Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1569

Search results for: Mohammad Tariqul Islam

1569 Depiction of a Circulated Double Psi-Shaped Microstrip Antenna for Ku-Band Satellite Applications

Authors: M. Naimur Rahman, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Mandeep Singh Jit Singh, Norbahiah Misran

Abstract:

This paper presents the architecture and exploration of a compact, circulated double Psi-shaped microstrip patch antenna for Ku-band satellite applications. The antenna is composed of the double Psi-shaped patch in opposite focus which is circulated with a ring. The antenna size is 24 mm × 18 mm and the prototype is imprinted on Rogers RT/duroid 5880 materials with the depth of 1.57 mm. The substrate has a relative permittivity of 2.2 and the dielectric constant of 0.0009. The excitation is supplied through a 50Ω microstrip line. The performance of the presented antenna has been simulated and verified with the High-Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS). The results depict that the antenna covers the frequency spectrum 14.6 - 17.4 GHz (Ku-band) with 10 dB return loss. The antenna has a 4.40 dBi maximum gain with stable radiation patterns throughout the operating band which makes the proposed antenna compatible for the satellite application in Ku-band.

Keywords: Ku-band antenna, microstrip antenna, psi-shaped antenna, satellite applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1568 A Parasitic Resonator-Based Diamond Shape Microstrip Antenna for Ultra-Wide-Band Applications

Authors: M. Zulfiker Mahmud, M. Naimur Rahman, Farhad Bin Ashraf, Norbahiah Misran, Mohammad Tariqul Islam

Abstract:

This study proposes a diamond-shaped microstrip patch antenna for ultra-wideband applications. The antenna is made up of a diamond shape radiating patch, partial ground plane, and three asterisk-shaped parasitic elements. The parasitic elements are positioned above the ground plane to enhance the bandwidth and gain. The proposed antenna has a compact dimension of 30 x 25 x 1.6 mm3 and achieves an overall bandwidth (S11<-10dB) is 5.8 GHz from 2.7 GHz to 8.5 GHz. The antenna attains more than 4 dBi realized the gain and 80% efficiency over the bandwidth with omnidirectional radiation pattern. The design and simulation of the proposed antenna are performed in Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio. The observation during the analysis of the simulated data reveals that the proposed antenna is suitable for Ultra wide-band (UWB) applications where high gain is required.

Keywords: diamond-shaped antenna, microstrip antenna, parasitic resonator, UWB applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
1567 Islam and Democracy

Authors: Nasrollah Sekhavaty

Abstract:

This topic has many points, one of which could be "the relationship between Islam and democracy". In this paper we discuss the relationship between them. The logic has taught us that there is only one relationship between an object and itself. But if we have two things, there is one of the four relations between them; contradiction, equivalence, absolute generality & peculiarity or generality & peculiarity in some respect. To clarify the relationship between Islam and democracy, at first we must examine the meaning of Islam and Democracy. Islam is a religion which has ideas about politics and governance. The politics in Islam includes both individual and social affairs, to achieve worldly and heavenly blessings. With this assumption, Islam and democracy are not the same, or contrast, nor the absolute generality & peculiarity; but, the relationship between these two concepts is the generality & peculiarity in some respect. Conclusion: If one considers democracy as content, it does not accumulate with Islam which is content. But if democracy means a structure and style of governing, then its content could be Islam.

Keywords: Islam, democracy, contradiction, equivalence, absolute generality, generality & peculiarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
1566 Women Education in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism

Authors: Nuzhat Fatima

Abstract:

This is very misleading conception that Islam is the religion of terrorists or terrorism. It is also another misconception that women are not given due important in Islamic. And women are forced to use veil. But if we closely look at the other two religions they also have the same commandments about the veil. Then comes education, women are given the equal right of education in Islam. But there are certain people creating the bad image of Islam and not giving permission to their females to get education. This paper will present the brief description of education and status of women in all three religions.

Keywords: Islam, women, education, christianity, Judaism

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
1565 Women Right in Islam and Misconceptions: A Critical Study

Authors: Abubakar Ibrahim Usman, Mustapha Halilu

Abstract:

The provisions of rights to women in Islam have generated and are creating a tense and serious debate among Muslims and non-Muslims alike. The Muslims are arguing that Islam provides right to Womenfolk, but their actions, cultural/traditional practices, and treatment reveal otherwise, Non-Muslims, on the other hand, held a different view, saying that Islam has never made such provision. One may not blame their misconception, due to the wide spectrum of treatment given to women in many Muslim societies, which generated, fueled and geared the misconceptions and ceaseless barrage of sensational articles, movies and negative portrayal of Islam today. It has to put in our minds, many actions and Crimes of some Muslims (Who are mostly minority) did not represent the teachings and precepts of Islam, just like one cannot put blame on the parents of a child whose actions fall short of his home background.

Keywords: Islam, women rights, cultural practices, religion

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
1564 Expansion and Consolidation of Islam in Iran to the End of Qajar Period

Authors: Ashaq Hussain

Abstract:

Under Islam, for the first time since the Achaemenids, all Iranians including those of Central Asia and on the frontiers of India became united under one rule. Islam was rescued from a narrow Bedouin outlook and Bedouin mores primarily by the Iranians, who showed that Islam, both as a religion and, primarily, as a culture, need not be bound solely to the Arabic language and Arab norms of behavior. Instead Islam was to become a universal religion and culture open to all people. This was a fundamental contribution of the Iranians to Islam, although all Iranians had become Muslims by the time of the creation of Saljuq Empire. So, Iran in a sense provided the history, albeit an epic, of pre-Islamic times for Islam. After all, the Arabs conquered the entire Sasanian Empire, where they found full-scale, imperial models for the management of the new Caliphate, whereas only provinces of the Byzantine Empire were overrun by the Arabs. The present paper is an attempt to give reader a detailed introduction, emergence, expansion and spread of Islam in Iran to the end of Qajar period. It is in this context the present paper has been analyzed.

Keywords: Islam, Achaemenids, Bedouin, Central Asia, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
1563 Education and Development: An Overview of Islam

Authors: Rasheed Sanusi Adeleke

Abstract:

Several attempts have been made by scholars, both medieval and contemporary on the impact of Islam on scientific discovery. Lesser attention, however, is always accorded to the historical antecedents of the earlier Muslim scholars, who made frantic efforts towards the discoveries. Islam as a divine religion places high premium on the acquisition of knowledge especially that of sciences. It considers knowledge as a comprehensive whole, which covers both spiritual and material aspects of human life. Islam torches every aspect of human life for the growth, development and advancement of society. Acquisition of knowledge of humanity, social sciences as well as the pure and applied sciences is comprehensively expressed in Islamic education. Not only this, the history portrays the leading indelible roles played by the early Muslims on these various fields of knowledge. That is why Islam has declared acquisition of knowledge compulsory for all Muslims. This paper therefore analyses the contributions of Islam to civilization with particular reference to sciences. It also affirms that Islam is beyond the religion of prayers and rituals. The work is historic, analytic and explorative in nature. Recommendations are also also put forward as suggestions for the present generation cum posterity in general and Muslims in particular.

Keywords: education, development, Islam, development and Islam

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
1562 21st Century Islam: Global Challenges of Islamic Representation and Knowledge Acquisition

Authors: M. M. Muhammed, O. Khuzaima

Abstract:

This research examined and outlined some of the challenges facing Islam and Muslims in the 21st century, considering global Islamic representation and knowledge acquisition as key objectives. It was observed that the Western media misrepresentation of Islam and the Western ethos embodied by the acquisition of western civilisation are major challenges faced by Islam and Muslims today. The problem of sectarianism, decline in the socio-economic power of Muslim communities and the archaic nature of the Islamic creed were recorded as major actors to the evolving global Islamic issues. It was therefore concluded that Islam is not the reason for these challenges, rather the action of some Muslims and non-Muslims were the contributing factors to the pandemics faced by Islam and Muslims. Some relevant recommendations were made to the Islamic world that could serve as effectual solutions to these lingering problems.

Keywords: Islam, challenges, representation, knowledge, century, global, twenty-first

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
1561 Arabic Scholar’s Governance Advocacy and Nigeria’s National Security in Nigeria: Perspective of Al-Shaykh Usman Bin Fodio

Authors: Mohammad Jamiu Abdullahi, Shykh Ahmed Abdussalam

Abstract:

The emergence of Arabic on the shore of West Africa heralded the practise of Islam and advocation for a just and egalitarian society. Islam, it was argued, has been perverted and subverted by the Hausa leadership. This necessitated the call for reforming Islam. Al-Shaykh Usman Bin Fodio grabbed the opportunity and fought the perverts to restore the glory of Islam and establish shari'ah way of life. This was the practice, especially in the northern part of Nigeria until the incursion of colonialism. The conquest of the colonial master halted the rule of jihadi leaderships and subjected them to colonialism under which only some aspects of Islamic system considered potentially beneficial to the British interest were retained. The current socio-political and economic crises in Nigeria has necessitated the need to look inwardly to the bulk of works, in Arabic, left behind by the Muslim scholars to help to salvage the country from its present political crisis, economic paralysis and legal decadence. This paper, therefore, examines the relevance of Arabic literary works that housed political/legal theories to salvaging the country from its present political crises, economic paralysis and legal decadence.

Keywords: Arabic Fodio Nigeria security, advocacy governance scholar Usman, British colonial perspective shaykh, leadership Islam jihad politics

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1560 Islam-Oriented Movements' Recruiting Strategies in Morocco

Authors: Driss Bouyahya

Abstract:

During the late 1960s, Islam-oriented social movements have encroached to reach the Moroccan public spheres and mobilize huge waves of people from different walks of life under the banners of a rhetoric that resonates with the Muslim way of life away from Modernity and globalization tenets. In this respect, the present study investigates and explores some of the ways utilized by the Movement for Unity and Reform in Morocco as an Islam-oriented movement to recruit students massively at universities. The significance of this study lies in demystifying the recruitment strategies and mechanisms, considered essential for the Islam-oriented social movements to mobilize. This research paper uses a quantitative method to collect and analyze data through two different structured questionnaires. One of the major findings is that this Islam-oriented movement uses different techniques to recruit students, namely social networks, its websites and You-tube as three main modern and sophisticated means of communication. In a nutshell, this paper´s findings fill some of the gaps in the literature in regard to Islam-oriented movements ‘mobilization strategies.

Keywords: changing, ideology, Islam, party

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
1559 Islamic Architecture and the Challenges against It

Authors: Mohammad Torabiyan, Kazem Mosawi Nejad

Abstract:

Today architecture has become as a powerful media for introducing cultures to the world, which in turn brings about a change in the global insight, power gaining, investment and development. Islamic architecture is based on the language of Koran and shows the depth and richness of Islam through spiritual soul. This is in a way that belief in monotheism and faith in Islamic teachings are manifested as Islam's aesthetic thought in Islamic architecture. Unfortunately, Islamic architecture has been damaged a lot due to lack of necessary information and also successive wars which have overtaken the Muslims as well as the dominance of colonizing counties. Islamic architecture is rooted in the history, culture and civilization of Muslims but its deficiencies and shortcomings should be removed through systematizing the Islamic architecture researchers. Islamic countries should act in a way that the art of Islamic architecture shows its true place in different architecture eras and makes everybody aware that Islamic architecture has a historical root and is connected eternally to the genuineness, religious art and culture of Muslims and civilization.

Keywords: art, culture, civilization, Islamic architecture, Muslims

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
1558 The Role of Islam in the Political Thought of Muhammad Abduh

Authors: Mehdi Beyad

Abstract:

Muhammad Abduh stands as a founding thinker of Islamic revivalism and modernism, the political phenomenon which began with him and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani in the 19th century which sought to address the perceived regression of Islamic societies in the face of western colonialism and the onslaught of modernity. The scholarship on Abduh and al-Afghani, and Islamic modernism in general, is vast. This paper, however, provides a critical approach to some of this scholarship and attempts to re-think the epistemic framework of Abduh's political thought and the place of Islam therein. Much of the current work on Abduh falls into the trap of seeing his task as one of "compromising" Islam for the values of European modernity. This paper argues that for Abduh, Islam was not just a compartmentalised theological framework: it was at the nexus of societal emancipation, intellectual and cultural rejuvenation, and political progress. Far from “modernising” and diluting Islam to the extent that it became irrelevant in the face of rationality as defined by European modernity, Islam remained central to Abduh’s political framework.

Keywords: Islamic political thought, Islamic revivalism, modernism, Muhammad Abduh, epistemology

Procedia PDF Downloads 712
1557 The Divergent Discourse of Political Islam: A Comparative Study of Indonesia and Pakistan

Authors: Sohaib Khaliq

Abstract:

This paper pursues a systematic analysis of the broad range of theories and studies relevant to Islam and democracy, in general and as they have been developed from and applied to the Indonesian and Pakistani cases. The analysis finds that an Islamic society’s potential to assimilate democratic political institutions is contingent on either an unconstrained 'political participation' or its ability to 'reinterpret' religious text. Drawing on a comparison of Indonesia and Pakistan, the present study favors a route that passes through the religious gates of theoretical reinterpretation. In doing so, the study brings Muslim reformation theory into focus by clarifying the mechanism by which reformation takes place.

Keywords: Islam, democratization, political Islam, reformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
1556 Legal Comparative on Islam and Human Rights in Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Ilham Agus Salim

Abstract:

This study aims to reconstruct the discourse of human rights which focused on the issue of freedom of religion/belief (FORB) in Indonesia. This topic always has an appeal considering the development of Islam, both as a phenomenon of religion as well as social and political phenomenon, always in touch with human rights issues. For the majority, Islam is involved in human rights discourse needs to be viewed as a natural thing as it also occurs in the majority group in other countries. The natural state is increasingly gaining affirmation when also considering the doctrine of Islam which is also related to human rights. So the involvement of Islamic parties to human rights talks in Indonesia is not as excessive when considering the sociological position and character of Islamic doctrine. But because of who made the object of conversation, namely human rights and particularly freedom of religion or belief again, not something that is taken for granted, then the diversity within Islam itself impossible can be avoided. In this study the diversity of views presented in the trial which categorically can be grouped into two views, namely: inclusive and exclusive.

Keywords: Islam doctrine, Islamic parties, human rights, freedom of religion

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1555 Islam and Globalization: Accommodation or Containment of One by the Other

Authors: Mohammed Isah Shehu

Abstract:

This paper examined the context of globalization and Islam and accommodation or containment of one by the other. The paper is born out of the misconception and misunderstanding among many people that globalization is purely Western, anti-Islam and that Islam, globalization and Islam are diametrically opposed as such have no places for accommodating each other. The study used secondary sources to gather data. The study found that from its origin, Islam is in the whole context, a globalized religion and the contemporary globalization is already contained by Islam; that while contemporary globalization is centered on Western world, values and preferences (Western civilization, information and communication technology, free markets, trade and investments); some of the major foundation works that are aiding globalization were originally handiworks of past great Muslims (Islamic civilizations, Order of Algebra, tools of Navigation, Calligraphy, Medicine, Astronomy et cetera) whose major values are not Islamic; with globalization the Muslims have greater opportunities of spreading of Islam and practicing it in a most conducive atmosphere, easy and fast linkage with their fellow Muslim brothers wherever they may be; easier and freer world of trade and have the best opportunities to most things. The study however observed that Western contemporary globalization poses threats to religions such as those of globalization of immorality, injustice, trade with anti-Islamic terms and conditions, internationalized crime et cetera. Muslims would have to avoid or be cautious of many things for Islam is a complete religion that has what is forbidden and allowed (halaal and haramm) based on principles of (Shariah, justice to all, humanity and compassion, obedience to and seeking Allah’s pleasure); to Muslims, Contemporary globalization has to be in conformity with original provisions of Islam. The study recommended that Muslims must rise up in seeking knowledge on Islam and all other fields, further intellectual explorations of works by Muslim scholars/thinkers so that any advancement in globalization would be properly domesticated within Islam for the Muslims to make optimum use of any advancement to the benefit of Islam.

Keywords: accommodation, containment, Islam, globalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1554 Political Islam: From Coinage to Hot Debate

Authors: Sajid Iqbal Sheikh

Abstract:

From almost last 100 years 'political islam' has diversity in its usage as terminology in the speculative works of both muslim and non-muslims theorists. 'Political islam' as a term was coined consciously as equal to the 'militant islam' and “Terrorist Islam” vs “Plain Islam” and “Modern Islam” etc. Many paradigm shifts tamed the term into one of the hottest debate of the day. This research paper aims to categorize historical linkage of its coinage, development phases and present status. Based on content analysis, Narrative approach has been utilized for the sake of dexterous conclusion. The paper treasures out that Western dominance on civilizational and political spheres of the holistic world considers 'political islam' a gigantic threat and plans to resist it in theoretic and practical fields simultaneously. Despite minor strategic variances, the ideological followers of Syed Qutab, Mulana Mudoodi and Hasan Al-Bana, are struggling hard for the achievement of their ultimate goal of Political change, specifically in the Muslim World in the prior phase. The paper concludes that Resistance to Islamic resurgence and its Political goals is being observed in most of the Muslim world, especially in the Turkey, Algeria, Egypt, Tsunia and Yeman etc, which is a basic cause of contrary reaction in the Muslim World.

Keywords: electoral process, islamic resurgence, islamic political theory, muslim response, resistance, western hegemony

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
1553 Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Christopher Spiewak, M. R. Islam, Mohammad Arifur Rahaman, Mohammad H. Rahman, Roger Smith, Maarouf Saad

Abstract:

For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.

Keywords: biorobotics, rehabilitation, robotic assistive device, exoskeleton, nonlinear control

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
1552 Western Culture Differences and the Contradictions in the Islamic World

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen, Farzad Ravanbod

Abstract:

Regarding the issues that are currently happening in the world, more than any other time the differences between West and Islam is under discussion. The cultural relations between Islam and the West took a drastically new turn when Europe arose as the dominant and unchallenged force of the modern era. The author, by using descriptive- analytical method, tries to analyse one of the most controversial questions facing analysts of relations between the Islamic world and the West: What are the roots of the conflict? This paper addresses the history of the intellectual tradition of the West and the attitude of Muslim world regarding the rise of western modernity. Also, the differences between two groups on philosophical foundations such as religion, power, science and humanism will be explained. The author believes that the real difference between the West and Islam is epistemological.

Keywords: civilization, culture, Islam, West

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
1551 Muslims in Diaspora Negotiating Islam through Muslim Public Sphere and the Role of Media

Authors: Sabah Khan

Abstract:

The idea of universal Islam tends to exaggerate the extent of homogeneity in Islamic beliefs and practices across Muslim communities. In the age of migration, various Muslim communities are in diaspora. The immediate implication of this is what happens to Islam in diaspora? How Islam gets represented in new forms? Such pertinent questions need to be dealt with. This paper shall draw on the idea of religious transnationalism, primarily transnational Islam. There are multiple ways to conceptualize transnational phenomenon with reference to Islam in terms of flow of people, transnational organizations and networks; Ummah oriented solidarity and the new Muslim public sphere. This paper specifically deals with the new Muslim public sphere. It primarily refers to the space and networks enabled by new media and communication technologies, whereby Muslim identity and Islamic normativity are rehearsed, debated by people in different locales. A new sense of public is emerging across Muslim communities, which needs to be contextualized. This paper uses both primary and secondary data. Primary data elicited through content analysis of audio-visuals on social media and secondary sources of information ranging from books, articles, journals, etc. The basic aim of the paper is to focus on the emerging Muslim public sphere and the role of media in expanding public spheres of Islam. It also explores how Muslims in diaspora negotiate Islam and Islamic practices through media and the new Muslim public sphere. This paper cogently weaves in discussions firstly, of re-intellectualization of Islamic discourse in the public sphere. In other words, how Muslims have come to reimagine their collective identity and critically look at fundamental principles and authoritative tradition. Secondly, the emerging alternative forms of Islam by young Muslims in diaspora. In other words, how young Muslims search for unorthodox ways and media for religious articulation, including music, clothing and TV. This includes transmission and distribution of Islam in diaspora in terms of emerging ‘media Islam’ or ‘soundbite Islam’. The new Muslim public sphere has offered an arena to a large number of participants to critically engage with Islam, which leads not only to a critical engagement with traditional forms of Islamic authority but also emerging alternative forms of Islam and Islamic practices.

Keywords: Islam, media, Muslims, public sphere

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1550 The Investigation on the Relationship between Religion and Development: By Focusing on Islam

Authors: Dalal Benboutrif

Abstract:

Religion and Development relation is one of the most arguable phrases amongst politicians, philosophers, clerics, scientists, sociologists and even the public. The main objective of this research is to clarify the relations, contrasts and interactions between religion and the major types of development including social, political, economic and scientific developments, by focusing on Islam religion. A review of the literature was performed concerning religion and development relations and conflicts, by focusing on Islam religion and then the unprocessed tips of the review were characterized. Regarding clarification of the key points of the literature, three main sectors were considered in the research. The first sector of the research mainly focused on the philosophical views on religion, which were analyzed by main evaluation of three famous philosophers’ ideas: ‘Kant’, ‘Hegel’ and ‘Weber’, and then a critical discussion on Weber’s idea about Islam and development was applied. The second sector was specified to ‘Religion and Development’ and mainly discussed the role of religion in development through poverty reduction, the interconnection of religion, spirituality and social development, religious education effects on social development, and the relation of religion with political development. The third sector was specified to ‘Islam and Development’ and mainly discussed the Islamic golden age of science, major reasons of today’s backwardness (non-development) of most Islamic countries, and Quranic instructions regarding adaptability of Islam with development. The findings of the current research approved the research hypothesis as: ‘Religious instructions (included Islam) are not in conflict with development’, rather, it could have positive effects mainly on social development and it can pave the way for society to develop. Turkey was considered as a study model, as a successful developed Islamic country demonstrating the non-conflicting relation of Islam and development.

Keywords: development, Islam, philosophy, religion

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1549 The Feasibility of Economic Science in Islam With an Emphasis on Sadr's Vantage Point

Authors: Yahya Jahangiri, Ali Almasi

Abstract:

Currently capitalism is one of the most important economic issues discussed by great scholars around the world. But Islamic approach, regarding this issue may differ both western and eastern views. A greatest scholar in Islamic economy ‘especially in Shia’ is Martyr Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr. He wrote “Our economy” (Iqtisaduna) to present an economic point of view according to the Islamic teachings. In this regard firstly we will mention three approaches which are common in Muslim scullers about the economic science and then the main approach which is Sadr's view is described here. His claim explains that Islam and capitalism are in conflict with each other. And finally he explains the relationship between Islam and economy and he suggests the Islamic point of view in economy and its foundations as a solution for economic problems which we face today.

Keywords: Islam, economic science, capitalism, Martyr Sadr

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1548 Philosophy, Geometry, and Purpose in Islamic and Gothic Architecture as Two Religious-Based Styles

Authors: P. Nafisi Poor, P. Javid

Abstract:

Religion and divinity have always held important meaning to humans, and therefore it affects different aspects of life including art and architecture. Numerous works of art are related to religion whether supporting or denying it. Religion and religious scholars have influenced and changed art throughout history. This paper focuses on Islam and Christianity because these two religions have been the most discussed and most popular of all time, starting from the birth of Jesus to the arrival of Mohammad. Based on this popularity, these religions have influenced the arts and especially architecture. Islam on one hand changed Iranian and Arabian architecture and they applied it in different places around the world. From the appearance of Islam at 622 AD to this day, Islamic architecture has been evolving; however, one of the most important periods for this style was between 1501 AD and 1736 AD in Iran. Christianity, on the other hand, changed European architecture especially between 1150 AD and 1450 AD or the so-called "Gothic" era, which begins at medieval time and reaches its peak at International Gothic ages. At both of these periods, designing buildings based on spiritual concepts and divine statements reached its peak, and architects were considering God and religion as their center of attention. This article studies the focus on the religions of Islam and Christianity in terms of architecture and presents a general philosophy of both styles to comprehend the idea behind each one, followed by an analysis of their geometry and architectural aspects derived from the best examples, all to understand the purpose of each style and to realize, which one was more successful in reaching their purpose. Subsequently, a comprehensive review of each building is provided including 3D visualizations to help achieve the goal of the article. These studies can support diverse inquiries about both Islamic and Gothic architecture and can be used as a resource to support studies and research towards designing based on religion or for divine purposes.

Keywords: architecture, Gothic, Islamic, religion

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1547 The Economic System (Islam) and Riba's Prohibition on Historical Perspective

Authors: Risanda Alirastra Budiantoro, Riesanda Najmi Sasmita, Sri Herianingrum

Abstract:

Allah has given the guidance in the form of Islam for Muslim to take and lead all the aspects of life including the economic activity. The Islamic economic system is believed to be the answer to the economic problems that exist at this time. The goal is to achieve falah in kaffah by not doing some economic activities that are in violation as prescribed by Islam. An example for this is riba. Discourse on riba can be said ‘classical’ both in the development of Islamic thought and in Islamic civilization because riba often occurs in all aspects of public life, especially economic transactions (in Islam called muamalah). Riba is an additional retrieval, either in a sale and purchase transaction or lending in a false or contrary to the principle of muamalah in Islam. Prohibition of riba is obtained from various sources by the Qur'an and Hadith Rasulullah SAW, so the scholars firmly and clearly defined the prohibition of riba because there are exploitative elements that can harm the others. So, this study is aimed to identify Islamic economic system and the prohibition of riba in historical perspective. From the results of this study, it is expected to be a good reference for the reader to understand the Islamic economic system and riba in the future.

Keywords: economics system, riba, historical perspective, economy

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1546 Nature, Elixir of Architecture: A Contemplation on Human, Nature and Architecture in Islam

Authors: A. Kabiri-Samani, M. J. Seddighi

Abstract:

There is no doubt that a key factor in the manifestation of architecture is the interaction of human and nature. Explaining the type of relationship defined by “the architect” between architecture and nature opens a window towards understanding the theoretical conceptions of the architect as the creator of “architecture”. Now, if these theoretical foundations are put under scrutiny from the viewpoint of Islam, and an architect considers the relationship of human and nature within the context of Islam, he would let nature to manifest itself in architecture. The reasons for such a relationship is explicable in terms of the degree and nature of knowledge of the architect about nature; while the way it comes to existence is explained by defining the force of nature – ruling the entire nature – and its acts. It is by the scientific command of the architect and his mastery in the hermetic force of nature that the material bodies of buildings evolve from artificial to natural. Additionally, the presence of nature creates hermetic architectural spaces for the spiritual development of humans while serving for living at different levels.

Keywords: nature, Islam, cognition, science, presence, elixir

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1545 Critical Vision Innovation and Creativity in the Architecture and Urbanism of the Land in Islam between Traditionalism and Positivism

Authors: Wafeek Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed

Abstract:

In the era of globalization and openness informational. Anyone who thinks about innovation in the earth population in Islam in our contemporary reality, he will find that it is not destined to its civilized extension to last. The purpose of the research is a trial to reach a realistic vision for creative, innovative and intellectual thought for the earth population in Islam as an instrument to Confrontation and observe the changes that have affected in the architecture of the land during different eras. Through knowing the controls of the ruling legitimacy(that served as definitions and laws which formulate its features) and using customs, traditions, and conventions as a telescope for the earth population in Islam, It explained the impact of them on features of creative formation for the architecture of the land in our contemporary reality. The study shows a modern vision to identify innovation in the earth population in Islam. As well as reformulating its mental image and monitoring its changes in Islamic heritage cities. This will be done through a two main branches: firstly, set forth a theory represented in studying creative concepts which formulate the population of the earth in Islam. Such as initiative and responsibility for reviving the dead land, the lane [alley] as formation unit and social solidarity,… Etc.. The second branch is preparing a practical, critical vision for innovative conceptual thought for the architecture of the land of Islam, through studying the development of a traditional Islamic city., The conceptual thought of making the birth festival ["Al-Refaee"] and its emulation for governing roles in the traditional city building. The research concludes The necessity of forming the suggested a creative vision for identifying how to re-form the conceptual for our contemporary population of the earth. It poses an important question which is how to return to creativity in the architecture of the land of Islam in our built environments.

Keywords: innovation and creation, architecture, the land in Islam, criticism of design

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1544 Business Ethics in Islamic and Economic Perspective

Authors: Mohammad Iqbal Malik

Abstract:

Economic development of a country depends on its business ethics and values. Islamic teachings provide obvious guidelines in this regard. Mutual understanding, honesty and ethics possess central place in Islamic teachings. These teachings not only prohibit from amalgamation, black-marketing, hoarding and deception but also force to treat a customer amiably. Business ethics are broad spectrum in Islamic society due to these high moral values. One can estimate the importance of business ethics in Islam for economic development in Islamic society is evident by the Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in which He excluded a trader from Muslim community who did not behave in good manners with his clients. In this study we present impact of business ethics on economic development of a Muslim society. This study is based on basic teachings of Quran and Sunnah, Fiqh, Economics and other books. This study explores the behavior of Muslim traders and reveals useful inferences. Policy makers, traders, academia, scholars, and general public may learn lessons from this study with respect to business ethics in Islamic perspective.

Keywords: ethics, business, Islam, economic perspective

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1543 British Female Muslim Converts: An Investigation into Their De-Conversions from Islam

Authors: Mona Alyedreessy

Abstract:

This study, which is based on a qualitative study sample of thirty-four British converts from different ages, ethnicities, social classes, areas and religious backgrounds in London, investigates the common challenges, problems and abuse in the name of Islam that many British female Muslim converts experienced during their time as Muslims, which caused them to leave the faith. It is an important study, as it creates an awareness of the weaknesses found in western Muslim societies and in various Islamic educational programs that causes people to leave Islam and contribute towards its negative reputation in the media. The women in this study shared common problems regarding gender and racial discrimination, identity development, feminism, marriage, parenting, Muslim culture, isolation, extremism, belonging and practising Islam in both Muslim and non-Muslim societies with differing sacrifices and consequences that caused them to de-convert. The study argues that many of the personal, religious and social problems female Muslim converts experience are due to a lack of knowledge about Islam and their rights as Muslim women, which often results in them being vulnerable and influenced by the opinions, attitudes and actions of uneducated, abusive, non-practising and extremist Muslims. For example, it was found that young female converts in particular were often taken advantage of and manipulated into believing that many negative actions displayed by patriarchal Muslim husbands were a part of Islam. This created much confusion, especially when their husbands used specific Quran texts and Hadiths to justify their abuse, authority and attitudes that made them miserable. As a result and based on the positive experiences of some converts, the study found that obtaining a broad Islamic education that started with an intimate study of the Prophet Muhammad’s biography alongside being guided by the teachings of western Muslim scholars contributed greatly towards a more enjoyable conversion journey, as women were able to identify and avoid problematic Muslims and abuse in the name of Islam. This in turn helped to create a healthier family unit and Muslim society. Those who enjoyed being Muslims were able to create a balanced western Muslim identity by negotiating and applying their own morals and western values to their understanding of The Prophet’s biography and The Quran and integrated Islamic values into their own secular western environments that were free from foreign cultural practices. The outcomes of the study also highlight some effective modern approaches to da’wah based on the teachings of The Prophet Mohammad and other prophets for young Arab and Asian Muslims who marry, study and live among non-Muslims and converts.

Keywords: abuse, apostasy, converts, Muslims

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1542 Business Ethics in Islam: Making Islamic Banking Attractive for the Customers Round the Globe

Authors: Fahad Ahmed Qureshi

Abstract:

Is it essential for a Muslim businessperson and employees of Islamic financial institutions not only in Islamic Banks to perform his/her actions ethically in a universally, competing habitat? The answer is an emphatic NO! in Islam, ethics conduct all departments of life. The orders for eternal success or falah in Islam are the same for all Muslims–whether in managing their business activities or in carrying out their routine affairs. Without designating any circumstantial ambience, Allah specify people who achieve success as those who are “inviting to all that is good (Khayr), enjoining what is right (Ma'ruf) and forbidding what is wrong (Munkar).” Within a business context, however, what sole axioms of regimen should a company follow? What is a Muslim businessperson’s encumbrance to internal and external stakeholders? Although an organization’s top executives may display sterling ethical behavior, how can middle- and lower-level managers be enthusiastic to perform in a correspondingly ethical manner? What are some protocols that would clinch persistent ethical behavior in a Muslim business?

Keywords: business, ethics, finance, Islam

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
1541 Relations between Psychological Adjustment and Perceived Parental, Teacher and Best Friend Acceptance among Bangladeshi Adolescents

Authors: Tariqul Islam, Shaheen Mollah

Abstract:

The study's main objective is to assess the relationship between psychological adjustment and parental acceptance-rejection, teacher acceptance-rejection, and best friend acceptance-rejection among secondary school students. This study was conducted on a sample of 300 (6th through 10th-grade students) recruited from over ten schools in Dhaka. While the schools were selected purposively, the respondents within each school were selected conveniently. The collected data were analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation, hierarchical regression, and simultaneous regression analysis. The results showed that psychological adjustment is positively correlated with paternal, maternal, teacher, and best friend acceptance. The paternal acceptance was significantly connected with maternal acceptance. The teacher and best friend acceptance are correlated substantially with paternal and maternal acceptance. The hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that maternal, paternal, teacher, and best friend acceptance-rejection contributed significantly to students' psychological adjustment. The results revealed substantial independent contributions of maternal, paternal, teacher, and best friend acceptance on the students' psychological adjustment. The simultaneous regression analysis indicates that the maternal and best friend acceptances (but not paternal acceptance) were significant predictors of psychological adjustments. It showed that 41.7% variability in psychological adjustment could be explained by paternal, maternal, and best friend acceptance. The findings of the present study are exciting. They may contribute to developing insight in parents and best friends for behaving properly with their offspring and friend, respectively, for better psychological adjustment.

Keywords: adjustment, parenting, rejection, acceptance

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1540 The Internal View of the Mu'min: Natural Law Theories in Islam

Authors: Gianni Izzo

Abstract:

The relation of Islam to its legal precepts, reflected in the various jurisprudential 'schools of thought' (madhahib), is one expressed in a version of 'positivism' (fiqh) providing the primary theory for deducing Qurʾan rulings and those from the narrations (hadith) of the Prophet Muhammad. Scholars of Islam, including Patricia Crone (2004) and others chronicled by Anver Emon (2005), deny the influence of natural law theories as extra-scriptural indices of revelation’s content. This paper seeks to dispute these claims by reference to historical and canonical examples within Shiʿa legal thought that emphasize the salient roles of ‘aql (reason), fitrah (primordial human nature), and lutf (divine grace). These three holistic features, congenital to every human, and theophanically reflected in nature make up a mode of moral intelligibility antecedent to prophetic revelation. The debate between the 'traditionalist' Akhbaris and 'rationalist' Usulis over the nature of deriving legal edicts in Islam is well-covered academic ground. Instead, an attempt is made to define and detail the built-in assumptions of natural law revealed in the jurisprudential summa of Imami Shiʿism, whether of either dominant school, that undergird its legal prescriptions and methods of deduction.

Keywords: Islam, fiqh, natural law, legal positivism, aql

Procedia PDF Downloads 55