Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 285

Search results for: terrorist fraud

285 Practical Limitations of the Fraud Triangle Framework in Fraud Prevention

Authors: Alexander Glebovskiy

Abstract:

Practitioners charged with fraud prevention and investigation strongly rely on the Fraud Triangle framework developed by Joseph T. Wells in 1997 while analyzing the causes of fraud at business organizations. The Fraud Triangle model explains fraud by elements such as pressure, opportunity, and rationalization. This view is not fully suitable for effective fraud prevention as the Fraud Triangle model provides limited insight into the causation of fraud. Fraud is a multifaceted phenomenon, the contextual factors of which may not fit into any framework. Employee criminal behavior in business organizations is influenced by environmental, individual, and organizational aspects. Therefore, further criminogenic factors and processes facilitating fraud in organizational settings need to be considered in the root-cause analysis: organizational culture, leadership style, groupthink effect, isomorphic behavior, crime of obedience, displacement of responsibility, lack of critical thinking and unquestioning conformity and loyalty.

Keywords: criminogenesis, fraud triangle, fraud prevention, organizational culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
284 Secure Distance Bounding Protocol on Ultra-WideBand Based Mapping Code

Authors: Jamel Miri, Bechir Nsiri, Ridha Bouallegue

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Ultra WidBand-IR physical layer technology has seen a great development during the last decade which makes it a promising candidate for short range wireless communications, as they bring considerable benefits in terms of connectivity and mobility. However, like all wireless communication they suffer from vulnerabilities in terms of security because of the open nature of the radio channel. To face these attacks, distance bounding protocols are the most popular counter measures. In this paper, we presented a protocol based on distance bounding to thread the most popular attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud and Terrorist fraud. In our work, we study the way to adapt the best secure distance bounding protocols to mapping code of ultra-wideband (TH-UWB) radios. Indeed, to ameliorate the performances of the protocol in terms of security communication in TH-UWB, we combine the modified protocol to ultra-wideband impulse radio technology (IR-UWB). The security and the different merits of the protocols are analyzed.

Keywords: distance bounding, mapping code ultrawideband, terrorist fraud, physical layer technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
283 Confusion on the Definition of Terrorism and Difficulty in Criminalizing Terrorist Financing

Authors: Hamed Tofangsaz

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In the absence of an internationally agreed definition of terrorism, the question which needs to be posed is whether there is a clear and common understanding of what constitutes terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist groups, the financing of which needs to be stopped. That is, from a criminal law perspective, whether the Terrorist Financing Convention, as the backbone of the counter-terrorist financing regime, clarifies what types of conduct, by who, in what circumstances and when, against whom (targets or victims) and with what intention or motivation should be considered terrorism? It will be explained how and why it has been difficult to reach an agreement on the definition of terrorism. The endeavour of the drafters of the Terrorist Financing Convention and others involved in countering terrorist financing to establish a general definition of terrorism will be examined. The record of attempts to define the elements of terrorism proves that it is hardly possible to reach an agreement on a generic definition of terrorism because the concept of terrorism is elusive and subject to various understandings. Even the definition provided by the Terrorist Financing Convention, is not convincing. With regard to the findings, this paper calls for further research on the legal consequences of the implementation of the terrorist financing-counter measures while the scope of terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist organizations have been left vague.

Keywords: terrorism, terrorist financing, crime, convention

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
282 Detecting Model Financial Statement Fraud by Auditor Industry Specialization with Fraud Triangle Analysis

Authors: Reskino Resky

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This research purposes to create a model to detecting financial statement fraud. This research examines the variable of fraud triangle and auditor industry specialization with financial statement fraud. This research used sample of company which is listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange that have sanctions and cases by Financial Services Authority in 2011-2013. The number of company that were became in this research were 30 fraud company and 30 non-fraud company. The method of determining the sample is by using purposive sampling method with judgement sampling, while the data processing methods used by researcher are mann-whitney u and discriminants analysis. This research have two from five variable that can be process with discriminant analysis. The result shows the financial targets can be detect financial statement fraud, while financial stability can’t be detect financial statement fraud.

Keywords: fraud triangle analysis, financial targets, financial stability, auditor industry specialization, financial statement fraud

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
281 Computer Fraud from the Perspective of Iran's Law and International Documents

Authors: Babak Pourghahramani

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One of the modern crimes against property and ownership in the cyber-space is the computer fraud. Despite being modern, the aforementioned crime has its roots in the principles of religious jurisprudence. In some cases, this crime is compatible with the traditional regulations and that is when the computer is considered as a crime commitment device and also some computer frauds that take place in the context of electronic exchanges are considered as crime based on the E-commerce Law (approved in 2003) but the aforementioned regulations are flawed and until recent years there was no comprehensive law in this regard; yet after some years the Computer Crime Act was approved in 2009/26/5 and partly solved the problem of legal vacuum. The present study intends to investigate the computer fraud according to Iran's Computer Crime Act and by taking into consideration the international documents.

Keywords: fraud, cyber fraud, computer fraud, classic fraud, computer crime

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
280 An Investigation into Fraud Detection in Financial Reporting Using Sugeno Fuzzy Classification

Authors: Mohammad Sarchami, Mohsen Zeinalkhani

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Always, financial reporting system faces some problems to win public ear. The increase in the number of fraud and representation, often combined with the bankruptcy of large companies, has raised concerns about the quality of financial statements. So, investors, legislators, managers, and auditors have focused on significant fraud detection or prevention in financial statements. This article aims to investigate the Sugeno fuzzy classification to consider fraud detection in financial reporting of accepted firms by Tehran stock exchange. The hypothesis is: Sugeno fuzzy classification may detect fraud in financial reporting by financial ratio. Hypothesis was tested using Matlab software. Accuracy average was 81/80 in Sugeno fuzzy classification; so the hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: fraud, financial reporting, Sugeno fuzzy classification, firm

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
279 A Study of Management Principles Incorporating Corporate Governance and Advocating Ethics to Reduce Fraud at a South African Bank

Authors: Roshan Jelal, Charles Mbohwa

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In today’s world, internal fraud remains one of the most challenging problems within companies worldwide and despite investment in controls and attention given to the problem, the instances of internal fraud has not abated. To the contrary it appears that internal fraud is on the rise especially in the wake of the economic downturn. Leadership within companies believes that the more sophisticated the controls employed the less likely it would be for employees to pilfer. This is a very antiquated view as investment in controls may not be enough to curtail internal fraud; however, ensuring that a company drives the correct culture and behaviour within the organisation is likely to yield desired results. This research aims to understand how creating a strong ethical culture and embedding the principle of good corporate governance impacts on levels of internal fraud with an organization (a South African Bank).

Keywords: internal fraud, corporate governance, ethics, reserve bank, the King Code

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
278 Terrorism: A Threat in Constant Evolution Still Misunderstood

Authors: M. J. Gazapo Lapayese

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It is a well-established fact that terrorism is one of the foremost threats to present-day international security. The creation of tools or mechanisms for confronting it in an effective and efficient manner will only be possible by way of an objective assessment of the phenomenon. In order to achieve this, this paper has the following three main objectives: Firstly, setting out to find the reasons that have prevented the establishment of a universally accepted definition of terrorism, and consequently trying to outline the main features defining the face of the terrorist threat in order to discover the fundamental goals of what is now a serious blight on world society. Secondly, trying to explain the differences between a terrorist movement and a terrorist organisation, and the reasons for which a terrorist movement can be led to transform itself into an organisation. After analysing these motivations and the characteristics of a terrorist organisation, an example of the latter will be succinctly analysed to help the reader understand the ideas expressed. Lastly, discovering and exposing the factors that can lead to the appearance of terrorist tendencies, and discussing the most efficient and effective responses that can be given to this global security threat.

Keywords: responses, resilience, security, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
277 An Assessment of the Extent and Impact of Motor Insurance Fraud Claims in Nigeria

Authors: Olatokunbo Shoyemi, Mario Brito, Ian Dawson

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In recent times, the Nigerian motor insurers have experienced high volume of motor insurance claim pay-outs and insignificant contribution to the net premium income of the Nigerian insurance market, which has been a major concern for the shareholders/stakeholders. It has been argued that there are many factors that have brought about these concerns. However, anecdotal evidence (ongoing debates among industry practitioners) suggests prevalence of fraud due to poor practices in motor insurance business in Nigeria. This study is therefore aimed to carry out an assessment of fraud in motor insurance claims as perceived by experts in the Nigerian insurance market. This study adopted a descriptive research design, and the analysis was built on a survey among insurance experts in Nigeria using a designed questionnaire. A purposive and snowball sampling were used to select our sample (N = 120) - representing a selection of all professionally qualified insurance experts in Nigeria insurance industry. The study found that Nigerian insurance experts (i) largely agree that there is a problematic level of fraud in the Nigerian motor insurance industry; (ii) perceive soft fraud to be about 3 times more common than hard fraud in the Nigerian motor insurance industry, and (iii) strongly agree there are problematic impacts from fraud on the solvency of the Nigerian motor insurers. This paper has provided an empirical understanding of the existence, extent, and impact of fraud risks within the Nigerian insurance market based on expert knowledge and insights rather than, as has often been the case, a reliance on individual anecdotes.

Keywords: claims, net premium income, motor insurance, soft fraud, hard fraud

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
276 The Importance of Information in Psychological Operations for Counterterrorism

Authors: Abbas Fazelinia

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Terrorism is not a new phenomenon to the world, yet it remains difficult to define and to counter. Countering terrorism requires several measures that must be taken at the same time. Counterterrorism strategies of most countries depend on military measures. However, those strategies should also focus on nonlethal measures, such as economic, political, and social measures. The psychological dimensions of terrorism must be understood, evaluated, and used in countering terrorism. This study suggests that psychological operations, as nonlethal military operations, can be used to influence individuals not to join terrorist organizations and to facilitate defections from terrorist organizations. However, in order to implement effective psychological operations, one has to have appropriate intelligence about terrorist organizations. Examining terrorist organizations help us to identify their vulnerabilities and obtain this intelligence. This article concludes that terrorists’ motivations, terrorist organizations’ radicalization, recruitment, and conversion processes, ideology, goals, strategies, and general structure form the intelligence requirement for psychological operations in counterterrorism. The methodology used in this article is a mixed method.

Keywords: psychological operations, terrorist, counterterrorism, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
275 Sonic Therapeutic Intervention for Preventing Financial Fraud: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Vasudev Das

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In a global survey of more than 5,000 participants in 99 territories, PwC found a loss of $42 billion through fraud in the last 24 months. The specific problem is that private and public organizational leaders often do not understand the importance of sonic therapeutic intervention in preventing financial fraud. The study aimed to explore sonic therapeutic intervention practitioners' lived experiences regarding the value of sonic therapeutic intervention in preventing financial fraud. The data collection methods were semi-structured interviews of purposeful samples and documentary reviews, which were analyzed thematically. Four themes emerged from the analysis of interview transcription data: Sonic therapeutic intervention enabled self-control, pro-spiritual values, consequentiality mindset, and post-conventional consciousness. The itemized four themes helped non-engagement in financial fraud. Implications for positive social change include enhanced financial fraud management, more significant financial leadership, and result-oriented decision-taking in the financial market. Also, the study results can improve the increased de-escalation of anxiety/stress associated with defrauding.

Keywords: consciousness, consequentiality, rehabilitation, reintegration

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
274 'Propaganda by the Deed', 'Armed Propaganda' and Mass Mobilization: The Missing Link in the Left-Wing Terrorist Thinking

Authors: Ersun N. Kurtulus

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One of the strategic goals of left-wing terrorism, both in its Anarchist and Marxist-Leninist forms, was mobilization of masses as a first step in launching a revolution. However, in the canonical texts of left-wing terrorist literature (such as the works of Brousse, Nachaev, Bakunin, Kropotkin, Most, Heinzen, Guevara and Marighella) it is not clear how resort to terrorist tactics such as assassinations or bomb attacks will lead to mobilization of masses. This link is usually presumed and taken for granted. However, in other, less known terrorist texts, where there is some elaboration upon this link, two conflicting views emerge: (i) terrorist attacks are supposed to cause state repression which in turn radicalizes masses and opens up the way for recruitment and mobilization versus (ii) terrorist attacks are supposed to demonstrate the hollowness of the already existent state repression and thereby encourage mobilization of masses that are already radicalized but inactive due fear caused by state repression. The paper argues that terrorism studies have largely overemphasized the former while the latter has remained more or less unnoticed.

Keywords: terrorism, repression, radical left, mobilization of masses

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
273 The Application of Fuzzy Set Theory to Mobile Internet Advertisement Fraud Detection

Authors: Jinming Ma, Tianbing Xia, Janusz Getta

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This paper presents the application of fuzzy set theory to implement of mobile advertisement anti-fraud systems. Mobile anti-fraud is a method aiming to identify mobile advertisement fraudsters. One of the main problems of mobile anti-fraud is the lack of evidence to prove a user to be a fraudster. In this paper, we implement an application by using fuzzy set theory to demonstrate how to detect cheaters. The advantage of our method is that the hardship in detecting fraudsters in small data samples has been avoided. We achieved this by giving each user a suspicious degree showing how likely the user is cheating and decide whether a group of users (like all users of a certain APP) together to be fraudsters according to the average suspicious degree. This makes the process more accurate as the data of a single user is too small to be predictable.

Keywords: mobile internet, advertisement, anti-fraud, fuzzy set theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
272 Development of Terrorist Threat Prediction Model in Indonesia by Using Bayesian Network

Authors: Hilya Mudrika Arini, Nur Aini Masruroh, Budi Hartono

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There are more than 20 terrorist threats from 2002 to 2012 in Indonesia. Despite of this fact, preventive solution through studies in the field of national security in Indonesia has not been conducted comprehensively. This study aims to provide a preventive solution by developing prediction model of the terrorist threat in Indonesia by using Bayesian network. There are eight stages to build the model, started from literature review, build and verify Bayesian belief network to what-if scenario. In order to build the model, four experts from different perspectives are utilized. This study finds several significant findings. First, news and the readiness of terrorist group are the most influent factor. Second, according to several scenarios of the news portion, it can be concluded that the higher positive news proportion, the higher probability of terrorist threat will occur. Therefore, the preventive solution to reduce the terrorist threat in Indonesia based on the model is by keeping the positive news portion to a maximum of 38%.

Keywords: Bayesian network, decision analysis, national security system, text mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
271 Data Analysis to Uncover Terrorist Attacks Using Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Saima Nazir, Mustansar Ali Ghazanfar, Sanay Muhammad Umar Saeed, Muhammad Awais Azam, Saad Ali Alahmari

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Terrorism is an important and challenging concern. The entire world is threatened by only few sophisticated terrorist groups and especially in Gulf Region and Pakistan, it has become extremely destructive phenomena in recent years. Predicting the pattern of attack type, attack group and target type is an intricate task. This study offers new insight on terrorist group’s attack type and its chosen target. This research paper proposes a framework for prediction of terrorist attacks using the historical data and making an association between terrorist group, their attack type and target. Analysis shows that the number of attacks per year will keep on increasing, and Al-Harmayan in Saudi Arabia, Al-Qai’da in Gulf Region and Tehreek-e-Taliban in Pakistan will remain responsible for many future terrorist attacks. Top main targets of each group will be private citizen & property, police, government and military sector under constant circumstances.

Keywords: data mining, counter terrorism, machine learning, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
270 Surprise Fraudsters Before They Surprise You: A South African Telecommunications Case Study

Authors: Ansoné Human, Nantes Kirsten, Tanja Verster, Willem D. Schutte

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Every year the telecommunications industry suffers huge losses due to fraud. Mobile fraud, or generally, telecommunications fraud is the utilisation of telecommunication products or services to acquire money illegally from or failing to pay a telecommunication company. A South African telecommunication operator developed two internal fraud scorecards to mitigate future risks of application fraud events. The scorecards aim to predict the likelihood of an application being fraudulent and surprise fraudsters before they surprise the telecommunication operator by identifying fraud at the time of application. The scorecards are utilised in the vetting process to evaluate the applicant in terms of the fraud risk the applicant would present to the telecommunication operator. Telecommunication providers can utilise these scorecards to profile customers, as well as isolate fraudulent and/or high-risk applicants. We provide the complete methodology utilised in the development of the scorecards. Furthermore, a Determination and Discrimination (DD) ratio is provided in the methodology to select the most influential variables from a group of related variables. Throughout the development of these scorecards, the following was revealed regarding fraudulent cases and fraudster behaviour within the telecommunications industry: Fraudsters typically target high-value handsets. Furthermore, debit order dates scheduled for the end of the month have the highest fraud probability. The fraudsters target specific stores. Applicants who acquire an expensive package and receive a medium-income, as well as applicants who obtain an expensive package and receive a high income, have higher fraud percentages. If one month prior to application, the status of an account is already in arrears (two months or more), the applicant has a high probability of fraud. The applicants with the highest average spend on calls have a higher probability of fraud. If the amount collected changes from month to month, the likelihood of fraud is higher. Lastly, young and middle-aged applicants have an increased probability of being targeted by fraudsters than other ages.

Keywords: application fraud scorecard, predictive modeling, regression, telecommunications

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
269 The Fight against Terrorist Radicalization: A French Perspective

Authors: Julia Burchett

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After France became the target of an increasing number of terrorist attacks committed by people who have been declared ‘radicalized’, the issue of radicalization has become the main component of the national Action Plan for the Prevention of terrorism, thus stressing the need to address the roots causes of this peril. Therefore, the aim of this research paper is to provide a preliminary review of Frances’s strategy in the fight against terrorist radicalization in order to point out the challenges posed by this phenomenon while also highlighting its contemporary version and the understanding the results. In this regard, it should not be forgotten that the process of radicalization does not always lead to a terrorist act. To this end, the French legal framework that applies to radicalization coupled with the judicial response provided by the National Court will be analyzed in the light of the need for a balance between the concern for security and the protection of fundamental freedoms.

Keywords: criminal law, France, fundamental freedoms, radicalization, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
268 Impact of Internal Control on Fraud Detection and Prevention: A Survey of Selected Organisations in Nigeria

Authors: Amos Olusola Akinola

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The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal control system on fraud prevention in Nigerian business organizations. A survey research was undertaken in five organizations from the banking and manufacturing sectors in Nigeria using the simple random sampling technique and primary data was obtained with the aid structured questionnaire drawn on five likert’s scale. Four Hypotheses were formulated and tested using the T-test Statistics, Correlation and Regression Analysis at 95% confidence interval. It was discovered that internal control has a significant positive relationship with fraud prevention and that a weak internal control system permits fraudulent activities among staff. Based on the findings, it was recommended that organizations should continually and methodically review and evaluate the components of its internal control system whether activities are working as planned or not and that every organization should have pre-determined guidelines for conducting its operations and ensures compliance with these set guidelines while proactive steps should be taken to establish the independence of the internal audit by making the audit reportable to the governing council of an organization and not the chief executive officer.

Keywords: internal control, internal system, internal audit, fraud prevention, fraud detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
267 Democracy Bytes: Interrogating the Exploitation of Data Democracy by Radical Terrorist Organizations

Authors: Nirmala Gopal, Sheetal Bhoola, Audecious Mugwagwa

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This paper discusses the continued infringement and exploitation of data by non-state actors for destructive purposes, emphasizing radical terrorist organizations. It will discuss how terrorist organizations access and use data to foster their nefarious agendas. It further examines how cybersecurity, designed as a tool to curb data exploitation, is ineffective in raising global citizens' concerns about how their data can be kept safe and used for its acquired purpose. The study interrogates several policies and data protection instruments, such as the Data Protection Act, Cyber Security Policies, Protection of Personal Information(PPI) and General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR), to understand data use and storage in democratic states. The study outcomes point to the fact that international cybersecurity and cybercrime legislation, policies, and conventions have not curbed violations of data access and use by radical terrorist groups. The study recommends ways to enhance cybersecurity and reduce cyber risks using democratic principles.

Keywords: cybersecurity, data exploitation, terrorist organizations, data democracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
266 Financial Fraud Prediction for Russian Non-Public Firms Using Relational Data

Authors: Natalia Feruleva

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The goal of this paper is to develop the fraud risk assessment model basing on both relational and financial data and test the impact of the relationships between Russian non-public companies on the likelihood of financial fraud commitment. Relationships mean various linkages between companies such as parent-subsidiary relationship and person-related relationships. These linkages may provide additional opportunities for committing fraud. Person-related relationships appear when firms share a director, or the director owns another firm. The number of companies belongs to CEO and managed by CEO, the number of subsidiaries was calculated to measure the relationships. Moreover, the dummy variable describing the existence of parent company was also included in model. Control variables such as financial leverage and return on assets were also implemented because they describe the motivating factors of fraud. To check the hypotheses about the influence of the chosen parameters on the likelihood of financial fraud, information about person-related relationships between companies, existence of parent company and subsidiaries, profitability and the level of debt was collected. The resulting sample consists of 160 Russian non-public firms. The sample includes 80 fraudsters and 80 non-fraudsters operating in 2006-2017. The dependent variable is dichotomous, and it takes the value 1 if the firm is engaged in financial crime, otherwise 0. Employing probit model, it was revealed that the number of companies which belong to CEO of the firm or managed by CEO has significant impact on the likelihood of financial fraud. The results obtained indicate that the more companies are affiliated with the CEO, the higher the likelihood that the company will be involved in financial crime. The forecast accuracy of the model is about is 80%. Thus, the model basing on both relational and financial data gives high level of forecast accuracy.

Keywords: financial fraud, fraud prediction, non-public companies, regression analysis, relational data

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
265 The Rise of Darknet: A Call for Understanding Online Communication of Terrorist Groups in Indonesia

Authors: Aulia Dwi Nastiti

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A number of studies and reports on terrorism have continuously addressed the role of internet and online activism to support terrorist and extremist groups. In particular, they stress on social media’s usage that generally serves for the terrorist’s propaganda as well as justification of their causes. While those analyses are important to understand how social media is a vital tool for global network terrorism, they are inadequate to explain the online communication patterns that enable terrorism acts. Beyond apparent online narratives, there is a deep cyber sphere where the very vein of terrorism movement lies. That is a hidden space in the internet called ‘darknet’. Recent investigations, particularly in Middle Eastern context, have shed some lights that this invisible space in the internet is fundamental to maintain the terrorist activities. Despite that, limited number of research examines darknet within the issue of terrorist movements in Indonesian context—where the country is considered quite a hotbed for extremist groups. Therefore, this paper attempts to provide an insight of darknet operation in Indonesian cases. By exploring how the darknet is used by the Indonesian-based extremist groups, this paper maps out communication patterns of terrorist groups on the internet which appear as an intermingled network. It shows the usage of internet is differentiated in different level of anonymity for distinctive purposes. This paper further argues that the emerging terrorist communication network calls for a more comprehensive counterterrorism strategy on the Internet.

Keywords: communication pattern, counterterrorism, darknet, extremist groups, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
264 A General Framework for Measuring the Internal Fraud Risk of an Enterprise Resource Planning System

Authors: Imran Dayan, Ashiqul Khan

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Internal corporate fraud, which is fraud carried out by internal stakeholders of a company, affects the well-being of the organisation just like its external counterpart. Even if such an act is carried out for the short-term benefit of a corporation, the act is ultimately harmful to the entity in the long run. Internal fraud is often carried out by relying upon aberrations from usual business processes. Business processes are the lifeblood of a company in modern managerial context. Such processes are developed and fine-tuned over time as a corporation grows through its life stages. Modern corporations have embraced technological innovations into their business processes, and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems being at the heart of such business processes is a testimony to that. Since ERP systems record a huge amount of data in their event logs, the logs are a treasure trove for anyone trying to detect any sort of fraudulent activities hidden within the day-to-day business operations and processes. This research utilises the ERP systems in place within corporations to assess the likelihood of prospective internal fraud through developing a framework for measuring the risks of fraud through Process Mining techniques and hence finds risky designs and loose ends within these business processes. This framework helps not only in identifying existing cases of fraud in the records of the event log, but also signals the overall riskiness of certain business processes, and hence draws attention for carrying out a redesign of such processes to reduce the chance of future internal fraud while improving internal control within the organisation. The research adds value by applying the concepts of Process Mining into the analysis of data from modern day applications of business process records, which is the ERP event logs, and develops a framework that should be useful to internal stakeholders for strengthening internal control as well as provide external auditors with a tool of use in case of suspicion. The research proves its usefulness through a few case studies conducted with respect to big corporations with complex business processes and an ERP in place.

Keywords: enterprise resource planning, fraud risk framework, internal corporate fraud, process mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
263 Fraud Detection in Credit Cards with Machine Learning

Authors: Anjali Chouksey, Riya Nimje, Jahanvi Saraf

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Online transactions have increased dramatically in this new ‘social-distancing’ era. With online transactions, Fraud in online payments has also increased significantly. Frauds are a significant problem in various industries like insurance companies, baking, etc. These frauds include leaking sensitive information related to the credit card, which can be easily misused. Due to the government also pushing online transactions, E-commerce is on a boom. But due to increasing frauds in online payments, these E-commerce industries are suffering a great loss of trust from their customers. These companies are finding credit card fraud to be a big problem. People have started using online payment options and thus are becoming easy targets of credit card fraud. In this research paper, we will be discussing machine learning algorithms. We have used a decision tree, XGBOOST, k-nearest neighbour, logistic-regression, random forest, and SVM on a dataset in which there are transactions done online mode using credit cards. We will test all these algorithms for detecting fraud cases using the confusion matrix, F1 score, and calculating the accuracy score for each model to identify which algorithm can be used in detecting frauds.

Keywords: machine learning, fraud detection, artificial intelligence, decision tree, k nearest neighbour, random forest, XGBOOST, logistic regression, support vector machine

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262 Optimize Data Evaluation Metrics for Fraud Detection Using Machine Learning

Authors: Jennifer Leach, Umashanger Thayasivam

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The use of technology has benefited society in more ways than one ever thought possible. Unfortunately, though, as society’s knowledge of technology has advanced, so has its knowledge of ways to use technology to manipulate people. This has led to a simultaneous advancement in the world of fraud. Machine learning techniques can offer a possible solution to help decrease this advancement. This research explores how the use of various machine learning techniques can aid in detecting fraudulent activity across two different types of fraudulent data, and the accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 were recorded for each method. Each machine learning model was also tested across five different training and testing splits in order to discover which testing split and technique would lead to the most optimal results.

Keywords: data science, fraud detection, machine learning, supervised learning

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261 The Role of the Internal Audit Unit in Detecting and Preventing Fraud at Public Universities in West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Fury Khristianty Fitriyah

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This study aims to identify the extent of the role of the Satuan Pengawas Intern (Internal Audit Unit) in detecting and preventing fraud in public universities in West Java under the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education. The research method applied was a qualitative case study approach, while the unit of analysis for this study is the Internal Audit Unit at each public university. Results of this study indicate that the Internal Audit Unit is able to detect and prevent fraud within a public university environment by means of red flags to mark accounting anomalies. These stem from inaccurate budget planning that prompts inappropriate use of funds, exacerbated by late disbursements of funds, which potentially lead to fictitious transactions, and discrepancies in recording state-owned assets into a state property management system (SIMAK BMN), which, if not conducted properly, potentially causes loss to the state.

Keywords: governance, internal control, fraud, public university

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
260 Financial Statement Fraud: The Need for a Paradigm Shift to Forensic Accounting

Authors: Ifedapo Francis Awolowo

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The unrelenting series of embarrassing audit failures should stimulate a paradigm shift in accounting. And in this age of information revolution, there is need for a constant improvement on the products or services one offers to the market in order to be relevant. This study explores the perceptions of external auditors, forensic accountants and accounting academics on whether a paradigm shift to forensic accounting can reduce financial statement frauds. Through Neo-empiricism/inductive analytical approach, findings reveal that a paradigm shift to forensic accounting might be the right step in the right direction in order to increase the chances of fraud prevention and detection in the financial statement. This research has implication on accounting education on the need to incorporate forensic accounting into present day accounting curriculum. Accounting professional bodies, accounting standard setters and accounting firms all have roles to play in incorporating forensic accounting education into accounting curriculum. Particularly, there is need to alter the ISA 240 to make the prevention and detection of frauds the responsibilities of bot those charged with the management and governance of companies and statutory auditors.

Keywords: financial statement fraud, forensic accounting, fraud prevention and detection, auditing, audit expectation gap, corporate governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
259 Profit-Based Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Trained by Migrating Birds Optimization: A Case Study in Credit Card Fraud Detection

Authors: Ashkan Zakaryazad, Ekrem Duman

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A typical classification technique ranks the instances in a data set according to the likelihood of belonging to one (positive) class. A credit card (CC) fraud detection model ranks the transactions in terms of probability of being fraud. In fact, this approach is often criticized, because firms do not care about fraud probability but about the profitability or costliness of detecting a fraudulent transaction. The key contribution in this study is to focus on the profit maximization in the model building step. The artificial neural network proposed in this study works based on profit maximization instead of minimizing the error of prediction. Moreover, some studies have shown that the back propagation algorithm, similar to other gradient–based algorithms, usually gets trapped in local optima and swarm-based algorithms are more successful in this respect. In this study, we train our profit maximization ANN using the Migrating Birds optimization (MBO) which is introduced to literature recently.

Keywords: neural network, profit-based neural network, sum of squared errors (SSE), MBO, gradient descent

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258 Analyzing and Determining the Ideal Response Force for Combatting Terrorist Groups

Authors: Erhan Turgut, Salih Ergün, Abdülkadir Öz

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Terror is a modern war strategy which uses violence as a means of communication in order to achieve political objectives. In today’s security environment narrowing the propaganda field of terrorist organization is the primary goal for the security forces. In this sense, providing and maintaining public support is the most necessary ability for security units. Rather than enemy and threat-oriented approach, homeland security oriented approach is essential to ensure public support. In this study, terror assumed as a homeland security issue and assigning the law enforcement forces with military status is analyzed.

Keywords: terrorism, counter-terrorism, military status law-enforcement, terrorist groups

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
257 Countering Terrorism and Defending Human Right after 9/11: The European Perspective

Authors: Anita Blagojević

Abstract:

It is well known that the terrorist attacks on the New York City and Washington, D.C. prompted unprecedented international action to enhance international cooperation in the prevention and suppression of terrorism. In the months (and years) after September 11, the world community focused on two main efforts: first, on efforts to bring those responsible for terrorist attacks to justice, and second, on efforts to prevent future terrorist attacks. In that sense, many governments took advantage of these efforts to strengthen their national security. In that process, however, human rights and civil liberties of certain groups of people were alleged. As a consequence, part of the price paid for protecting national security against terrorist attacks was the threat of infringement on people's fundamental rights and freedoms. The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of the European Union and the Council of Europe in finding the answer to the one of the main security dilemma for the present era: how to find the balance between the protection of national security and guarantee of the people's rights and fundamental freedoms?

Keywords: terrorism, antiterrorism, European Union, Council of Europe, human rights

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256 A Comprehensive Survey on Machine Learning Techniques and User Authentication Approaches for Credit Card Fraud Detection

Authors: Niloofar Yousefi, Marie Alaghband, Ivan Garibay

Abstract:

With the increase of credit card usage, the volume of credit card misuse also has significantly increased, which may cause appreciable financial losses for both credit card holders and financial organizations issuing credit cards. As a result, financial organizations are working hard on developing and deploying credit card fraud detection methods, in order to adapt to ever-evolving, increasingly sophisticated defrauding strategies and identifying illicit transactions as quickly as possible to protect themselves and their customers. Compounding on the complex nature of such adverse strategies, credit card fraudulent activities are rare events compared to the number of legitimate transactions. Hence, the challenge to develop fraud detection that are accurate and efficient is substantially intensified and, as a consequence, credit card fraud detection has lately become a very active area of research. In this work, we provide a survey of current techniques most relevant to the problem of credit card fraud detection. We carry out our survey in two main parts. In the first part, we focus on studies utilizing classical machine learning models, which mostly employ traditional transnational features to make fraud predictions. These models typically rely on some static physical characteristics, such as what the user knows (knowledge-based method), or what he/she has access to (object-based method). In the second part of our survey, we review more advanced techniques of user authentication, which use behavioral biometrics to identify an individual based on his/her unique behavior while he/she is interacting with his/her electronic devices. These approaches rely on how people behave (instead of what they do), which cannot be easily forged. By providing an overview of current approaches and the results reported in the literature, this survey aims to drive the future research agenda for the community in order to develop more accurate, reliable and scalable models of credit card fraud detection.

Keywords: Credit Card Fraud Detection, User Authentication, Behavioral Biometrics, Machine Learning, Literature Survey

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