Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 398

Search results for: Khalid Mahmood Iraqi

398 Paradigm Shift of Leadership: Leaders in Information Technology

Authors: Mustafa Hyder, Khalid Mahmood Iraqi, Sameen Mustafa

Abstract:

They say if the leader limps, all the others will start limping too. Therefore, a very dynamic leadership at all levels within the IT Community is critical to the success of an organization. This paper is an attempt to study the relationship between Information Technology (IT) with leadership and assesses its relevancy in today's fast-paced hi-tech globalized environment. The paper strives to look into the essential qualities and knowledge as needed by today's IT leader, in contrast to essential characteristics common to all the leaders-past, present, and future.

Keywords: leadership, autocratic leaders, characteristics of IT leaders, skills of IT professionals, IT leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
397 The Role of International Organizations in Educational Reform in Iraq

Authors: Thanaa M. Sulaiman

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The Iraqi education system has suffered greatly as a result of wars, political instability, and economic problems. After the fall of Saddam’s regime in 2003, the Iraqi education system was proportionally the most impacted sector. The new administration prioritized educational reforms. International organizations, as well as foreign countries, were in the lead to achieve educational reforms. The current study aims to shed light on the reformation process and the roles of different stakeholders, especially international organizations. It also aims to explore the current problems facing the Iraqi education system. Additionally, it aims to explore the different programs and projects that are funded and implemented by international organizations and the impact of these programs and projects.

Keywords: Iraq, Iraqi education system, educational reform, international organizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
396 Killing Journalists in the Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Karwan Karim

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The powerlessness of the journalists' syndicate in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq has been divided against the journalists' case like all the other syndicates that exist in Iraqi Kurdistan on two parties, like Kurdistan Democratic Party and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan; this syndicate could not prove its neutrality. It was created under the shadow of these two parties. This has created problems for neutral journalists, the Iraqi Kurdistan Journalists Syndicate should have supported all journalists completely and had a positive role in their cases and supported the freedom of journalists in Iraqi Kurdistan, and avoided from threat, fear, and terror by the ruling parties, so far many journalists have been assassinated and have not been accused in a court and have not played any positive role in the cases of journalists only issued a statement. They couldn't settle the case of assassinating journalists in the international court. This syndicate has become a slave of the ruling parties under the party and role only as an illusion. This syndicate has been created and worked for the PUK party. Neutral journalists do not find any syndicate to be able to complain about the violence against journalists.

Keywords: Kurdistan, Ranya, Iraq, journalist

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395 Measuring Quality of Service in King Khalid International Airport

Authors: T. M. Al Muhareb

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Any organization should take into consideration the customers’ satisfaction while providing any service to their customers. The quality of services is always considered as the main aspect that attracts the customers’ attention and helps the airports to develop their services and operations. King Khalid International Airport is considered as the gateway of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to identify the quality service in the departure area at in King Khalid Airport. The SERVQUAL questionnaire was distributed among the passengers in King Khalid International Airport and the respondents have reached to 500 passengers. The results that are obtained from the SERVQUAL questionnaire showed that the quality of airport’s services is low.

Keywords: service quality, SERVQUAL methodology, King Khalid International Airport (KKIA), customers’ satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
394 A General Overview on Izadis Children's Right Situation in Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

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Undoubtedly, children are one of the biggest assets of any society and it is the duty of all officials to have a systematic plan to educate the next generation and make a better life for children so that they can progress and be effective for their communities. In an effort, Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) has adopted standards to improve the condition for Izadis children; however, there are challenges that remain; such as: Izadis child abuse, Izadis child labor, Izadis children right’s law, orphans, Izadis street children and etc. In this paper, by a descriptive-analytical method the authors try to discuss the general situation of Izadis children in today s Iraqi Kurdistan and the issues such as drug abuse, Izadis child labor, orphans and Izadis street children. The questions are: How is the situation of Izadis children in Iraqi Kurdistan and what are their challenges? Also, what is the KRG’s strategy and through which ways, they can make a better life for minority children and change their current status? The authors believe that nowadays, the KRG is trying to crack down on problems against Izadis children; however, their effort is not adequate and some other activities should be performed; one of which is passing the Izadis children s law against violence.

Keywords: children right, Iraqi Kurdistan, Izadis children, Kurdistan Regional Government

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
393 Investigating Iraqi EFL Undergraduates' Performance in the Production of Number Forms in English

Authors: Adnan Z. Mkhelif

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The production of number forms in English tends to be problematic for Iraqi learners of English as a foreign language (EFL), even at the undergraduate level. To help better understand and consequently address this problem, it is important to identify its sources. This study aims at: (1) statistically analysing Iraqi EFL undergraduates' performance in the production of number forms in English; (2) classifying learners' errors in terms of their possible major causes; and (3) outlining some pedagogical recommendations relevant to the teaching of number forms in English. It is hypothesized in this study that (1) Iraqi EFL undergraduates still face problems in the production of number forms in English and (2) errors pertaining to the context of learning are more numerous than those attributable to the other possible causes. After reviewing the literature available on the topic, a written test comprising 50 items has been constructed and administered to a randomly chosen sample of 50 second-year college students from the Department of English, College of Education, Wasit University. The findings of the study showed that Iraqi EFL undergraduates still face problems in the production of number forms in English and that the possible major sources of learners’ errors can be arranged hierarchically in terms of the percentages of errors to which they can be ascribed as follows: (1) context of learning (50%), (2) intralingual transfer (37%), and (3) interlingual transfer (13%). It is hoped that the implications of the study findings will be beneficial to researchers, syllabus designers, as well as teachers of English as a foreign/second language.

Keywords: L2 number forms, L2 vocabulary learning, productive knowledge, proficiency

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392 Attitudes of University Students toward English Language Education Policy in Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Momen Yaseen M. Amin

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Despite widespread coverage of language policy in the literature, there has been scant research probing into English language education policy at tertiary levels in general and in the case of higher education context of Iraqi Kurdistan in particular. The present qualitative study investigated the results of a questionnaire on attitudes toward English language education policy in terms of attitudes toward the English language in general, the current English education policy, and the purposes for learning English among Kurdish EFL university students. Moreover, this study aimed to investigate this topic in light of the participants’ gender and major. To this end, an adapted version of Yang’s (2012) questionnaire was administered to university EFL students majoring in soft and hard sciences (N=300, male 34%, female 67%, four and two disciplines, respectively) at two-state and private universities in Iraqi Kurdistan. The findings revealed positive attitudes toward English as an international language in both soft and hard sciences. While strongly subscribing to the idea that all Iraqi Kurdish students should learn the English language and the courses to be offered in English as well as Kurdish, the majority of the participants expressed their readiness and enthusiasm to excel in English and considered such competency a significant academic accomplishment. However, a good number felt dissatisfied with the status quo of English education at their institutions. This paper provides some implications and recommendations for English education policies makers, administrators, and English language instructors at tertiary levels.

Keywords: attitudes, language policy, English language education, Iraqi Kurdistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
391 Electric Load Forecasting Based on Artificial Neural Network for Iraqi Power System

Authors: Afaneen Anwer, Samara M. Kamil

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Load Forecast required prediction accuracy based on optimal operation and maintenance. A good accuracy is the basis of economic dispatch, unit commitment, and system reliability. A good load forecasting system fulfilled fast speed, automatic bad data detection, and ability to access the system automatically to get the needed data. In this paper, the formulation of the load forecasting is discussed and the solution is obtained by using artificial neural network method. A MATLAB environment has been used to solve the load forecasting schedule of Iraqi super grid network considering the daily load for three years. The obtained results showed a good accuracy in predicting the forecasted load.

Keywords: load forecasting, neural network, back-propagation algorithm, Iraqi power system

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
390 Iraqi Women’s Rights Under State Civil Law and Conservative Influences: A Study of Legal Documents and Social Implementation

Authors: Rose Hattab

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Women have been an important dynamic in religious context and the state-building process of Arab countries throughout history. During the 1970s as the movement for women’s activism and rights developed, the Iraqi state under the Ba’ath Party began to provide Iraqi women with legal and civil rights. This was done to liberate women from the grasps of social traditions and was a tangible espousing of equality between men and women in the process of nation-building. Whereas women’s rights were stronger and more supported throughout the earliest years of the Ba’ath Regime (1970-1990), the aftermath of the Gulf War and economic sanctions on the conditions of Iraqi society laid the foundation for a division of women’s rights between civil and religious authorities. Personal status codes that were secured in 1959 were being pushed back by amendments made in coordination with religious leaders. Civil laws were present on paper, but religious authority took prominence in practice. The written legal codes were inclusive of women’s rights, but there is not an active or ensured practice of these rights within Iraqi society. This is due to many different factors, such as religious, sectarian, political and conservative reasons that hold back or limit the ability for Iraqi women to have autonomy in aspects such as participation in the workforce, getting married, and ensuring social justice. This paper argues that the Personal Status Code introduced in 1959 – which replaced Sharia-run courts with personal status courts – provided Iraqi women with equality and increased mobility in social and economic dynamics. The statewide crisis felt after the Gulf War and the economic sanctions imposed by the United Nations led to a stark shift in the Ba’ath party’s political ideology. This ideological turn guided the social system to the embracement of social conservatism and religious traditions in the 1990s. The effect of this implementation continued after the establishment of a new Iraqi government during 2003-2005. Consequently, Iraqi women's rights in employment, marriage, and family became divided into paper and practice by religious authorities and civil law from that period to the present day. This paper also contributes to the literature by expanding on the gap between legal codes on paper and in practice, through providing an analysis of Iraqi women’s rights in the Iraqi Constitution of 2005 and Iraq’s Penal Code. The turn to conservative and religious traditions is derived from the multiplicity of identities that make up the Iraqi social fabric. In the aftermath of a totalitarian regime, active wars, and economic sanctions, the Iraqi people attempted to unite together through their different identities to create a sense of security in the midst of violence and chaos. This is not an excuse to diminish the importance of women’s rights, but in the process of building a new nation-state, women were lost from the narrative. Thus, the presence of gender equity is found in the written text but is not practiced and upheld in the social context.

Keywords: civil rights, Iraqi women, nation building, religion and conflict

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389 Prospects of Iraq’s Maritime Openness and Their Effect on Its Economy

Authors: Mohanad Hammad

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Port institutions serve as a link connecting the land areas that receive the goods and the areas from where ships sail. These areas hold great significance for the conversion of goods into commodities of economic value, capable of meeting the needs of the society. Development of ports constitutes a fundamental component of the comprehensive economic development process. Recognizing this fact, developing countries have always resorted to this infrastructural element to resolve the numerous problems they face, taking into account its contribution to the reformation of their economic conditions. Iraqi ports have played a major role in boosting the commercial movement in Iraq, as they are the starting point of its oil exports and a key constituent in fulfilling the consumer and production needs of the various economic sectors of Iraq. With the Gulf wars and the economic blockade, Iraqi ports have continued to deteriorate and become unable to perform their functions as first-generation ports, prompting Iraq to use the ports of neighboring countries such as Jordan's Aqaba commercial port. Meanwhile, Iraqi ports face strong competition from the ports of neighboring countries, which have achieved progress and advancement as opposed to the declining performance and efficiency of Iraqi ports. The great developments in the economic conditions of Iraq lay a too great burden on the Iraqi maritime transport and ports, which require development in order to be able to meet the challenges arising from the fierce international and regional competition in the markets. Therefore, it is necessary to find appropriate solutions in support of the role that can be played by Iraqi ports in serving Iraq's foreign trade transported by sea and in keeping up with the development of foreign trade. Thus, this research aims at tackling the current situation of the Iraqi ports and their commercial activity and studying the problems and obstacles they face. The research also studies the future prospects of these ports, the potentials of maritime openness to Iraq under the fierce competition of neighboring ports, and the possibility of enhancing Iraqi ports’ competitiveness. Among the results produced by this research is the future scenario it proposes for Iraqi ports, mainly represented in the establishment of Al-Faw Port, which will contribute to a greater openness of maritime transport in Iraq, and the rehabilitation and expansion of existing ports. This research seeks to develop solutions to Iraq ports so that they can be repositioned as a vital means of promoting economic development.

Keywords: maritime transport, port, future prospects, regional integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
388 The Role of the Federal Supreme Court in Preventing the Exercise of the Right to Self-Determination

Authors: Shaho Ghafur Ahmed

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The right to self-determination of peoples is a fundamental human right recognized by the principles of international law. It could be embodied in the internal level in the form of federalism. Most federal constitutions prevented the secession of constituent entities, while some remained silent, as the case of Iraq, and rare instances of them recognize it. But, after the failure of federalism, these entities seek to separate whenever the opportunity arises. In several cases, they have resort to peaceful methods in some others they resort to force. The constitutional Supreme Court, which guaranty the unity and integrity of the State, often prevent these attempts. After not a commitment of federalism in Iraq, which has been founded since 2004, the Kurdistan region, as the only federated entity, has conducted a unilateral referendum on 25 September 2017 for its independence. The Iraqi government refused it. The Iraqi Federal Supreme Court, through interpreting the constitutional provisions, decided that this referendum and it’s purposes, which was the independence of the region, was unconstitutional. Subsequently, the Iraqi government used forces and blockaded the region so as to force it to turn off this process. So, in this paper, the right to self-determination of the peoples in federated entities and its obstacles will be discussed through the comparative legal basis and analyzing the decisions of the Federal Constitutional Courts. We will compare the role that the Supreme Court of Canada played regarding the referendum that operated in Quebec in 1995, in which it refused only the unilaterally attempts for the independence of this province. While, in the case of the Kurdistan region, the Iraqi Federal Supreme Court has definitively refused this right. No measures were taken by this Court to protect the region from the Iraqi government reactions. This decision led to the questioning of the neutrality of this Court. So, from the point of view of the Kurdistan region, this Court became a political instrument to prevent it to be independent in the international community, in the absence of a clear constitutional provision, through an abstract and an incomplete interpretation of federal constitutional provisions.

Keywords: right of self-determination, federal supreme court, supremacy of federal constitution

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
387 Awareness of Drug Interactions among Physicians at Governmental Health Centers in Bahrain

Authors: Yasin I. Tayem, Jamil Ahmed, Mahmood Bahzad, Abdullah Alnama, Fahad Al Asfoor, Mahmood A. Jalil, Mohammed Radhi, Ahmed Alenezi, Khalid A. J. Al-Khaja

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Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) represent a significant cause of patient’s morbidity and mortality. The rate of DDIs is rapidly increasing worldwide with the increasing proportion of ageing population and frequent requirement of polypharmacy-prescription of multiple drugs to treat comorbidities. Prescribing physicians are responsible for checking their prescriptions for the presence and severity of DDIs. However, since a large number of new drugs are approved and marketed every year, new interactions between medications are increasingly reported. Consequently, it is no longer practical for physicians to rely only upon their previous knowledge of medicine to avoid potential DDIs. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of physicians working at primary healthcare centers in Bahrain towards DDIs and how they manage them during their practice. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, physicians working at all governmental primary healthcare centers in Bahrain were invited to voluntarily, privately and anonymously respond to a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire aims to assess their self-reported knowledge of DDIs and how they check for them in their practice. The participants were requested to provide socio demographic data and information related to their attitudes towards DDIs including strategies they employ for detecting and managing them, and their awareness of drugs which commonly cause DDIs. At the end of the questionnaire, an open-ended item was added to allow participants to further add any comment. Findings and Conclusions: The study is going on currently, and the results and conclusions will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: awareness, drug interactions, health centres, physicians

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
386 MNH-886(Bt.): A Cotton Cultivar (G. Hirsutum L.) for Cultivation in Virus Infested Regions of Pakistan, Having High Seed Cotton Yield and Desirable Fibre Characteristics

Authors: Wajad Nazeer, Saghir Ahmad, Khalid Mahmood, Altaf Hussain, Abid Mahmood, Baoliang Zhou

Abstract:

MNH-886(Bt.) is a upland cotton cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum L.) developed through hybridization of three parents [(FH-207×MNH-770)×Bollgard-1] at Cotton Research Station Multan, Pakistan. It is resistant to CLCuVD with 16.25 % disease incidence (60 DAS, March sowing) whereas moderately susceptible to CLCuVD when planted in June with disease incidence 34 % (60 DAS). This disease reaction was lowest among 25 cotton advanced lines/varieties tested at hot spots of CLCuVD. Its performance was tested during 2009 to 2012 in various indigenous, provincial, and national varietal trials in comparison with the commercial variety IR-3701 and AA-802 & CIM-496. In PCCT trial during 2009-10; 2011-12, MNH-886 surpassed all the existing Bt. strains along with commercial varieties across the Punjab province with seed cotton yield production 2658 kg ha-1 and 2848 kg ha-1 which was 81.31 and 13% higher than checks, respectively. In National Coordinated Bt. Trial, MNH-886(Bt.) produced 3347 kg ha-1 seed cotton at CCRI, Multan; the hot spot of CLCuVD, in comparison to IR-3701 which gave 2556 kg ha-1. It possesses higher lint percentage (41.01%), along with the most desirable fibre traits (staple length 28.210mm, micronaire value 4.95 µg inch-1 and fibre strength 99.5 tppsi, and uniformity ratio 82.0%). The quantification of toxicity level of crystal protein was found positive for Cry1Ab/Ac protein with toxicity level 2.76µg g-1 and Mon 531 event was confirmed. Having tremendous yield potential, good fibre traits, and great tolerance to CLCuVD we can recommended this variety for cultivation in CLCuVD hotspots of Pakistan.

Keywords: cotton, cultivar, cotton leaf curl virus, CLCuVD hit districts

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
385 Criminal Protection Objectivity of the Child's Right to Life and Physical and Psychological Safety

Authors: Hezha Hewa, Taher Sur

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Nowadays, child affairs is a matter of both national and international interests. This issue is regarded a vital topic for various scientific fields across ages, and for all the communities without exception. However, the nature of child caring may vary due to the verities in science perspectives. So, considering child's affairs from different perspectives is helpful to have a complementary image about this matter. The purpose behind selecting this topic is to keep a balance between the victim on the one hand, and the guardian and the offender on the other hand, (i.e.) to avoid any kind of excessiveness either in the protection of the child and its rights not in the punishment of the offender. This is achieved through considering various legal materials in the Iraqi legislation and in the comparative legislations that are concerned with the child's issue and the extent to which the child makes use of these rights. The scope of this study involves the crimes that are considered as aggressions against the child's right to life, and the crimes that are dangerous to their physical and psychological safety. So, this study comprehensively considers the intentional murder of child, child murder to avoid disgrace, child kidnapping, child abandonment, physical abuse for the sake of punishment or not, child circumcision, verbal violence, and abstaining from leaving a child with a person who has the right of custody. This study ends with the most significant concluding points that have been derived throughout this study, which are: Unlike the Iraqi legislation, the Egyptian legislation defines the child in the Article 2 of the Child Law No. 12 of 1996 amended by the Law No. 126 of 2008 that the child is a person who does not exceed 18 years of age. Some legislation does not provide special criminal protection for child intentional murder, as in the Iraqi and the Egyptian legislation. However, some others have provided special criminal protection for a child, as in French and Syrian legislations. Child kidnapping is regarded as one of the most dangerous crimes that affects the child and the family as well, as it may expose the child's life to danger or to death. The most significant recommendations from the researcher are: The Iraqi legislation is recommended to take the necessary measures to establish a particular legislation for the child by including all the legal provisions that are associated with this weak creature, and make use of the Egyptian legislator’s experience as a pioneer in this respect. Both the Iraqi legislation and the Egyptian legislation are recommended to enact special laws to protect a child from the crimes of intentional murder, as the crime of child murder is currently subjected to the same provisions consider for adult murder.

Keywords: child, criminal, penal, law, safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
384 Two Day Ahead Short Term Load Forecasting Neural Network Based

Authors: Firas M. Tuaimah

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This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network based approach for short-term load forecasting and exactly for two days ahead. Two seasons have been discussed for Iraqi power system, namely summer and winter; the hourly load demand is the most important input variables for ANN based load forecasting. The recorded daily load profile with a lead time of 1-48 hours for July and December of the year 2012 was obtained from the operation and control center that belongs to the Ministry of Iraqi electricity. The results of the comparison show that the neural network gives a good prediction for the load forecasting and for two days ahead.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, artificial neural networks, back propagation learning, hourly load demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
383 Iraqi Media Entrepreneurs across Social Media: Factors and Challenges

Authors: Ahmed Omar Bali, Sherko Jabar, Hazhar Jalal, Mahdi Sofi-Karim

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For a long while in Iraq, media organizations were owned by political parties, particularly the ruling parties, because media traditional organizations required big capital and human resources. This paper has examined the dynamics of Iraqi media market transformation with emphasizing on factors that help to merge media entrepreneurs and digital media firms which target audience on social media. A qualitative method was adopted in this study using open, in-depth interviews with 19 media entrepreneurs and three managers of media firms. The study revealed that relative freedom and advanced communication technologies have encouraged media entrepreneurs to drive the new media on producing short videos and broadcast them on social media which has become popular among media consumers.

Keywords: media entrepreneur, Iraq, journalists, media technicians, digital media firms, media market

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
382 Assessment of Predictive Confounders for the Prevalence of Breast Cancer among Iraqi Population: A Retrospective Study from Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Nadia H. Mohammed, Anmar Al-Taie, Fadia H. Al-Sultany

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Although breast cancer prevalence continues to increase, mortality has been decreasing as a result of early detection and improvement in adjuvant systemic therapy. Nevertheless, this disease required further efforts to understand and identify the associated potential risk factors that could play a role in the prevalence of this malignancy among Iraqi women. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of certain predictive risk factors on the prevalence of breast cancer types among a sample of Iraqi women diagnosed with breast cancer. This was a retrospective observational study carried out at National Cancer Research Center in College of Medicine, Baghdad University from November 2017 to January 2018. Data of 100 patients with breast cancer whose biopsies examined in the National Cancer Research Center were included in this study. Data were collected to structure a detailed assessment regarding the patients’ demographic, medical and cancer records. The majority of study participants (94%) suffered from ductal breast cancer with mean age 49.57 years. Among those women, 48.9% were obese with body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m2. 68.1% of them had positive family history of breast cancer and 66% had low parity. 40.4% had stage II ductal breast cancer followed by 25.5% with stage III. It was found that 59.6% and 68.1% had positive oestrogen receptor sensitivity and positive human epidermal growth factor (HER2/neu) receptor sensitivity respectively. In regard to the impact of prediction of certain variables on the incidence of ductal breast cancer, positive family history of breast cancer (P < 0.0001), low parity (P< 0.0001), stage I and II breast cancer (P = 0.02) and positive HER2/neu status (P < 0.0001) were significant predictive factors among the study participants. The results from this study provide relevant evidence for a significant positive and potential association between certain risk factors and the prevalence of breast cancer among Iraqi women.

Keywords: Ductal Breast Cancer, Hormone Sensitivity, Iraq, Risk Factors

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381 Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Modeling of Civic Facilities Using GIS Applications: A Case Study of F-11, Islamabad

Authors: Asma Shaheen Hashmi, Omer Riaz, Khalid Mahmood, Fahad Ullah, Tanveer Ahmad

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The urban landscapes are being change with the population growth and advancements in new technologies. The urban sprawl pattern and utilizes are related to the local socioeconomic and physical condition. Urban policy decisions are executed mostly through spatial planning. A decision support system (DSS) is very powerful tool which provides flexible knowledge base method for urban planning. An application was developed using geographical information system (GIS) for urban planning. A scenario based DSS was developed to integrate the hierarchical muti-criteria data of different aspects of urban landscape. These were physical environment, the dumping site, spatial distribution of road network, gas and water supply lines, and urban watershed management, selection criteria for new residential, recreational, commercial and industrial sites. The model provided a framework to incorporate the sustainable future development. The data can be entered dynamically by planners according to the appropriate criteria for the management of urban landscapes.

Keywords: urban, GIS, spatial, criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
380 Awareness, Use and Searching Behavior of 'Virtua' Online Public Access Catalog Users

Authors: Saira Soroya, Khalid Mahmood

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Library catalogs open the door to the library collection. OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) are one of the services offered by automated libraries. The present study aims to explore user’s awareness, the level of use and their searching behavior of OPAC with a purpose to give suggestions and ways to improve user-friendly features of library OPAC. The population consisted of OPAC users of Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS). Convenient sampling technique was carried out. Total sample size was 100 OPAC users. Quantitative research design, based on survey method used to carry out the study. The data collection instrument was adopted. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Results revealed that a considerable number of users were not aware of OPAC i.e. (30%); however, those who were aware were using basic features of the OPAC. It was found that lack of knowledge was considered the frequent reason for not using all features of OPAC. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that compulsory information literacy programme should be established.

Keywords: catalog, OPAC, library automation, usability study, university library

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
379 Pakistan’s Taxation System: A Critical Appraisal

Authors: Khalid Javed, Rashid Mahmood

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The constitution empowers the Federal Government to collect taxes on income other than agricultural income, taxes on capital value, customs, excise duties and sales taxes. The Central Board of Revenue (CBR) and its subordinate departments administer the tax system. Each of the three principal taxes has a different history and different set of issues. For a large number of income tax payers the core of the business process is pre-audit and assessment by a tax official. This process gives considerable discretion to tax officials, with potential for abuse. Moreover, this process is also not tenable as the number of taxpayers increase. The report is focused on a total overhaul of the process and organization of income tax. Sales tax is recent and its process and organization is adjusted to the needs of an expanding tax base. These are based on self-assessment and selective audit. Similarly, in customs the accent is on accelerating and broadening the changes begun in recent years. Before long, central excise will be subsumed in sales tax. During the nineties, despite many changes in the tax regime and introduction of withholding and presumptive taxes, Federal Government tax to GDP ratio has varied narrowly around eleven percent. The tax base has grown but still remains narrow and skewed. The number of income tax filers is around one million.

Keywords: central board of revenue, GDP, sale tax, income tax

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
378 Comparative Acaricidal Efficacy of Fluralaner vs Oral Ivermectin Against Tick Infestation in Dogs

Authors: Tayyaba Zahra, Shehla Gul Bokhari, Asim Khalid Mahmood, Raheela Akhtar, Khizar Matloob

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In Pakistan, dogs are commonly infested with ticks, especially in summers, causing not only dermatological issues but also systemic problems. Persistence of tick infestation often leads to heavy losses. Different acaricides are locally available with variable efficacy; however, recurrence of infestation is commonly reported. The present study was thus designed to compare the efficacy of a novel drug Fluralaner and conventionally used Ivermectin against tick infestation. Dogs positive for tick infestation were randomly divided into 2 groups viz, Groups A and B having 8 dogs each. Ticks were enumerated manually from the whole body of dogs at day 0 before the administration of drugs Dogs in Group A were treated with Fluralaner at day 0, and dogs in Group B were treated with Ivermectin. Post-treatment, ticks were counted again at days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. At day 07 of the study, no tick was found on the dogs treated with Fluralaner, while many ticks were present on the dogs treated with Ivermectin showing an efficacy up to 50%. On the consecutive follow-up evaluations, similar results were found for Fluralaner while the efficacy of Ivermectin was further reduced to less than 50%. Furthermore, Fluralaner treated dogs had better RBC counts, PCV, Hgb concentration, LFTs, RFTs post-treatment than the dogs treated with Ivermectin. Statistically, oral Fluralaner proved a more effective drug (P≤0.05)than oral Ivermectin against tick infestation in dogs.

Keywords: fluralaner, ivermectin, dogs, tick infestations

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
377 Internal Displacement in Iraq due to ISIS Occupation and Its Effects on Human Security and Coexistence

Authors: Feisal Khudher Mahmood, Abdul Samad Rahman Sultan

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Iraq had been a diverse society with races, cultures and religions that peacefully coexistence. The phenomenon of internal displacement occurred after April 2003, because of political instability as will as the deterioration of the political and security situation as a result of United States of America occupation. Biggest internal displacement have occurred (and keep happening) since 10th of June 2014 due to rise of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and it’s occupation of one third of country territories. This crisis effected directly 3,275,000 people and reflected negatively on the social fabric of Iraq community and led to waves of sectorial violence that swept the country. Internal displaced communities are vulnerable, especially under non functional and weak government, that led to lose of essential human rights and dignity. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geospatial Techniques, two types of internal displacement have been found; voluntary and forced. Both types of displacement are highly influenced by location, race and religion. The main challenge for Iraqi government and NGOs will be after defeating ISIS. Helping the displaced to resettle within their community and to re-establish the coexistence. By spatial-statical analysis hot spots of future conflicts among displaced community have been highlighted. This will help the government to tackle future conflicts before they occur. Also, it will be the base for social conflict early warning system.

Keywords: internal displacement, Iraq, ISIS, human security, human rights, GIS, spatial-statical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
376 Iraqi Short Term Electrical Load Forecasting Based on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Firas M. Tuaimah, Huda M. Abdul Abbas

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Accurate Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) is essential for a variety of decision making processes. However, forecasting accuracy can drop due to the presence of uncertainty in the operation of energy systems or unexpected behavior of exogenous variables. Interval Type 2 Fuzzy Logic System (IT2 FLS), with additional degrees of freedom, gives an excellent tool for handling uncertainties and it improved the prediction accuracy. The training data used in this study covers the period from January 1, 2012 to February 1, 2012 for winter season and the period from July 1, 2012 to August 1, 2012 for summer season. The actual load forecasting period starts from January 22, till 28, 2012 for winter model and from July 22 till 28, 2012 for summer model. The real data for Iraqi power system which belongs to the Ministry of Electricity.

Keywords: short term load forecasting, prediction interval, type 2 fuzzy logic systems, electric, computer systems engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
375 Pegylated Interferon in HCV Genotype 3 Relapser to Conventional Interferon in Pakistani Population

Authors: Saad Khalid Niaz, Arif Mahmood Siddiqui, Afzal Haqi

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Background: Estimated prevalence of Hepatitis C in Pakistan is 5% of which 78 % are Genotype 3, in which Response to conventional interferon is reported to be 70%. Objective: To determine the efficacy of pegylated interferon 20 kDa (Unipeg) plus ribavirin (Ribazole) in HCV genotype 3 patients who relapsed to conventional interferon. Methods: This is an ongoing study of 20 enrolled patients. Pegylated interferon alfa-2a 20 kDa 180 mcg weekly with ribavirin, were administered for a period of 24 weeks. Virological Responses were measured by Qualitative HCV RNA at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48 to determine Rapid Virological Response (RVR), Early Virological Response (EVR), End of Treatment (ETR) and Sustained Virological Response (SVR), respectively. EVR was done for those who didn’t achieve RVR. Results: Males were 12 (60%) and mean age was 38.5 ±7.62 years. Out of 20 recruited patients, all completed 4 weeks therapy; RVR was achieved in 8 (40%) patients. One patient was lost to follow up and one yet to visit at 12 weeks. From 10 patients, 8 (80%) patients achieved EVR. Out of intent-to-treat patients, 15 completed 24 weeks therapy, ETR was achieved in 14 (93%) patients and 9 patients completed post therapy follow-up, of which, 8 (89%) patients achieved SVR. Conclusion: Our interim data demonstrates that Pegylated Interferon alfa-2a 20 kDa 180 mcg (Unipeg) in combination with Ribavirin (Ribazole) has shown promising results in treating HCV Genotype 3 patients who relapsed to conventional interferon. We recommend use of Pegylated Interferon in Relapsers with Genotype 3 when financial constraints limit the use of oral antivirals.

Keywords: pegylated interferon (unipeg), hepatitis c, relapsers, Pakistan

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374 A Study on the Influence of Internal Sulfate on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Abbas S. Al-Ameeri Rawaa H. Issa

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The internal sulfate attack is considered as a very important problem of concrete manufacture in Iraq and Middle East countries. Sulfate drastically influences the properties of concrete. This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effect of internal sulfates on fresh and some of the hardened properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) made from locally available materials. Tests were conducted on five mixes, with five SO3 levels (3.9, 5, 6, 7 and 8) (% by wt. of cement). The last four SO3 levels are outside the limits of the Iraqi specifications (IQS NO.45/1984). The results indicated that sulfate passively influenced the fresh properties such as decreased workability, and effect on hardened properties of the self compacting concrete. Also, the result indicated the optimum SO3 content which gives maximum strength and little tendency to expanding, which showed up at a content equal to 5% (by wt of cement), is more than acceptable limits of Iraqi specifications. Further increase in sulfates content in concrete after this optimum value showed a considerable reduction in mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete, and increment in expansion of concrete. The percentages of reduction in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity at their later age were ranged between 10.89-36.14%, 12.90-33.33%, 7.98-36.35%, 16.36 -38.37% and 1.03-10.88% respectively.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, sulfate attack, internal sulfate attack, fresh properties, harden properties, optimum SO3 content

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373 The Impact of Funders on the Media Industry in the Kurdistan Region Iraqi

Authors: Abdulsamad Qadir Hussien

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This paper examines the impact of funders on the media industry in the Kurdistan Region Iraqi (henceforth KRI). The key objectives of the study are also looking at: how the media industry funder influences the media organization and journalists’ practices in the Kurdish community; how the media organizations attempt to utilize the available capabilities to serve the goals of the funded entities, whether they are parties, NGOs, governments, commercial companies or have individual ownership of media institutes. Further, the research project seeks to discover the influence and role of the funder on the media content and determine the prioritizing that will broadcast on the media. Furthermore, the project tries to understand to what extent the media organizations have a commitment to achieve the public interest and public affairs by following the key ethical principles. The study also attempts to explain the situation of the public service media. These variables are measured through a survey questionnaire distributed among a sample of 108 journalists and media practitioners. This research project, therefore, explores a new topic for study in the Kurdish community regarding the media industry, funding, and financial support. This article adopted surveys (n=108) as data collection tools by using a statistical method (SPSS 21). The data of the study have been tabulated, coded, and presented in a descriptive form.

Keywords: funding, journalists’ practices, Kurdish media industry, public services media

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372 Perception of Predictive Confounders for the Prevalence of Hypertension among Iraqi Population: A Pilot Study

Authors: Zahraa Albasry, Hadeel D. Najim, Anmar Al-Taie

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Background: Hypertension is considered as one of the most important causes of cardiovascular complications and one of the leading causes of worldwide mortality. Identifying the potential risk factors associated with this medical health problem plays an important role in minimizing its incidence and related complications. The objective of this study is to explore the prevalence of receptor sensitivity regarding assess and understand the perception of specific predictive confounding factors on the prevalence of hypertension (HT) among a sample of Iraqi population in Baghdad, Iraq. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross sectional study was carried out on 100 adult subjects during their visit to the outpatient clinic at a certain sector of Baghdad Province, Iraq. Demographic, clinical and health records alongside specific screening and laboratory tests of the participants were collected and analyzed to detect the potential of confounding factors on the prevalence of HT. Results: 63% of the study participants suffered from HT, most of them were female patients (P < 0.005). Patients aged between 41-50 years old significantly suffered from HT than other age groups (63.5%, P < 0.001). 88.9% of the participants were obese (P < 0.001) and 47.6% had diabetes with HT. Positive family history and sedentary lifestyle were significantly higher among all hypertensive groups (P < 0.05). High salt and fatty food intake was significantly found among patients suffered from isolated systolic hypertension (ISHT) (P < 0.05). A significant positive correlation between packed cell volume (PCV) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r = 0.353, P = 0.048) found among normotensive participants. Among hypertensive patients, a positive significant correlation found between triglycerides (TG) and both SBP (r = 0.484, P = 0.031) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (r = 0.463, P = 0.040), while low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) showed a positive significant correlation with DBP (r = 0.443, P = 0.021). Conclusion: The prevalence of HT among Iraqi populations is of major concern. Further consideration is required to detect the impact of potential risk factors and to minimize blood pressure (BP) elevation and reduce the risk of other cardiovascular complications later in life.

Keywords: Correlation, Hypertension, Iraq, Risk factors

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371 Pathological and Molecular Diagnosis of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Chinkara Deer (Gazella Bennettii), in Pakistan

Authors: Mudassar Iqbal, Riaz Hussain, Khalid Mehmood, Farah Ali, Fazal Mahmood, Abdul Ghaffar

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Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is an important cause of caseous lymphadenitis (CL), a complex, chronic devastating and destructive disease of small ruminants. In present study, postmortem examination of Chinkara deer (n=25) was conducted in year 2014. Pus samples suggestive of CL were collected from the superficial lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs during necropsy and subjected to standard microbiological procedures for isolation and molecular analysis of bacterial pathogens. Pus samples collected from carcasses (25) presenting clinical lesions of C. pseudotuberculosis infection was identified in 19 (76%) carcasses on the basis of culture characteristics. The frequency of C. pseudotuberculosis bacterium was higher in older animals as compared to young animals. Grossly, multiple tubercles of variable size having caseous material were observed in liver, lungs, spleen and lymph nodes. Histopathologically, tissue sections from all the visceral organs were extensively plugged with abscess. In present study specific prolineiminopeptidase (PIP) gene of the C. pseudotuberculosis was amplified by the Polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) in 17(25) cases. The efficient and reliable molecular analysis along with necropsy findings in present study can be used as valuable approach for diagnosis of caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants.

Keywords: Chinkara deer, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Caseous lymphadenitis, PCR

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370 Investigating Iraqi EFL University Students' Productive Knowledge of Grammatical Collocations in English

Authors: Adnan Z. Mkhelif

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Grammatical collocations (GCs) are word combinations containing a preposition or a grammatical structure, such as an infinitive (e.g. smile at, interested in, easy to learn, etc.). Such collocations tend to be difficult for Iraqi EFL university students (IUS) to master. To help address this problem, it is important to identify the factors causing it. This study aims at investigating the effects of L2 proficiency, frequency of GCs and their transparency on IUSs’ productive knowledge of GCs. The study involves 112 undergraduate participants with different proficiency levels, learning English in formal contexts in Iraq. The data collection instruments include (but not limited to) a productive knowledge test (designed by the researcher using the British National Corpus (BNC)), as well as the grammar part of the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). The study findings have shown that all the above-mentioned factors have significant effects on IUSs’ productive knowledge of GCs. In addition to establishing evidence of which factors of L2 learning might be relevant to learning GCs, it is hoped that the findings of the present study will contribute to more effective methods of teaching that can better address and help overcome the problems IUSs encounter in learning GCs. The study is thus hoped to have significant theoretical and pedagogical implications for researchers, syllabus designers as well as teachers of English as a foreign/second language.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, frequency, grammatical collocations, L2 vocabulary learning, productive knowledge, proficiency, transparency

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369 The Role of Sustainable Development in the Design and Planning of Smart Cities Using GIS Techniques: Models of Arab Cities

Authors: Ahmed M. Jihad

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The paper presents the concept of sustainable development, and the role of geographic techniques in the design, planning and presentation of maps of smart cities with geographical vision, and the identification of programs and tools, and models of maps of Arab cities, is the problem of research in how to apply, process and experience these programs? What is the role of geographic techniques in planning and mapping the optimal place for these cities? The paper proposes an addition to the designs of Iraqi cities, as it can be developed in the future to serve as a model for interactive smart cities by developing its services. The importance of this paper stems from the concept of sustainable development dynamic which has become a method of development imposed by the present era in rapid development to achieve social balance and specialized programs in draw paper argues that ensuring sustainable development is achieved through the use of information technology. The paper will follow the theoretical presentation of the importance of the concept of development, design tools and programs. The paper follows the method of analysis of modern systems (System Analysis Approach) through the latest programs will provide results can be said that the new Iraqi cities can be developed with smart technologies, like some of the Arab and European cities that were newly created through the introduction of international investment, and therefore Plans can be made to select the best programs in manufacturing and producing maps and smart cities in the future.

Keywords: geographic techniques, planning the cities, smart cities, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 125