. Sefiani

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The proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness due to the degeneration and loss of anterior motor neurons of the spinal cord. Depending on the age of onset of symptoms and their evolution, four types of SMA, varying in severity, result in a mutations of the SMN gene (survival of Motor neuron). We have analyzed the DNA of 295 patients referred to our genetic counseling; since January 1996 until October 2014; for suspected SMA. The homozygous deletion of exon 7 of the SMN gene was found in 133 patients; of which, 40.6% were born to consanguineous parents. In countries like Morocco, where the frequency of heterozygotes for SMA is high, genetic testing should be offered as first-line and, after careful clinical assessment, especially in newborns and infants with congenital hypotonia unexplained and prognosis compromise. The molecular diagnosis of SMA allows a quick and certainly diagnosis, provide adequate genetic counseling for families at risk and suggest, for couples who want prenatal diagnosis. The analysis of the SMN gene is a perfect example of genetic testing with an excellent cost/benefit ratio that can be of great interest in public health, especially in low-income countries. We emphasize in this work for the benefit of the generalization of molecular diagnosis of SMA by the technique of PCR-enzymatic digestion in other centers in Morocco.

Keywords: Exon7, PCR-digestion, SMA, SMN gene

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46 Effects of Aging on Ultra: Triathlon Performance

Authors: Richard S. Jatau, Kankanala Venkateswarlu, Bulus Kpame

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The purpose of this critical review is to find out what is known and what is unknown about the effects of aging on endurance performance, especially on ultra- triathlon performance. It has been shown that among master’s athlete’s peak levels of performance decreased by 50% by age 50 it has also been clearly revealed that age associated atrophy, weakness and fatigability cannot be halted, although year round athletic training can slow down this age associated decline. Studies have further revealed that 30% to 50% decrease in skeletal muscle mass between ages 40 and 80 years, which is accompanied by an equal or even greater decline in strength and power and an increase in muscle weakness and fatigability. Studies on ultra- triathlon athletes revealed that 30 to 39 year old showed fastest time, with athletes in younger and older age groups were slower. It appears that the length of the endurance performance appears to influence age related endurance performance decline in short distance triathlons. A significant decline seems to start at the age of 40 to 50 years, whereas in long distance triathlons this decline seems to start after the age of 65 years. However, it is not clear whether this decline is related in any way to the training methods used, the duration of training, or the frequency of training. It’s also not clear whether the triathlon athletes experience more injuries due to long hours of training. It’s also not clear whether these athletes used performance enhancing drugs to enhance their performance. It’s not also clear whiles there has been tremendous increase in the number of athletes specializing in triathlon. On the basis of our experience and available research evidence we have provided answers to some of these questions. We concluded that aging associated decline in ultra–endurance performance is inevitable although it can be slowed down.

Keywords: aging, triathlon, atrophy, endurance

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45 Causes of Blindness and Low Vision among Visually Impaired Population Supported by Welfare Organization in Ardabil Province in Iran

Authors: Mohammad Maeiyat, Ali Maeiyat Ivatlou, Rasul Fani Khiavi, Abouzar Maeiyat Ivatlou, Parya Maeiyat

Abstract:

Purpose: Considering the fact that visual impairment is still one of the countries health problem, this study was conducted to determine the causes of blindness and low vision in visually impaired membership of Ardabil Province welfare organization. Methods: The present study which was based on descriptive and national-census, that carried out in visually impaired population supported by welfare organization in all urban and rural areas of Ardabil Province in 2013 and Collection of samples lasted for 7 months. The subjects were inspected by optometrist to determine their visual status (blindness or low vision) and then referred to ophthalmologist in order to discover the main causes of visual impairment based on the international classification of diseases version 10. Statistical analysis of collected data was performed using SPSS software version 18. Results: Overall, 403 subjects with mean age of years participated in this study. 73.2% were blind, 26.8 % were low vision and according gender grouping 60.50 % of them were male, 39.50 % were female that divided into three groups with the age level of lower than 15 (11.2%) 15 to 49 (76.7%), and 50 and higher (12.1%). The age range was 1 to 78 years. The causes of blindness and low vision were in descending order: optic atrophy (18.4%), retinitis pigmentosa (16.8%), corneal diseases (12.4%), chorioretinal diseases (9.4%), cataract (8.9%), glaucoma (8.2%), phthisis bulbi (7.2%), degenerative myopia (6.9%), microphtalmos ( 4%), amblyopia (3.2%), albinism (2.5%) and nistagmus (2%). Conclusion: in this study the main causes of visual impairments were optic atrophy and retinitis pigmentosa, thus specific prevention plans can be effective in reducing the incidence of visual disabilities.

Keywords: blindness, low vision, welfare, ardabil

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44 Investigating Early Markers of Alzheimer’s Disease Using a Combination of Cognitive Tests and MRI to Probe Changes in Hippocampal Anatomy and Functionality

Authors: Netasha Shaikh, Bryony Wood, Demitra Tsivos, Michael Knight, Risto Kauppinen, Elizabeth Coulthard

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Background: Effective treatment of dementia will require early diagnosis, before significant brain damage has accumulated. Memory loss is an early symptom of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The hippocampus, a brain area critical for memory, degenerates early in the course of AD. The hippocampus comprises several subfields. In contrast to healthy aging where CA3 and dentate gyrus are the hippocampal subfields with most prominent atrophy, in AD the CA1 and subiculum are thought to be affected early. Conventional clinical structural neuroimaging is not sufficiently sensitive to identify preferential atrophy in individual subfields. Here, we will explore the sensitivity of new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences designed to interrogate medial temporal regions as an early marker of Alzheimer’s. As it is likely a combination of tests may predict early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) better than any single test, we look at the potential efficacy of such imaging alone and in combination with standard and novel cognitive tasks of hippocampal dependent memory. Methods: 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 20 with mild-moderate AD and 20 age-matched healthy elderly controls (HC) are being recruited to undergo 3T MRI (with sequences designed to allow volumetric analysis of hippocampal subfields) and a battery of cognitive tasks (including Paired Associative Learning from CANTAB, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and a novel hippocampal-dependent abstract word memory task). AD participants and healthy controls are being tested just once whereas patients with MCI will be tested twice a year apart. We will compare subfield size between groups and correlate subfield size with cognitive performance on our tasks. In the MCI group, we will explore the relationship between subfield volume, cognitive test performance and deterioration in clinical condition over a year. Results: Preliminary data (currently on 16 participants: 2 AD; 4 MCI; 9 HC) have revealed subfield size differences between subject groups. Patients with AD perform with less accuracy on tasks of hippocampal-dependent memory, and MCI patient performance and reaction times also differ from healthy controls. With further testing, we hope to delineate how subfield-specific atrophy corresponds with changes in cognitive function, and characterise how this progresses over the time course of the disease. Conclusion: Novel sequences on a MRI scanner such as those in route in clinical use can be used to delineate hippocampal subfields in patients with and without dementia. Preliminary data suggest that such subfield analysis, perhaps in combination with cognitive tasks, may be an early marker of AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, dementia, memory, cognition, hippocampus

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43 Skull Extraction for Quantification of Brain Volume in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Authors: Marcela De Oliveira, Marina P. Da Silva, Fernando C. G. Da Rocha, Jorge M. Santos, Jaime S. Cardoso, Paulo N. Lisboa-Filho

Abstract:

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system characterized by neurodegeneration, inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to the richness in the information details provided, is the gold standard exam for diagnosis and follow-up of neurodegenerative diseases, such as MS. Brain atrophy, the gradual loss of brain volume, is quite extensive in multiple sclerosis, nearly 0.5-1.35% per year, far off the limits of normal aging. Thus, the brain volume quantification becomes an essential task for future analysis of the occurrence atrophy. The analysis of MRI has become a tedious and complex task for clinicians, who have to manually extract important information. This manual analysis is prone to errors and is time consuming due to various intra- and inter-operator variability. Nowadays, computerized methods for MRI segmentation have been extensively used to assist doctors in quantitative analyzes for disease diagnosis and monitoring. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the brain volume in MRI of MS patients. We used MRI scans with 30 slices of the five patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis according to the McDonald criteria. The computational methods for the analysis of images were carried out in two steps: segmentation of the brain and brain volume quantification. The first image processing step was to perform brain extraction by skull stripping from the original image. In the skull stripper for MRI images of the brain, the algorithm registers a grayscale atlas image to the grayscale patient image. The associated brain mask is propagated using the registration transformation. Then this mask is eroded and used for a refined brain extraction based on level-sets (edge of the brain-skull border with dedicated expansion, curvature, and advection terms). In the second step, the brain volume quantification was performed by counting the voxels belonging to the segmentation mask and converted in cc. We observed an average brain volume of 1469.5 cc. We concluded that the automatic method applied in this work can be used for the brain extraction process and brain volume quantification in MRI. The development and use of computer programs can contribute to assist health professionals in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In future works, we expect to implement more automated methods for the assessment of cerebral atrophy and brain lesions quantification, including machine-learning approaches. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a grant from Brazilian agency Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (number 2019/16362-5).

Keywords: brain volume, magnetic resonance imaging, multiple sclerosis, skull stripper

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42 Causes of Death in Neuromuscular Disease Patients: 15-Year Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Po-Ching Chou, Wen-Chen Liang, I. Chen Chen, Jong-Hau Hsu, Yuh-Jyh Jong

Abstract:

Background:Cardiopulmonary complications seem to cause high morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD) but so far there is no domestic data reported in Taiwan. We, therefore attempted to analyze the factors to cause the death in NMD patients from our cohort. Methods:From 1998 to 2013, we retrospectively collected the information of the NMD patients treated and followed up in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. Forty-two patients with NMD who expired during these fifteen years were enrolled. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and the causes of death and the associated affecting factors were analyzed. Results:Eighteen patients with NMD (mean age=13.3, SD=12.4) with complete medical record and detailed information were finally included in this study, including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) (n=9, 7/9: type 1), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n=6), congenital muscular dystrophy (n=1), carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency (n=1) and spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress (SMARD)(n=1). The place of death was in ICU (n=11, 61%), emergency room (n=3, 16.6%) or home (n=4, 22.2%). For SMA type 1 patients, most of them (71.4%, 5/7) died in emergency room or home and the other two expired during an ICU admission. The causes of death included acute respiratory failure due to pneumonia (n=13, 72.2 %), ventilator failure or dislocation (n=2, 11.1%), suffocation/choking (n=2, 11.1%), and heart failure with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=1, 5.55%). Among the 15 patients died of respiratory failure or choking, 73.3% of the patients (n=11) received no ventilator care at home. 80% of the patients (n=12) received no cough assist at home. The patient died of cardiomyopathy received no medications for heart failure until the last admission. Conclusion: Respiratory failure and choking are the leading causes of death in NMD patients. Appropriate respiratory support and airway clearance play the critical role to reduce the mortality.

Keywords: neuromuscular disease, cause of death, tertiary care hospital, medical sciences

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41 Clustering-Based Detection of Alzheimer's Disease Using Brain MR Images

Authors: Sofia Matoug, Amr Abdel-Dayem

Abstract:

This paper presents a comprehensive survey of recent research studies to segment and classify brain MR (magnetic resonance) images in order to detect significant changes to brain ventricles. The paper also presents a general framework for detecting regions that atrophy, which can help neurologists in detecting and staging Alzheimer. Furthermore, a prototype was implemented to segment brain MR images in order to extract the region of interest (ROI) and then, a classifier was employed to differentiate between normal and abnormal brain tissues. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can provide a reliable second opinion that neurologists can benefit from.

Keywords: Alzheimer, brain images, classification techniques, Magnetic Resonance Images MRI

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40 Overview and Pathophysiology of Radiation-Induced Breast Changes as a Consequence of Radiotherapy Toxicity

Authors: Monika Rezacova

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Radiation-induced breast changes are a consequence of radiotherapy toxicity over the breast tissues either related to targeted breast cancer treatment or other thoracic malignancies (eg. lung cancer). This study has created an overview of different changes and their pathophysiology. The main conditions included were skin thickening, interstitial oedema, fat necrosis, dystrophic calcifications, skin retractions, glandular atrophy, breast fibrosis and radiation induced breast cancer. This study has performed focused literature search through multiple databases including pubmed, medline and embase. The study has reviewed English as well as non English publications. As a result of the literature the study provides comprehensive overview of radiation-induced breast changes and their pathophysiology with small focus on new development and prevention.

Keywords: radiotherapy toxicity, breast tissue changes, breast cancer treatment, radiation-induced breast changes

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39 Trigonelline: A Promising Compound for The Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Mai M. Farid, Ximeng Yang, Tomoharu Kuboyama, Chihiro Tohda

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Trigonelline is a major alkaloid component derived from Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) and has been reported before as a potential neuroprotective agent, especially in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the previous data were unclear and used model mice were not well established. In the present study, the effect of trigonelline on memory function was investigated in Alzheimer’s disease transgenic model mouse, 5XFAD which overexpresses the mutated APP and PS1 genes. Oral administration of trigonelline for 14 days significantly enhanced object recognition and object location memories. Plasma and cerebral cortex were isolated at 30 min, 1h, 3h, and 6 h after oral administration of trigonelline. LC-MS/MS analysis indicated that trigonelline was detected in both plasma and cortex from 30 min after, suggesting good penetration of trigonelline into the brain. In addition, trigonelline significantly ameliorated axonal and dendrite atrophy in Amyloid β-treated cortical neurons. These results suggest that trigonelline could be a promising therapeutic candidate for AD.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, cortical neurons, LC-MS/MS analysis, trigonelline

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38 Study the Effect of Dermal Application of Stone Hair Dye on Experimental Animals

Authors: Hatem Abdel Moniem Ahmed, Ragaa Mohamed Abdel Maaboud, Heba A. Mubarak

Abstract:

A commercially available Stone Hair Dye (SHD) was spread in Upper Egypt and used for dying woman's hair. Paraphenyl-diamine (PPD) is the main component of SHD and reported as a toxic substance. This work aims to study the systemic effects induced in experimental animals as a result of dermal application of SHD. 21 rats were divided into three groups, and doses of SHD and PPD were applied according to body weight (25 mg/100 g body weight) for 90 days. The results revealed that insignificant decrease in RBC count and Hb level, but there were significant increases in the WBC count, AST, ALT, GPT, and total protein while creatinine level was insignificantly increased. Hepatocytes showed a lot of degenerative changes in the form of vacuolated cytoplasm and irregular deeply stained nuclei with vascular congestion and lymphocytic infiltration, while renal affection indicated the occurrence of atrophy of glomerular capillaries, hyperplasia, and widening of bowman space.

Keywords: PPD, SHD, rats and histology, biochemistry and hematology

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37 The Search of New Laws for a Gluten Kingdom

Authors: Mohammed Saleem Tariq

Abstract:

The enthusiasm for gluten avoidance in a growing market is met by improvements in sensitive detection methods for analysing gluten content. Paradoxically, manufacturers employ no such systems in the production process but continue to market their product as gluten free, a significant risk posed to an undetermined coeliac population. The paper resonates with an immunological response that causes gastrointestinal scarring and villous atrophy with the conventional description of personal injury. The current developing regime in the UK however, it is discussed, has avoided creating specific rules to provide an adequate level of protection for this type of vulnerable ‘characteristic’. Due to the struggle involved with identifying an appropriate cause of action, this paper analyses whether a claim brought in misrepresentation, negligence and/or under the Consumer Protect Act 1987 could be sustained. A necessary comparison is then made with the approach adopted by the Americans with Disability Act 1990 which recognises this chronic disease as a disability. The ongoing failure to introduce a level of protection which matches that afforded to those who fall into any one of the ‘protected characteristics’ under the Equality Act 2010, is inconceivable given the outstanding level of legal vulnerability.

Keywords: coeliac, litigation, misrepresentation, negligence

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36 Acute Toxic Effects of Zn(SO4) on Gill and Liver Tissues of Fresh Water Catfish Clarias batrachus (L.)

Authors: Muneesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Sangeeta Devi

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Heavy metals are a major problem because they are toxic and tend to accumulate in living organisms. This study was carried out with the aims of studying on histopathology of Zn(SO4) toxicity on gill and liver tissues of catfish (Clarias batrachus) within the period of 96 h. Totally, 140 fishes with mean weight 50±10 g were stocked in 12 aquariums with capacity of 200 L water and divided in to 3 trails including control, 4 ppm and 8 ppm of Zn with 3 replicates. Tissue samples were fixed by bouin’s solution and sectioned in 7 μm based on histological regular method and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) method for microscopic study within the period of 96 h. Results showed some damaged such as hyperplasia, telangiectasis and edema, necrosis of second filaments, jerky movement, aneurism, hyperemia and fusion of second filaments in gills; and cell atrophy, necrosis, fatty degeneration, hyperemia and bile stagnation at different treatments in comparison with control. Gill and liver tissue damages were severed with the increase of Zn concentration and days. Therefore, Zn had acute toxicity effects on gill and liver tissues in Catfish at 5 and 10 ppm concentrations.

Keywords: gill, liver, histopathology, zinc, Clarias batrachus

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35 Does Exercise Training Moderate the Effects of Ageing on Health

Authors: Elizabeth A. Haruna, Bulus Kpame, Kankanala Venkateswarlu

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The interaction of health and athletic performance with biologic aging has been an interesting and intriguing area for research. There has been a general acknowledgement of its importance to major public health and elite performance outcomes. There are many questions unanswered about the mechanisms of effects and dose-response changes. An attempt has been made in this paper to highlight potentially positive effects of regular training on the aging process and its effects on health. Age associated decline in health and performance results from the combination of the aging process itself, inactive lifestyle and primary diseases. An attempt is made in this paper to critically review what is known and what is unknown about evidence based changes, common to disuse and aging. Mechanisms responsible for the slowing decline in muscle mass and muscle force (sarcopenia) down of age – associated, weakness and fatigability due to year round athletic training have been discussed. It is in this regard we have attempted to share our views on advances made so far in understanding the impact of aging on health. We also attempted to explain how the biological effects of aging are minimized during appropriate year round athletic training. On the basis of available research evidence it was concluded that exercise training significantly slow down the deleterious effects of aging on health.

Keywords: aging, atrophy, sarcopenia, plyometric training

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34 The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on Rats Brain

Authors: Omar Abdalla, Abdelfatah Ahmed, Ahmed Mustafa, Abdelazem Eldouma

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The purpose of this study is evaluating the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field on Waster rats brain. The number of rats used in this study were 25, which were divided into five groups, each group containing five rats as follows: Group 1: The control group which was not exposed to energized field; Group 2: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field with an intensity of 0.6 mT (2 hours/day); Group 3: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field of 1.2 mT (2 hours/day); Group4: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field of 1.8 mT (2 hours/day); Group 5: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field of 2.4 mT (2 hours/day) and all groups were exposed for seven days, by designing a maze and calculating the time average for arriving to the decoy at special conditions. We found the time average before exposure for the all groups was G2=330 s, G3=172 s, G4=500 s and G5=174 s, respectively. We exposed all groups to ELF-MF and measured the time and we found: G2=465 s, G3=388 s, G4=501 s, and G5=442 s. It was observed that the time average increased directly with field strength. Histological samples of frontal lop of brain for all groups were taken and we found lesion, atrophy, empty vacuoles and disorder choroid plexus at frontal lope of brain. And finally we observed the disorder of choroid plexus in histological results and Alzheimer's symptoms increase when the magnetic field increases.

Keywords: nonionizing radiation, biophysics, magnetic field, shrinkage

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33 On the Homology Modeling, Structural Function Relationship and Binding Site Prediction of Human Alsin Protein

Authors: Y. Ruchi, A. Prerna, S. Deepshikha

Abstract:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease”. It is a neurodegenerative disease associated with degeneration of motor neurons in the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord characterized by distal muscle weakness, atrophy, normal sensation, pyramidal signs and progressive muscular paralysis reflecting. ALS2 is a juvenile autosomal recessive disorder, slowly progressive, that maps to chromosome 2q33 and is associated with mutations in the alsin gene, a putative GTPase regulator. In this paper we have done homology modeling of alsin2 protein using multiple templates (3KCI_A, 4LIM_A, 402W_A, 4D9S_A, and 4DNV_A) designed using the Prime program in Schrödinger software. Further modeled structure is used to identify effective binding sites on the basis of structural and physical properties using sitemap program in Schrödinger software, structural and function analysis is done by using Prosite and ExPASy server that gives insight into conserved domains and motifs that can be used for protein classification. This paper summarizes the structural, functional and binding site property of alsin2 protein. These binding sites can be potential drug target sites and can be used for docking studies.

Keywords: ALS, binding site, homology modeling, neuronal degeneration

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32 Nagabhasma Preparation and Its Effect on Kidneys: A Histopathological Study

Authors: Lydia Andrade, Kumar M. R. Bhat

Abstract:

Heavy metals, especially lead, is considered to be a multi-organ toxicant. However, such heavy metals, are used in the preparation of traditional medicines. Nagabhasma is one of the traditional medicines. Lead is the metal used in its preparation. Lead is converted into a health beneficial, organometallic compound, when subjected to various traditional methods of purification. Therefore, this study is designed to evaluate the effect of such processed lead in various stages of traditionally prepared Nagabhasma on the histological structure of kidneys. Using the human equivalent doses of Nagabhasma, various stages of its preparation were fed orally for 30 days and 60 days (short term and long term). The treated and untreated rats were then sacrificed for the collection of kidneys. The kidneys were processed for histopathological study. The results show severe changes in the histological structure of kidneys. The animals treated with lead acetate showed changes in the epithelial cells lining the bowman’s capsule. The proximal and distal convoluted tubules were dilated leading to atrophy of their epithelial cells. The amount of inflammatory infiltrates was more in this group. A few groups also showed pockets of inter-tubular hemorrhage. These changes, however, were minimized as the stages progressed form stages 1 to 4 of Nagabhasma preparation. Therefore, it is necessary to stringently monitor the processing of lead acetate during the preparation of Nagabhasma.

Keywords: heavy metals, kidneys, lead acetate, Nagabhasma

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31 The Transcriptional Regulation of Human LRWD1 through DNA Methylation

Authors: Yen-Ni Teng, Hsing-Yi Chen, Hsien-An Pan, Yung-Ming Lin, Hany A. Omar, Jui-Hsiang Hung

Abstract:

Leucine-rich repeats and WD repeat domain containing 1 (LRWD1) is highly expressed in the testes of healthy males. On the other hand, LRWD1 is significantly down-regulated in the testicular tissues of patients with severe spermatogenic defects. In our study, the downregulation of LRWD1 expression by shRNA caused a significant reduction of cell growth and mitosis and a noteworthy increase in the cell microtubule atrophy rate. Here, we used EMBOSS CpG plot analysis to explore the promoter region of LRWD1 gene. We found that CpG islands are located between positions -253 to +5 nucleotides upstream from the LRWD1 transcription start site. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that the hypermethylation of the LRWD1 promoter reduced the transcription activity in cells. In addition, quantitative methylation-specific PCR and immunostaining showed that the methylation inhibitor, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, increased LRWD1 promoter activity, LRWD1 mRNA, protein expression and cell viability. Whereas, the methylation activator, S-adenosylmethionine, caused opposite effects. The overexpression of p53 and Nrf2 in NT2/D1 cells increased LRWD1 promoter activity while 5-fluorodeoxyuridine decreased it. In conclusion, this study highlights evidence that the methylation status of LRWD1 promoter is associated with LRWD1 expression. Since the expression level of LRWD1 plays an important role in spermatogenesis, the methylation status of LRWD1 may serve as a novel molecular diagnostic or therapeutic approach in male's infertility.

Keywords: LRWD1, DNA methylation, p53, Nrf2

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30 Comparative Evaluation of Postoperative Cosmesis, Mydriasis and Anterior Chamber Morphology after Single-Pass Four-Throw Pupilloplasty between Traumatic and Congenital Iris Defects

Authors: S. P. Singh, Shweta Gupta, Kshama Dwivedi, Shivangi Singh

Abstract:

Aim: To compare the postoperative pupil cosmesis, mydriasis, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) in traumatic and congenital iris defects after Single-Pass Four-Throw pupilloplasty (SFTP). Method: SFTP was performed along with cataract surgery in 6 patients, each of congenital and traumatic iris defects and pupil size, mydriasis, and ACD was compared after three months. Results: SFTP was successful in repairing congenital and traumatic cases except in 1 traumatic case with a large iris defect. Horizontal pupil diameter decreased while ACD increased in both groups and was comparable between the two groups. The traumatic group showed a significant decrease in pupil diameter while there was an insignificant change in the horizontal pupil diameter in the congenital group. Mydriasis was adequate for fundus examination and was comparable between the two groups. The effect of SFTP on ACD was inconclusive due to the confounding effect of cataract surgery. The incidence of iris atrophy was equal in both groups. Conclusion: SFTP results in anatomical and functional restoration in cases of iris defects with no inadvertent effect on mydriasis.

Keywords: anterior chamber depth, mydriasis, pupil cosmesis, single-pass four-throw pupilloplasty

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29 Dying and Sexuality − Controversial Motive in Contemporary Cinema

Authors: Małgorzata Jakubowska, Monika Michałowska

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Since the beginning of the cinematographic industry, there has been a visible interest in two leading themes: death and sexuality. One of the reasons of the unfading popularity of these motives was the fact that death or sex employed as leitmotivs attracted great attention of the viewers, and this guaranteed a financial success. What seems interesting is the fact that the themes of death and sexuality/eroticism seem to be mutually exclusive in the mainstream movies to such extent that they almost never appear together on the screen. As leitmotivs they describe opposite experiences of human life, one refers to affirmation of life, the other points to atrophy and decay. This film paradigm is rarely challenged. Thus, a relatively less attention has been devoted so far to entwining dying and sexuality/eroticism in one movie. In our paper, we wish to have a closer look at the visualizations of dying with focus on the aspect of sexuality/eroticism. Our analysis will concentrate on the contemporary European and American cinema, and especially the recent productions that contribute to the cultural phenomenon of entwining the two realms of human life. We will investigate the main clichés, plot and visual schemes, motives and narrative techniques on the examples of Sweet November (2001), A Little Bit of Heaven (2011) and Now is good (2012). We will also shed some light on the recent film productions that seem to provide a shift in portraying the realms of dying and sexuality concentrating on The Garden of Earthly Delights (2003) as the most paradigmatic example.

Keywords: contemporary cinema, dying and sexuality, narrative techniques, plot and visual schemes

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28 Assessment of Transverse Abdominis Activation during Three Different Exercises in Low Back Pain Patients: Measurement with Real-Time Ultrasonography

Authors: Venus Pagare, Amit Kharat, Dhaval K. Thakkar, Tushar J. Palekar

Abstract:

Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major public health problem and is the leading musculoskeletal cause of disability. Altered neuromuscular control of core muscles, particulary transverses abdominis (TrA) is thought to be a contributing factor for the development of CLBP. Therefore, various exercises targeting the TrA are commonly incorporated into the rehabilitation. Objectives: To investigate the effects of 3 different core exercises on activation capacity of TrA muscle in individuals with CLBP as compared with healthy controls. Methodology: Thickness of TrA muscle was measured by ultrasound imaging in 30 patients with CLBP and 30 healthy controls. Measurements were taken during 3 different TrA activation exercises i.e Abdominal drawing in maneuver (ADIM), Abdominal drawing in with straight leg raise (ADSLR) and breathe hold at maximum expiration (ME). Thickness of the muscle at rest (at the end of normal tidal expiration) was taken as a baseline measure. Results: There was a significant difference between the healthy subjects and patients with low back pain with regard to the thickness of TrA at rest and thickness during contraction. ADIM produced a significant increase in the thickness of TrA compared to ADSLR and ME (p<0.001). Also, increase in thickness of TrA was more in the control group than patients with low back pain. Conclusion: CLBP patients exhibited atrophy of TrA muscle with delayed activation. Also, of the various core exercises, ADIM can be an effective method for activation of TrA.

Keywords: LBP, CLBP, ADSLR, ADIM

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27 Evaluation of Prevalence of the Types of Thyroid Disorders Using Ultrasound and Pathology of One-Humped Camel in Iran: Camelus dromedarius

Authors: M. Yadegari

Abstract:

The thyroid gland is the largest classic endocrine organ that effects many organs of the body and plays a significant role in the process of Metabolism in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid disorders diagnosed by ultrasound and microscopic Lesions of the thyroid during the slaughter of apparently healthy One Humped Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran. Randomly, 520 male camels (With an age range of 4 to 8 years), were studied in 2012 to 2013. The Camels’ thyroid glands were evaluated by sonographic examination. In both longitudinal and transverse view and then tissue sections were provide and stained with H & E and finally examined by light microscopy. The results obtained indicated the following: hyperplastic goiter (21%), degenerative changes (12%), follicular cysts (8%), follicular atrophy (4%), nodular hyperplasia (3%), adenoma (1%), carcinoma (1%) and simple goiter colloid (1%). Ultrasound evaluation of thyroid gland in adenoma and carcinoma showed enlargement and irregular of the gland, decreased echogenicity, and the heterogeneous thyroid parenchyma. Also, in follicular cysts were observed in the enlarged gland with no echo structures of different sizes and decreased echogenicity as a local or general. In nodular hyperplasia, increase echogenicity and heterogeneous parenchymal were seen. These findings suggest the use of Ultrasound as a screening test in the diagnosis of complications of thyroid disorders. Pathology also to be used for the diagnosis of thyroid problems and other side effects.

Keywords: thyroid gland, one humped camel, sonography, pathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 425