Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10766

Search results for: ultra-high performance concrete

10766 Influence of Silica Fume on Ultrahigh Performance Concrete

Authors: Vitoldas Vaitkevičius, Evaldas Šerelis


Silica fume, also known as microsilica (MS) or condensed silica fume is a by-product of the production of silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume is one of the most effective pozzolanic additives which could be used for ultrahigh performance and other types of concrete. Despite the fact, however is not entirely clear, which amount of silica fume is most optimal for UHPC. Main objective of this experiment was to find optimal amount of silica fume for UHPC with and without thermal treatment, when different amount of quartz powder is substituted by silica fume. In this work were investigated four different composition of UHPC with different amount of silica fume. Silica fume were added 0, 10, 15 and 20% of cement (by weight) to UHPC mixture. Optimal amount of silica fume was determined by slump, viscosity, qualitative and quantitative XRD analysis and compression strength tests methods.

Keywords: compressive strength, silica fume, ultrahigh performance concrete, XRD

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10765 Self-Healing Performance of Heavyweight Concrete with Steam Curing

Authors: Hideki Igawa, Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Takashi Yokomuro, Hideo Eguchi


In this study, the crack self-healing performance of the heavyweight concrete used in the walls of containers and structures designed to shield radioactive materials was investigated. A steam curing temperature that preserves self-healing properties and demolding strength was identified. The presented simultaneously mixing method using the expanding material and the fly ash in the process of admixture can maximize the self-curing performance. Also adding synthetic fibers in the heavyweight concrete improved the self-healing performance.

Keywords: expanding material, heavyweight concrete, self-healing performance, synthetic fiber

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10764 Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Strength and Durability of High Strength High Performance Concrete

Authors: H. B. Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Y. W. Yee, Y. T. Yeap


This paper reports the strength and durability properties of high strength high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash (RHA) having high silica, low carbon content and appropriate fineness. In this study concrete containing 10%, 15% and 20% RHA as cement replacement and water to binder ratio of 0.25 were investigated. The results show that increasing amount of RHA increases the dosage of superplasticizer to maintain similar workability. Partial replacement of cement with RHA did not increase the early age compressive strength of concrete. However, concrete containing RHA showed higher compressive strength at later ages. The results showed that compressive strength of concrete in the 90-115 MPa range can be obtained at 28 curing days and the durability properties of RHA concrete performed better than that of control concrete. The water absorption of concrete incorporating 15% RHA exhibited the lowest value. The porosity of concrete is consistent with water absorption whereby higher replacement of RHA decreased the porosity of concrete. There is a positive correlation between reducing porosity and increasing compressive strength of high strength high performance concrete. The results also indicate that up to 20% of RHA incorporation could be advantageously blended with cement without adversely affecting the strength and durability properties of concrete.

Keywords: compressive strength, durability, high performance concrete, rice husk ash

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10763 High Performance Concrete Using “BAUT” (Metal Aggregates) the Gateway to New Concrete Technology for Mega Structures

Authors: Arjun, Gautam, Sanjeev Naval


Concrete technology has been changing rapidly and constantly since its discovery. Concrete is the most widely used man-made construction material, versatility of making concrete is the 2nd largest consumed material on earth. In this paper an effort has been made to use metal aggregates in concrete has been discussed, the metal aggregates has been named as “BAUT” which had outstandingly qualities to resist shear, tension and compression forces. In this paper, COARSE BAUT AGGREGATES (C.B.A.) 10mm & 20mm and FINE BAUT AGGREGATES (F.B.A.) 3mm were divided and used for making high performance concrete (H.P.C). This “BAUT” had cutting edge technology through draft and design by the use of Auto CAD, ANSYS software can be used effectively In this research paper we study high performance concrete (H.P.C) with “BAUT” and consider the grade of M65 and finally we achieved the result of 90-95 Mpa (high compressive strength) for mega structures and irregular structures where center of gravity (CG) is not balanced. High Performance BAUT Concrete is the extraordinary qualities like long-term performance, no sorptivity by BAUT AGGREGATES, better rheological, mechanical and durability proportion that conventional concrete. This high strength BAUT concrete using “BAUT” is applied in the construction of mega structure like skyscrapers, dam, marine/offshore structures, nuclear power plants, bridges, blats and impact resistance structures. High Performance BAUT Concrete which is a controlled concrete possesses invariable high strength, reasonable workability and negligibly permeability as compare to conventional concrete by the mix of Super Plasticizers (SMF), silica fume and fly ash.

Keywords: BAUT, High Strength Concrete, High Performance Concrete, Fine BAUT Aggregate, Coarse BAUT Aggregate, metal aggregates, cutting edge technology

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10762 Predictive Models for Compressive Strength of High Performance Fly Ash Cement Concrete for Pavements

Authors: S. M. Gupta, Vanita Aggarwal, Som Nath Sachdeva


The work reported through this paper is an experimental work conducted on High Performance Concrete (HPC) with super plasticizer with the aim to develop some models suitable for prediction of compressive strength of HPC mixes. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash (0% to 50% at 10% increment) on compressive strength of high performance concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied were M30, M40 and M50 to compare the effect of fly ash addition on the properties of these concrete mixes. In all eighteen concrete mixes have been designed, three as conventional concretes for three grades under discussion and fifteen as HPC with fly ash with varying percentages of fly ash. The concrete mix designing has been done in accordance with Indian standard recommended guidelines i.e. IS: 10262. All the concrete mixes have been studied in terms of compressive strength at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days and 365 days. All the materials used have been kept same throughout the study to get a perfect comparison of values of results. The models for compressive strength prediction have been developed using Linear Regression method (LR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Leave One Out Validation (LOOV) methods.

Keywords: high performance concrete, fly ash, concrete mixes, compressive strength, strength prediction models, linear regression, ANN

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10761 Experimental Study on Strength and Durability Properties of Bio-Self-Cured Fly Ash Based Concrete under Aggressive Environments

Authors: R. Malathy


High performance concrete is not only characterized by its high strength, workability, and durability but also by its smartness in performance without human care since the first day. If the concrete can cure on its own without external curing without compromising its strength and durability, then it is said to be high performance self-curing concrete. In this paper, an attempt is made on the performance study of internally cured concrete using biomaterials, namely Spinacea pleracea and Calatropis gigantea as self-curing agents, and it is compared with the performance of concrete with existing self-cure chemical, namely polyethylene glycol. The present paper focuses on workability, strength, and durability study on M20, M30, and M40 grade concretes replacing 30% of fly ash for cement. The optimum dosage of Spinacea pleracea, Calatropis gigantea, and polyethylene glycol was taken as 0.6%, 0.24%, and 0.3% by weight of cement from the earlier research studies. From the slump tests performed, it was found that there is a minimum variation between conventional concrete and self-cured concrete. The strength activity index is determined by keeping compressive strength of conventionally cured concrete for 28 days as unity and observed that, for self-cured concrete, it is more than 1 after 28 days and more than 1.15 after 56 days because of secondary reaction of fly ash. The performance study of concretes in aggressive environment like acid attack, sea water attack, and chloride attack was made, and the results are positive and encouraging in bio-self-cured concretes which are ecofriendly, cost effective, and high performance materials.

Keywords: bio materials, Calatropis gigantea, self curing concrete, Spinacea oleracea

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10760 Pervious Concrete for Road Intersection Drainage

Authors: Ivana Barišić, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, Ines Barjaktarić


Road performance and traffic safety are highly influenced by improper water drainage system performance, particularly within intersection areas. So, the aim of the presented paper is the evaluation of pervious concrete made with two types and two aggregate fractions for potential utilization in intersection drainage areas. Although the studied pervious concrete mixtures achieved proper drainage but lower strength characteristics, this pervious concrete has a good potential for enhancing pavement drainage systems if it is embedded on limited intersection areas.

Keywords: drainage, intersection, pervious concrete, road

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10759 Properties of Concrete with Wood Ashes in Construction Engineering

Authors: Piotr-Robert Lazik, Lena Teichmann, Harald Garrecht


Many concrete technologists are looking for a solution to replace fly ashes as a component that occurs as a major component of many types of concrete. The importance of such a component is clear -it saves cement and reduces the amount of CO₂ in the atmosphere that occurs during cement production. For example, the amount of cement in ultrahigh strength concrete (UHPC) is approximately 700-800 kg/m³ in normal concrete up to 350 kg/m³. For this reason, it is easy to follow that the use of components like fly ashes or wood ashes protect the environment. The newest investigations carried out at the University of Stuttgart have clearly shown that the use of wood ashes with appropriate pre-treatment in concrete has a positive effect. German-wide, there are hundreds of tons of wood ashes, which can be used in a wide range of construction materials. The strengths of the concrete with different types of cement and with wood ashes have given the same or, in some cases, better results than those with the use of fly ashes. There are many areas in building construction, where the clays of wood ashes can be used as a by-product. This does not only require a strength test but also, for example, an examination of structural-physical parameters. Especially the heat and moisture characteristics have an important role in times of energy-efficient construction. These are therefore determined and then compared with the characteristics of the concretes with fly ashes. The University of Stuttgart has decided to investigate the buildings' physical properties of different types of concrete with wood ashes to find their application in construction. After the examination of the buildings' physical properties in combination with strength tests, it is possible to determine in which field of civil engineering, this type of concrete can be used.

Keywords: fly ashes, wood ashes, structural-physical parameters, UHPC

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10758 Mechanical Properties of Fibre Reinforced High Performance Concrete

Authors: Laura Dembovska, Diana Bajare, Vitalijs Lusis, Genadijs Sahmenko, Aleksandrs Korjakins


This study focused on the mechanical properties of the fibre reinforced High Performance Concrete. The most important benefits of addition of fibres to the concrete mix are the hindrance of the development of microcracks, the delay of the propagation of microcracks to macroscopic cracks and the better ductility after microcracks have been occurred. This work presents an extensive comparative experimental study on six different types of fibres (alkali resistant glass, polyvinyl alcohol fibres, polypropylene fibres and carbon fibres) with the same binding High Performance Concrete matrix. The purpose was to assess the influence of the type of fibre on the mechanical properties of Fibre Reinforced High Performance Concrete. Therefore, in this study three main objectives have been chosen: 1) analyze the structure of the bulk cementitious matrix, 2) determine the influence of fibres and distribution in the matrix on the mechanical properties of fibre reinforced High Performance Concrete and 3) characterize the microstructure of the fibre-matrix interface. Acknowledgement: This study was partially funded by European Regional Development Fund project Nr. “A New Concept for Sustainable and Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings” and COST Action TU1404 Conference grants project.

Keywords: high performance concrete, fibres, mechanical properties, microstructure

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10757 Performance Improvement of SBR Polymer Concrete Used in Construction of Rigid Pavement Highway

Authors: Mohammed Abbas Al-Jumaili


There are some studies which have been conducted in resent years to investigate the possibility of producing high performance polymer concrete. However, despite the great important of this subject, very limited amount of literature is available about the strength and performance of this type of concrete in case using in rigid pavement highway. In this study, the possibility of producing high performance polymer concrete by using Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) emulsion with various (SBR) percents of 5,10 ,15, and 20 % by weight of cement has been investigated. The compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths and dynamic modulus of elasticity tests were conducted after age of 7 and 28 days for control without polymer and SBR concretes. A total of (30) cubes, (30) cylinders and (30) prisms were prepared using different types of concrete mixes. The AASHTO guide-1993 method was used to determine slab concrete thickness of rigid pavement highway in case of using various SBR polymer concrete mixture types. The research results indicate that the use of 10% SBR by weight of cement leads to produce high performance concrete especially with regard to mechanical properties and structural relative to corresponding control concrete.

Keywords: rigid pavement highway, styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) latex, compressive test, splitting tensile test, flexural test and dynamic modulus of elasticity test

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10756 Analysis of Sulphur-Oxidizing Bacteria Attack on Concrete Based on Waste Materials

Authors: A. Eštoková, M. Kovalčíková, A. Luptáková, A. Sičáková, M. Ondová


Concrete durability as an important engineering property of concrete, determining the service life of concrete structures very significantly, can be threatened and even lost due to the interactions of concrete with external environment. Bio-corrosion process caused by presence and activities of microorganisms producing sulphuric acid is a special type of sulphate deterioration of concrete materials. The effects of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on various concrete samples, based on silica fume and zeolite, were investigated in laboratory during 180 days. A laboratory study was conducted to compare the performance of concrete samples in terms of the concrete deterioration influenced by the leaching of calcium and silicon compounds from the cement matrix. The changes in the elemental concentrations of calcium and silicon in both solid samples and liquid leachates were measured by using X – ray fluorescence method. Experimental studies confirmed the silica fume based concrete samples were found out to have the best performance in terms of both silicon and calcium ions leaching.

Keywords: biocorrosion, concrete, leaching, bacteria

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10755 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti


This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: geo-polymer, concrete, bond strength, behaviour

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10754 Chloride Transport in Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Radka Pernicova


Chloride resistance in Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is determined in this paper. This work deals with the one dimension chloride transport, which can be potentially dangerous particularly for the durability of concrete structures. Risk of reinforcement corrosion due to exposure to the concrete surface to direct the action of chloride ions (mainly in the form de-icing salts or groundwater) is dangerously increases. The measured data are investigated depending on the depth of penetration of chloride ions into the concrete structure. Comparative measurements with normal strength concrete are done as well. The experimental results showed that UHCP have improved resistance of chlorides penetration than NSC and also chloride diffusion depth is significantly lower in UHCP.

Keywords: chloride, one dimensional diffusion, transport, salinity, UHPC

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10753 Mix Proportioning and Strength Prediction of High Performance Concrete Including Waste Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: D. G. Badagha, C. D. Modhera, S. A. Vasanwala


There is a great challenge for civil engineering field to contribute in environment prevention by finding out alternatives of cement and natural aggregates. There is a problem of global warming due to cement utilization in concrete, so it is necessary to give sustainable solution to produce concrete containing waste. It is very difficult to produce designated grade of concrete containing different ingredient and water cement ratio including waste to achieve desired fresh and harden properties of concrete as per requirement and specifications. To achieve the desired grade of concrete, a number of trials have to be taken, and then after evaluating the different parameters at long time performance, the concrete can be finalized to use for different purposes. This research work is carried out to solve the problem of time, cost and serviceability in the field of construction. In this research work, artificial neural network introduced to fix proportion of concrete ingredient with 50% waste replacement for M20, M25, M30, M35, M40, M45, M50, M55 and M60 grades of concrete. By using the neural network, mix design of high performance concrete was finalized, and the main basic mechanical properties were predicted at 3 days, 7 days and 28 days. The predicted strength was compared with the actual experimental mix design and concrete cube strength after 3 days, 7 days and 28 days. This experimentally and neural network based mix design can be used practically in field to give cost effective, time saving, feasible and sustainable high performance concrete for different types of structures.

Keywords: artificial neural network, high performance concrete, rebound hammer, strength prediction

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10752 Impact of the Quality of Aggregate on the Elasticity Modulus of Concrete

Authors: K. Krizova


This objective of this article is to present concrete that differs by the size of the aggregate used. The set of concrete contained six concrete recipes manufactured as traditional vibrated concrete containing identical basic components of concrete. The experiment focused on monitoring the resulting properties of hardened concrete, specifically the primary strength and modulus of the concrete elasticity and the developing parameters from 7 to 180 days were assessed.

Keywords: aggregate, cement, concrete, elasticity modulus

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10751 Study on High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) Beams on Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: A. Siva, K. Bala Subramanian, Kinson Prabu


Concrete is widely used construction materials all over the world. Now a day’s fibers are used in this construction due to its advantages like increase in stiffness, energy absorption, ductility and load carrying capacity. The fiber used in the concrete to increases the structural integrity of the member. It is one of the emerging techniques used in the construction industry. In this paper, the effective utilization of high-performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC) beams has been experimental investigated. The experimental investigation has been conducted on different steel fibers (Hooked, Crimpled, and Hybrid) under cyclic loading. The behaviour of HPFRC beams is compared with the conventional beams. Totally four numbers of specimens were cast with different content of fiber concrete and compared conventional concrete. The fibers are added to the concrete by base volume replacement of concrete. The silica fume and superplasticizers were used to modify the properties of concrete. Single point loading was carried out for all the specimens, and the beam specimens were subjected to cyclic loading. The load-deflection behaviour of fibers is compared with the conventional concrete. The ultimate load carrying capacity, energy absorption and ductility of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete is higher than the conventional concrete by 5% to 10%.

Keywords: cyclic loading, ductility, high performance fiber reinforced concrete, structural integrity

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10750 The Feasibility of Using Milled Glass Wastes in Concrete to Resist Freezing-Thawing Action

Authors: Raed Abendeh, Mousa Bani Baker, Zaydoun Abu Salem, Hesham Ahmad


The using of waste materials in the construction industry can reduce the dependence on the natural aggregates which are going at the end to deplete. The glass waste is generated in a huge amount which can make one of its disposal in concrete industry effective not only as a green solution but also as an advantage to enhance the performance of mechanical properties and durability of concrete. This article reports the performance of concrete specimens containing different percentages of milled glass waste as a partial replacement of cement (Powder), when they are subject to cycles of freezing and thawing. The tests were conducted on 75-mm cubes and 75 x 75 x 300-mm prisms. Compressive strength based on laboratory testing and non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity test were performed during the action of freezing-thawing cycles (F/T). The results revealed that the incorporation of glass waste in concrete mixtures is not only feasible but also showed generally better strength and durability performance than control concrete mixture. It may be said that the recycling of waste glass in concrete mixes is not only a disposal way, but also it can be an exploitation in concrete industry.

Keywords: durability, glass waste, freeze-thaw cycles, non-destructive test

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10749 Ultra High Performance Concrete Using Special Aggregates for Irregular Structures (the New Concrete Technology)

Authors: Arjun, A. D. Singh


Concrete the basic material using in construction across the global these days. The purpose of this special concrete is to provide extra strength and stability for irregular structure where the center of gravity is disturbed. In this paper an effort has been made to use different type of material aggregates has been discussed. We named As "STAR Aggregates" which has qualities to resist Shear, tension and compression forces. We have been divided into coarse aggregates and fine aggregates according to their sizes. Star Aggregates has interlocking behavior and cutting edge technology. Star aggregates had been draft and deign in Auto CAD and then analysis in ANSYS software. by using special aggregates we deign concrete grade of M40 for mega structures and irregular structure. This special concrete with STAR aggregates use in construction for irregular structure like Bridges, Skyscrapers or in deigned buildings.

Keywords: star aggregates, high performance concrete, material aggregates, interlocking

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10748 Effect of Concrete Waste Quality on the Compressive Strength of Recycled Concrete

Authors: Kebaili Bachir


The reuse of concrete waste as a secondary aggregate could be an efficient solution for sustainable development and long-term environmental protection. The variable nature of waste concrete, with various compressive strengths, can have a negative effect on the final compressive strength of recycled concrete. Accordingly, an experimental test programme was developed to evaluate the effect of parent concrete qualities on the performance of recycled concrete. Three grades with different compressive strengths 10MPa, 20MPa, and 30MPa were considered in the study; moreover, an unknown compressive strength was introduced as well. The trial mixes used 40% secondary aggregates (both course and fine) and 60% of natural aggregates. The compressive strength of the test concrete decrease between 15 and 25% compared to normal concrete with no secondary aggregates. This work proves that the strength properties of the parent concrete have a limited effect on the compressive strength of recycled concrete. Low compressive strength parent concrete when crushed generate a high percentage of recycled coarse aggregates with the less attached mortar and give the same compressive strength as an excellent parent concrete. However, the decrease in compressive strength can be mitigated by increasing the cement content 4% by weight of recycled aggregates used.

Keywords: compressive, concrete, quality, recycled, strength

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10747 Effects of the Usage of Marble Powder as Partial Replacement of Cement on the Durability of High Performance Concrete

Authors: Talah Aissa


This paper reports an experimental study of the influence of marble powder used as a partial substitute for Portland cement (PC) on the mechanical properties and durability of high-performance concretes. The analysis of the experimental results on concrete at 15% content of marble powder with a fineness modulus of 11500 cm2/g, in a chloride environment, showed that it contributes positively to the perfection of its mechanical characteristics, its durability with respect to migration of chloride ions and oxygen permeability. On the basis of the experiments performed, it can be concluded that the marble powder is suitable for formulation of high performance concretes (HPC) and their properties are significantly better compared to the reference concrete (RC).

Keywords: marble powder, durability, concrete, cement

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10746 Finite Element Analysis of the Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers

Authors: Nabin Raj Chaulagain


Most of the concrete bridges in Nepal constructed during 90's and before are made up of low strength ordinary concrete which might be one of the reasons for damage in higher magnitude earthquake. Those bridges were designed by the outdated bridge codes which might not account the large seismic loads. This research investigates the seismic vulnerability of the existing single column ordinary concrete bridge pier by finite element modeling, using the software Seismostruct. The existing bridge pier capacity has been assessed using nonlinear pushover analysis and performance is compared after retrofitting those pier models with CFRP. Furthermore, the seismic evaluation was made by conducting cyclic loading test at different drift percentage. The performance analysis of bridge pier by nonlinear pushover analysis is further validated by energy dissipation phenomenon measured from the hysteric loop for each model of ordinary concrete piers.

Keywords: finite element modeling, ordinary concrete bridge pier, performance analysis, retrofitting

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10745 Determining Earthquake Performances of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings by Using ANN

Authors: Musa H. Arslan, Murat Ceylan, Tayfun Koyuncu


In this study, an artificial intelligence-based (ANN based) analytical method has been developed for analyzing earthquake performances of the reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. 66 RC buildings with four to ten storeys were subjected to performance analysis according to the parameters which are the existing material, loading and geometrical characteristics of the buildings. The selected parameters have been thought to be effective on the performance of RC buildings. In the performance analyses stage of the study, level of performance possible to be shown by these buildings in case of an earthquake was determined on the basis of the 4-grade performance levels specified in Turkish Earthquake Code- 2007 (TEC-2007). After obtaining the 4-grade performance level, selected 23 parameters of each building have been matched with the performance level. In this stage, ANN-based fast evaluation algorithm mentioned above made an economic and rapid evaluation of four to ten storey RC buildings. According to the study, the prediction accuracy of ANN has been found about 74%.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, earthquake, performance, reinforced concrete

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10744 Process Modified Geopolymer Concrete: A Sustainable Material for Green Construction Technology

Authors: Dibyendu Adak, Saroj Mandal


The fly ash based geopolymer concrete generally requires heat activation after casting, which has been considered as an important limitation for its practical application. Such limitation can be overcome by a modification in the process at the time of mixing of ingredients (fly and activator fluid) for geopolymer concrete so that curing can be made at ambient temperature. This process modified geopolymer concrete shows an appreciable improvement in structural performance compared to conventional heat cured geopolymer concrete and control cement concrete. The improved durability performance based on water absorption, sulphate test, and RCPT is also noted. The microstructural properties analyzed through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques show the better interaction of fly ash and activator solution at early ages for the process modified geopolymer concrete. This accelerates the transformation of the amorphous phase of fly ash to the crystalline phase.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymer concrete, process modification, structural properties, durability, micro-structures

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10743 Assessment of the Performance of Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Concrete under Sulphate and Acid Attack

Authors: Talakokula Visalakshi


Concrete is the most commonly used construction material across the globe, its usage is second only to water. It is prepared using ordinary Portland cement whose production contributes to 5-8% of total carbon emission in the world. On the other hand the fly ash by product from the power plants is produced in huge quantities is termed as waste and disposed in landfills. In order to address the above issues mentioned, it is essential that other forms of binding material must be developed in place of cement to make concrete. The geo polymer concrete is one such alternative developed by Davidovits in 1980’s. Geopolymer do not form calcium-silicate hydrates for matrix formation and strength but undergo polycondensation of silica and alumina precursors to attain structural strength. Its setting mechanism depends upon polymerization rather than hydration. As a result it is able to achieve its strength in 3-5 days whereas concrete requires about a month to do the same. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of geopolymer concrete under sulphate and acid attack. The assessment is done based on the experiments conducted on geopolymer concrete. The expected outcomes include that if geopolymer concrete is more durable than normal concrete, then it could be a competitive replacement option of concrete and can lead to significant reduction of carbon foot print and have a positive impact on the environment. Fly ash based geopolymer concrete offers an opportunity to completely remove the cement content from concrete thereby making the concrete a greener and future construction material.

Keywords: fly ash, geo polymer, geopolymer concrete, construction material

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10742 Performance of Structural Concrete Containing Marble Dust as a Partial Replacement for River Sand

Authors: Ravande Kishore


The paper present the results of experimental investigation carried out to understand the mechanical properties of concrete containing marble dust. Two grades of concrete viz. M25 and M35 have been considered for investigation. For each grade of concrete five replacement percentages of sand viz. 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by marble dust have been considered. In all, 12 concrete mix cases including two control concrete mixtures have been studied to understand the key properties such as Compressive strength, Modulus of elasticity, Modulus of rupture and Split tensile strength. Development of Compressive strength is also investigated. In general, the results of investigation indicated improved performance of concrete mixture containing marble dust. About 21% increase in Compressive strength is noticed for concrete mixtures containing 20% marble dust and 80% river sand. An overall assessment of investigation results pointed towards high potential for marble dust as alternative construction material coming from waste generated in marble industry.

Keywords: construction material, partial replacement, marble dust, compressive strength

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10741 Influence of Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber on Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete

Authors: Isyaka Abdulkadir, Egbe Ngu-Ntui Ogork


This research aims to investigate the use of Scrap Tyre Steel Fibers (STSF) for the production of fiber reinforced high performance concrete. The Scrap Tyre Steel Fibers (STSF) were obtained from dealers that extracted the fibers by burning the scrap tyres and were characterized. The effect of STSF was investigated on grade 50 concrete of 1:1.28:1.92 with water cement ratio of 0.39 at additions of STSF of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% by volume of concrete. The fresh concrete was tested for slump while the hardened concrete was tested for compressive and splitting tensile strengths, respectively at curing ages of 3, 7, 28 and 56 days in accordance with standard procedure. The results indicate that slump decreased with increase in STSF, while compressive and splitting tensile strengths increased with increase in STSF up to 1.5% and reduction in strength with increase in STSF above 1.5%. 1.5% STSF was considered as the optimum dosage with a 28 days increase in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of 12.3% and 43.8% respectively, of control.

Keywords: compressive strength, high performance concrete, scrap tyre steel fiber, splitting tensile strength

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10740 Development of High Strength Self Curing Concrete Using Super Absorbing Polymer

Authors: K. Bala Subramanian, A. Siva, S. Swaminathan, Arul. M. G. Ajin


Concrete is an essential building material which is widely used in construction industry all over the world due to its compressible strength. Curing of concrete plays a vital role in durability and other performance necessities. Improper curing can affect the concrete performance and durability easily. When areas like scarcity of water, structures is not accessible by humans external curing cannot be performed, so we opt for internal curing. Internal curing (or) self-curing plays a major role in developing the concrete pore structure and microstructure. The concept of internal curing is to enhance the hydration process to maintain the temperature uniformly. The evaporation of water in the concrete is reduced by self-curing agent (Super Absorbing Polymer – SAP) thereby increasing the water retention capacity of the concrete. The research work was carried out to reduce water, which is prime material used for concrete in the construction industry. Concrete curing plays a major role in developing hydration process. Concept of self-curing will reduce the evaporation of water from concrete. Self-curing will increase water retention capacity as compared to the conventional concrete. Proper self-curing (or) internal curing increases the strength, durability and performance of concrete. Super absorbing Polymer (SAP) used as internal curing agent. In this study 0.2% to 0.4% of SAP was varied in different grade of high strength concrete. In the experiment replacement of cement by silica fumes with 5%, 10% and 15% are studied. It is found that replacement of silica fumes by 10 % gives more strength and durability when compared to others

Keywords: compressive strength, high strength concrete rapid chloride permeability, super absorbing polymer

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10739 Comparison between Ultra-High-Performance Concrete and Ultra-High-Performance-Glass Concrete

Authors: N. A. Soliman, A. F. Omran, A. Tagnit-Hamou


The finely ground waste glass has successfully used by the authors to develop and patent an ecological ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC), which was named as ultra-high-performance-glass concrete (UHPGC). After the successful development in laboratory, the current research presents a comparison between traditional UHPC and UHPGC produced using large-scale pilot plant mixer, in terms of rheology, mechanical, and durability properties. The rheology of the UHPGCs was improved due to the non-absorptive nature of the glass particles. The mechanical performance of UHPGC was comparable and very close to the traditional UHPC due to the pozzolan reactivity of the amorphous waste glass. The UHPGC has also shown excellent durability: negligible permeability (chloride-ion ≈ 20 Coulombs from the RCPT test), high abrasion resistance (volume loss index less than 1.3), and almost no freeze-thaw deterioration even after 1000 freeze-thaw cycles. The enhancement in the strength and rigidity of the UHPGC mixture can be referred to the inclusions of the glass particles that have very high strength and elastic modulus.

Keywords: ground glass pozzolan, large-scale production, sustainability, ultra-high performance glass concrete

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10738 Thermodynamic Performance Tests for 3D Printed Steel Slag Powder Concrete Walls

Authors: Li Guoyou, Zhang Tao, Ji Wenzhan, Huo Liang, Lin Xiqiang, Zhang Nan


The three dimensional (3D) printing technology has undergone rapid development in the last few years and it is possible to print engineering structures. 3D printing buildings use wastes from constructions, industries and mine tailings as “ink”, and mix it with property improved materials, such as cement, fiber etc. This paper presents a study of the Thermodynamic performance of 3D printed walls using cement and steel slag powder. Analyses the thermal simulation regarding 3D printed walls and solid brick wall by the way of the hot-box methods and the infrared technology, and the results were contrasted with theoretical calculation. The results show that the excellent thermodynamic performance of 3D printed concrete wall made it suitable as the partial materials for self-thermal insulation walls in residential buildings. The thermodynamic performance of 3D printed concrete walls depended on the density of materials, distribution of holes, and the filling materials. Decreasing the density of materials, increasing the number of holes or replacing the filling materials with foamed concrete could improve its thermodynamic performance significantly. The average of heat transfer coefficient and thermal inertia index of 3D printed steel slag powder concrete wall all better than the traditional solid brick wall with a thickness of 240mm.

Keywords: concrete, 3D printed walls, thermodynamic performance, steel slag powder

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10737 The Mechanical Strength and Durability of High Performance Concrete Using Local Materials

Authors: I. Guemidi, Y. Abdelaziz, T. Rikioui


In this work, an experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the mechanical and durability properties of high performance concretes (HPC) containing local southwest Algerian materials. The mechanical properties were assessed from the compressive strength and the flexural strength, whilst the durability characteristics were investigated in terms of sulphate attack. The results obtained allow us to conclude that it is possible to make a high performance concrete (HPC) based on existing materials in the local market, if these are carefully selected and properly mixed in such away to optimize grain size distribution.

Keywords: durability, high performance concrete, high strength, local materials, Southwest Algerian, sulphate attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 234