Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 575

Search results for: autocratic leaders

575 Paradigm Shift of Leadership: Leaders in Information Technology

Authors: Mustafa Hyder, Khalid Mahmood Iraqi, Sameen Mustafa

Abstract:

They say if the leader limps, all the others will start limping too. Therefore, a very dynamic leadership at all levels within the IT Community is critical to the success of an organization. This paper is an attempt to study the relationship between Information Technology (IT) with leadership and assesses its relevancy in today's fast-paced hi-tech globalized environment. The paper strives to look into the essential qualities and knowledge as needed by today's IT leader, in contrast to essential characteristics common to all the leaders-past, present, and future.

Keywords: leadership, autocratic leaders, characteristics of IT leaders, skills of IT professionals, IT leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
574 Oligarchic Transitions within the Tunisian Autocratic Authoritarian System and the Struggle for Democratic Transformation: Before and beyond the 2010 Jasmine Revolution

Authors: M. Moncef Khaddar

Abstract:

This paper focuses mainly on a contextualized understanding of ‘autocratic authoritarianism’ in Tunisia without approaching its peculiarities in reference to the ideal type of capitalist-liberal democracy but rather analysing it as a Tunisian ‘civilian dictatorship’. This is reminiscent, to some extent, of the French ‘colonial authoritarianism’ in parallel with the legacy of the traditional formal monarchic absolutism. The Tunisian autocratic political system is here construed as a state manufactured nationalist-populist authoritarianism associated with a de facto presidential single party, two successive autocratic presidents and their subservient autocratic elites who ruled with an iron fist the de-colonialized ‘liberated nation’ that came to be subjected to a large scale oppression and domination under the new Tunisian Republic. The diachronic survey of Tunisia’s autocratic authoritarian system covers the early years of autocracy, under the first autocratic president Bourguiba, 1957-1987, as well as the different stages of its consolidation into a police-security state under the second autocratic president, Ben Ali, 1987-2011. Comparing the policies of authoritarian regimes, within what is identified synchronically as a bi-cephalous autocratic system, entails an in-depth study of the two autocrats, who ruled Tunisia for more than half a century, as modern adaptable autocrats. This is further supported by an exploration of the ruling authoritarian autocratic elites who played a decisive role in shaping the undemocratic state-society relations, under the 1st and 2nd President, and left an indelible mark, structurally and ideologically, on Tunisian polity. Emphasis is also put on the members of the governmental and state-party institutions and apparatuses that kept circulating and recycling from one authoritarian regime to another, and from the first ‘founding’ autocrat to his putschist successor who consolidated authoritarian stability, political continuity and autocratic governance. The reconfiguration of Tunisian political life, in the post-autocratic era, since 2011 will be analysed. This will be scrutinized, especially in light of the unexpected return of many high-profile figures and old guards of the autocratic authoritarian apparatchiks. How and why were, these public figures, from an autocratic era, able to return in a supposedly post-revolutionary moment? Finally, while some continue to celebrate the putative exceptional success of ‘democratic transition’ in Tunisia, within a context of ‘unfinished revolution’, others remain perplexed in the face of a creeping ‘oligarchic transition’ to a ‘hybrid regime’, characterized rather by elites’ reformist tradition than a bottom-up genuine democratic ‘change’. This latter is far from answering the 2010 ordinary people’s ‘uprisings’ and ‘aspirations, for ‘Dignity, Liberty and Social Justice’.

Keywords: authoritarianism, autocracy, democratization, democracy, populism, transition, Tunisia

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573 Leadership and Whether It Stems from Innate Abilities or from Situation

Authors: Salwa Abdelbaki

Abstract:

This research investigated how leaders develop, asking whether they have been leaders due to their innate abilities or they gain leadership characteristics through interactions based on requirements of a situation. If the first is true, then a leader should be successful in any situation. Otherwise, a leader may succeed only in a specific situation. A series of experiments were carried out on three groups including of males and females. First; a group of 148 students with different specializations had to select a leader. Another group of 51 students had to recall their previous experiences and their knowledge of each other to identify who were leaders in different situations. Then a series of analytic tools were applied to the identified leaders and to the whole groups to find out how leaders were developed. A group of 40 young children was also experimented with to find young leaders among them and to analyze their characteristics.

Keywords: leadership, innate characteristics, situation, leadership theories

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
572 Cultural Differences in Gender Stereotyping of Leaders

Authors: Maria Clapham, Krysta Thomason

Abstract:

This study examined how age and gender of a leader affect characterizations of leaders across cultures. Participants from around the world were randomly assigned to rate one of the following types of leaders: successful leader, female leader over age 50, female leader under age 40, male leader over age 50, or male leader under age 40. Ratings of these leaders on communal, agentic, task-oriented, relationship-oriented, and transformational leadership characteristics were compared across four world regions: Asia, Europe, Latin America, and USA/Canada. Results suggest some similarities and differences in characterizations of leaders across cultures.

Keywords: culture, gender, leadership, stereotyping

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
571 Review for Identifying Online Opinion Leaders

Authors: Yu Wang

Abstract:

Nowadays, Internet enables its users to share the information online and to interact with others. Facing with numerous information, these Internet users are confused and begin to rely on the opinion leaders’ recommendations. The online opinion leaders are the individuals who have professional knowledge, who utilize the online channels to spread word-of-mouth information and who can affect the attitudes or even the behavior of their followers to some degree. Because utilizing the online opinion leaders is seen as an important approach to affect the potential consumers, how to identify them has become one of the hottest topics in the related field. Hence, in this article, the concepts and characteristics are introduced, and the researches related to identifying opinion leaders are collected and divided into three categories. Finally, the implications for future studies are provided.

Keywords: online opinion leaders, user attributes analysis, text mining analysis, network structure analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
570 Reculturing: The Key to Sustainability of Private Universities

Authors: Yu Sing Ong

Abstract:

This article explores the key issues and challenges facing private university leaders today. Universities are reculturing their operational processes, academic content and interactions with stakeholders. Many challenges centred around the need for university leaders to reculture the institutions and the redesigning of the teaching profession. It recommends a framework for university leaders to deal with the challenges they face. Only through reculturing, private universities can maintain the sustainability of its workforce and student population. The article has both theoretical and practical significance for private university leaders to follow.

Keywords: university leadership, reculturing, improvement, teacher education, motivation, private education

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
569 An Examination of the Role of Perceived Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction among Selected Bank Employees

Authors: Solomon Ojo

Abstract:

The study set out to investigate the role of perceived leadership style on achievement motivation of selected bank employees. The study was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 585 bank workers took part in the study; 283 (48.4%) were males while 302% (51.6%) were females. Mean age of 31.8 yrs (SD = 7.8 yrs) was reported for the participants for the study. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistic. The t- test for independent measures was used to test all the hypotheses, using the statistical package for social sciences version 21.0. The results in the study revealed that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style of leadership reported more job satisfaction than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style of leadership [t(583) = 16.43, p<.001]; bank employees who perceived their leaders as high in initiating structure style reported more job satisfaction than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low in initiating structure style [t(583)=12.06, p<.01]. The results showed further the influence of perceived leadership styles on all measures of job satisfaction. First, the result showed that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style reported more satisfaction with hours worked each day than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style [t(583) = 9.23, p<.01]. Second, the results revealed that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style reported more satisfaction with flexibility in scheduling than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style [t(583) = 8.80, p<.01]. Third, it was shown that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style reported more satisfaction with location of work than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style [t(583) = 14.17, p<.01] e.t.c. The results were extensively discussed in relation to relevant body of literature.

Keywords: leadership styles, job satisfaction, bank employees, perceived

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568 A Value-Based Approach to Recognize Authentic Transformational Leaders' Delivering Process of Corporate Social Responsibility Values

Authors: Yi-Jung Chen, Yunshi Liu

Abstract:

To explain how followers can perceive whether or not transformational leaders are authentic on the basis of their leadership behaviors based on value-based leadership theory, this study adopts the dual-focus model of transformational leadership and evaluates leaders’ corporate social responsibility values along with followers’ perceptions of leaders’ values. Using dyadic questionnaires, the final study sample consisted of 252 followers and 43 leaders at a private firm in Taiwan. Results show that followers perceive corporate social responsibility values of transformational leaders through their group-focused leadership behaviors because such group-focused leadership is in line with these values.

Keywords: authentic transformational leadership, corporate social responsibility value, value-based leadership theory, dual-focus leadership

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567 Moral Identity and Moral Attentiveness as Predictors of Ethical Leadership in Financial Sector

Authors: Pilar Gamarra Gamarra, Michele Girotto

Abstract:

In the expanding field of leaders’ ethical behavior research, little attention has been paid to the association between finance leaders’ ethical traits (beyond personality) and ethical leadership, and more importantly, how these ethical characteristics can be predictors of ethical behavior at the leadership level in the financial sector. In this study, we tested a theoretical model based on uponsocial cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) and the cognitive-developmental model (Piaget, 1932) to examine leaders’ moral identity and moral attentiveness as antecedents of ethical leadership. After the 2008 economic crisis, the marketplace has awakened to the potential dangers of unethical behavior. The unethical behavior of the leaders of the financial sector was identified as guilty of this economic catastrophe. For that reason, it seems increasingly prudent for organizations to have leaders who are cognitively inclined toward ethical behavior. This evidence suggests that moral attentiveness and moral identity is perhaps one way of identifying those kinds of leaders. For leaders who are morally attentive and have a high moral identity, themes of ethics interventions are consistent with their way of seeing the word. As a result, these leaders could become critical components of change in organizations and could provide the energy and skills necessary for these efforts to be successful. Ethical behavior of leader from the financial sector and marketing sectors must be joined to manage the change. In this study, a leader’s moral identity, leader’s moral attentiveness, and self-importance of Ethical Leadership are measured for financial and marketing leaders to be compared to determine the relationship between the three variables in each sector. Other conclusion related to gender, educational level or generation are obtained.

Keywords: ethical leadership, moral identity, moral attentiveness, financial leaders, marketing leaders, ethical behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
566 Artificial Intelligence Ethics: What Business Leaders Need to Consider for the Future

Authors: Kylie Leonard

Abstract:

Investment in artificial intelligence (AI) can be an attractive opportunity for business leaders as there are many easy-to-see benefits. These benefits include task completion rates, overall cost, and better forecasting. Business leaders are often unaware of the challenges that can accompany AI, such as data center costs, access to data, employee acceptance, and privacy concerns. In addition to the benefits and challenges of AI, it is important to practice AI ethics to ensure the safe creation of AI. AI ethics include aspects of algorithm bias, limits in transparency, and surveillance. To be a good business leader, it is critical to address all the considerations involving the challenges of AI and AI ethics.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, artificial intelligence ethics, business leaders, business concerns

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565 Elucidation of Leaders' Intrapersonal Competencies in the Workplace

Authors: Prakash Singh

Abstract:

Employees who are satisfied at their place of work rate their leaders’ intrapersonal competencies as being high. They also believe that a leader’s intrapersonal competencies influence their sense of job satisfaction. Employees who indicate that they are unhappy at their place of work rate their leaders’ intrapersonal competencies as being low. They also believe that a leader’s intrapersonal intelligence influence their feeling of job satisfaction. The leader’s appropriate intrapersonal competencies are crucial to the creation of a motivated and satisfied employee team. In this study, the quantitative research method was used to determine the employees’ perceptions of their leaders’ intrapersonal competencies and their influence on their job satisfaction; the six competencies being self-awareness, self-confidence, self-expression, self-control, adaptability, and optimism. All the competencies of leaders identified in this quantitative study can therefore be described as intervening variables that influence an employee’s sense of job satisfaction. The number of responses that indicate that each of the intrapersonal competencies of a leader that will have an influence on an employee’s sense of job satisfaction, ranges from 93% (a leader’s sense of self-awareness) to 99% (a leader’s ability to be adaptable). As the responses are significantly similar, it can be stated that the respondents indicate that all the intrapersonal competencies of a leader can influence an employee’s sense of job satisfaction. The findings of this study strongly suggest that in order to be satisfied at work, employees prefer to be led by leaders who are confident in their leadership roles; who send out clear, unambiguous messages; who maintain self-control; who are adaptable and flexible;, who face the future with optimism and who support the establishment of a collegial working environment. Evidently, the findings corroborate the hypothesis that employees believe that the intrapersonal competencies of leaders have a positive influence on the employees’ sense of job satisfaction. This study’s findings, therefore, confirm that the key to the leaders’ self-knowledge is access to their own feelings and the ability to discriminate among them and draw upon them to guide behaviour in their organisations. This exploratory study makes a contribution to the emerging research being accomplished on leaders’ intrapersonal intelligence with more research still needing to be attempted to determine to what extent these competencies of leaders can reshape the organizational climate and culture.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, employees’ job satisfaction, leaders’ intrapersonal competencies, leaders’ self-knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
564 Women Educational Leaders in an Age of Accountability

Authors: Ann Vibert, Heather Hemming

Abstract:

This paper presentation summarizes the findings and implications of research on the plight and practices of women educational leaders in public school systems and in one university. The authors, both women university administrators, are also scholars and researchers of education. The research project on which this paper presentation is based proposed to examine how women educational leaders imagined, experienced, and carried out their leadership roles in the context of a growing local and global accountability-based performativity discourse which is reshaping educational work especially for women, we argue, in both public school and post-secondary sites. The research employed critical ethnographic interviews with 20 women educational leaders in P-12 school systems and three women university level educational leaders. Data were collected on women educational leaders’ perceptions of the effects of accountability and performativity discourses on the nature of their work. Specifically, leaders were asked to speak to whether they experienced a growth in managerial work as a consequence of increased accountability demands; how they experienced their work changing as a consequence of accountability and performativity demands; how these changes impacted the central values they enacted in their work as women educational leaders changes; and how they responded to/negotiated/accommodated changes in the nature of their work developing as a consequence of accountability and performativity frameworks. Findings from the research data and analyses confirm and extend recent scholarly work on the gendered nature of performativity and accountability discourses and frameworks, and their differential effects across differing genders. The oral presentation we propose here focusses on those findings in terms of similarities for women educational leaders across different educational contexts.

Keywords: women in educational leadership, gender and educational performativity, accountability and women leaders, gender and educational leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
563 Roles Currently Played by Educational Middle Leaders

Authors: Elaine Marta Pereira Aaltonen

Abstract:

Effective school leadership materialised in educational settings through the high standard professional performance of senior and middle leaders, has increasingly become an education policy priority around the world due to a wide recognition that schools need knowledgeable, skilled, and committed leaders, along with great teachers, in order to ensure outstanding education at all levels of schooling. The scope of this paper is the work of middle leaders, whose direct influence on teachers and classroom teaching, thus, on student learning outcomes, is a key component for successful school systems. It particularly aims at sharing some of the findings obtained through an academic study recently carried out by the same researcher, which was focused on enhancing understanding about aspects related to the professional performance of educational middle leaders, applied to the context of the lower elementary school division of a private mainstream school located in Brazil. The master´s dissertation findings included identifying the roles performed by a team of educational middle leaders throughout the year of 2021, as well as gaining insights on their perceptions about the roles performed, both through an electronic questionnaire and individual face-to-face interviews. Not only the roles of the middle leaders who participated in the research have been identified through the qualitative case study undertaken, but additional research finding lying within the sphere of the categorisation of such roles, based upon coherent domains of practice, has possibly been made. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to outline the findings concerning the current roles played by educational middle leaders.

Keywords: roles, middle leaders, educational leadership, school leadership, and management

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562 Leadership Styles in the Hotel Sector and Its Effect on Employees’ Creativity and Organizational Commitment

Authors: Hatem Radwan Ibrahim Radwan

Abstract:

Leadership is crucial for hotel survival and success. It enables hotels to develop and compete effectively. This research intends to explore the implementation of six leadership styles by frontline hotel managers in four star hotels in Cairo and assess its impact on employees’ creativity and organizational commitment. The leadership patterns considered in this study includes: democratic, autocratic, laissez-faire, transformational, transactional, and ethical leaderships. Questionnaire was used as a research method to gather data. A structured survey was established and distributed on employees in Cairo’s four star hotels. A total of 284 questionnaire forms were returned and usable for statistical analysis. The results of this study identified that transactional and autocratic leadership were the prevalent styles used in four star hotels in Cairo. Two leadership styles proved to have significant high correlation and impact on employees’ creativity and organizational commitment including: transformational and democratic leadership. Besides, laissez-faire leadership was found had a smaller effect on employees’ creativity and ethical leadership had a lesser influence on employees’ commitment. The autocratic leadership had strong negative correlation and significant impact on both dependent variables. This research concludes that frontline hotel managers should adopt transformational and/or democratic leadership style in managing their subordinates.

Keywords: creativity, hotels, leadership styles, organizational commitment

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
561 Leading People in a Digital Era: A Theoretical Study of Challenges and Opportunities of Online Networking Platforms

Authors: Pawel Korzynski

Abstract:

Times where leaders communicate mainly while walking along the hallways have passed away. Currently, millennials, people that were born between the early 1980s and the early 2000s, extensively use applications based on Web 2.0 model that assumes content creation and edition by all Internet users in a collaborative fashion. Leaders who are willing to engage their subordinates in a digital era, increasingly often use above-mentioned applications. This paper discusses challenges and opportunities that are related to leaders’ online networking. First, online networking-related terms that appeared in literature are analyzed. Then, types of online networking platforms for leaders and ways how these platforms can be used are discussed. Finally, several trends in online networking studies and extrapolation of some findings to leadership are explained.

Keywords: social media, digital era, leadership, online networking

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560 School Leaders and Professional Licenses: Measuring the Impact as Perceived by Qatari Schools' Stakeholders

Authors: Hissa Sadiq, Abdullah Abu-Tineh, Fatma Al-Mutawah, Hamda Al-Sulaiti

Abstract:

The purpose of this quantitative study was to measure the difference in levels of satisfaction of students, teachers, and parents in schools run by licensed school leaders comparing with schools run by unlicensed school leaders. Data was gathered from 108 school performance reports as published by Ministry of Education and Higher Education for the year 2015-2016. School leaders in 58 participating schools obtained the professional licenses while school leaders in 56 participating schools have no professional licenses. Percentages, standard deviations, and t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results showed that no statistical differences were found in students’ satisfaction between the two school types. However, there were statistical differences in parents and teachers’ satisfaction in the two school types attributed to obtaining the professional license. Teachers and parents of students in schools run by licensed school leaders satisfied more than schools run by unlicensed school leaders. Finally, many recommendations and implications were discussed and proposed. This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # (NPRP7-1224-5-178) from the Qatar national research fund (a member of Qatar Foundation) to Abdullah M. Abu-Tineh. The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the author

Keywords: professional licenses, Qatari schools, licensure system, satisfaction

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559 Nurses’ Views on ‘Effective Nurse Leader’ Characteristics in Iraq

Authors: S. Abed, S. O’Neill

Abstract:

This research explored ward nurses’ views about the characteristics of effective nurse leaders in the context of Iraq as a developing country, where the delivery of health care continues to face disruption and change. It is well established that the provision of modern health care requires effective nurse leaders, but in countries such as Iraq the lack of effective nurse leaders is noted as a major challenge. In a descriptive quantitative study, a survey questionnaire was administered to 210 ward nurses working in two public hospitals in a major city in the north of Iraq. The participating nurses were of the opinion that the effectiveness of their nurse leaders was evident in their ability to demonstrate: good clinical knowledge, effective communication and managerial skills. They also viewed their leaders as needing to hold high-level nursing qualifications, though this was not necessarily the case in practice. Additionally, they viewed nurse leaders’ personal qualities as important, which included politeness, ethical behaviour, and trustworthiness. When considered against the issues raised in interviews with a smaller group (20) of senior nurse leaders, representative of the various occupational levels, implications identify the need for professional development that focuses on how the underpinning competencies relate to leadership and how transformational leadership is evidenced in practice.

Keywords: health care, nurse education, nursing in Iraq, nurse leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
558 Mastering the Paradox: Five Unexpected Qualities of Innovation Leaders

Authors: Murtuza Ali Lakhani, Michelle Marquard

Abstract:

Given the paradoxical nature of innovation, we propose that leaders of innovation-centered organizations need certain specific qualities focused on developing higher-order structures, fostering self-organization, and nurturing constructive dissonance and conciliation. Keeping in view the prolific literature on leadership and innovation, we carry out a quantitative study with data collected over a five-year period involving 31 leaders and 209 observers (direct reports, peers, and managers) from across five companies based in the United States. Rather than accepting, as some scholars and practitioners do, that leadership is all-encompassing, we argue that it is specific to a given context, e.g., innovation. We find that leadership is the locus of innovation and that leaders able to effectively lead the innovation agenda demonstrate five specific behaviors and characteristics, namely stewardship, communication, empowerment, creativity, and vision. We demonstrate that the alignment (or misalignment) between a leader’s “self view” and “other view” is a tell-tale sign of whether (or not) the leader’s organization will succeed at innovation. We propose a scale, iLeadership, and test it psychometrically for assessment of leaders and organizational units charged with innovation.

Keywords: innovation, leadership, innovation leadership, knowledge creation

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557 The Innovative Leadership in Air Forces

Authors: Ahmet Emre Yonder

Abstract:

The concept of present time is inevitably and rapidly changing. That provokes unbalanced, uncertain and elusive platform in the world order. Keeping up with this fluctuation requires a willingness to step beyond the comfort zones and to take a step through unknown. That is the perspectives of organizations in which the shareholders persistently create and then they share their creation. Moreover they are adapted to the unpredictable shifts and they establish vision. These are the meaning of innovation which is a process that converts new ideas to invaluable outcomes and that process can be ensured via innovative leaders. Leaders’ creativity is needed when challenging against countless complicated and unsteady situations in the battlefield. However, little attention has been paid to the importance of being innovative leader apart from innovating new technologies so far. Additionally, in most situation militarist organizations are hesitant to welcome different attitudes and that may discourage new ideas. Furthermore military leaders may complain about the lack of sources in today's world where the sources are very rare. In that point military leaders should change the strategies they apply from conventional views to the innovation of different point of views. But the constant occupation in Air Forces can be counted as a huge obstacle for innovative thinking. An organizational structure is needed to be developed for solutions of the problems which the creative leaders will encounter.This article focuses on how to raise innovative military leaders with innovative thinking skills and the need for a change from conventional to the innovative leadership in Air Forces. It also gives important suggestions to encourage raising innovative military leaders.

Keywords: air force, creativity, leadership, military, innovation

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556 The Roles, Strategic Coordination, and Alignment of CTOs: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Shailendra Natraj, Kristin Paetzold, B. R. Katzy

Abstract:

The significant role of technology in strategic business decisions has created the need for executives who understand technology and recognize profitable applications to products, services and processes. The role of CTO’s is very complex within technology-based firms, which stretches from the technology aspects to the strategic goal and vision of the firm. Often the roles of CTOs scales from as functional leaders, strategic leaders or supera- functional leaders. In most of the companies the roles are unclear and fuzzy. We in our research are trying to explore each of the orientation and link between leadership types (functional, strategic and super functional) of CTOs, responsibilities, credibility and strategic and conceptual responsibilities. Approach: We conducted a comprehensive literature review with the available databank sources. Results: From the conducted literature review we could identify that most of the research work conducted so far were mainly distributed between roles and responsibilities of CTOs. The available sources pointed were limited to roles of CTOs as functional leaders. Contribution: In our findings based on the literature review, we could identify that apart from the conducted research what so far has not been focused yet are (a) The leadership types (mainly) strategic and super-functional leaders) of CTOs, (b) the responsibilities and credibility of CTOs and (c) the strategic and conceptual responsibilities of CTOs.

Keywords: CTO, chief technology officer, strategy, technology leaders

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
555 Ethical Leadership Mediates Subordinates’ Likeness for Leader and Affective Commitment to Squads among Police Cadets

Authors: Odunayo O. Oluwafemi, Valentine A. Mebu

Abstract:

There is a blur as to whether subordinates’ sheer fondness for a leader or the ethical behaviours demonstrated by such a leader is what engenders subordinates’ affective commitment to the group. This study aimed to depict and clarify that perceived ethical leadership by subordinates outweighs their likeness for a leader in determining their level of affective commitment to the group using a sample of police cadets. Subordinate cadets were asked to rate the ethical leadership behaviours displayed by their cadet Leaders; their likeness for their leaders and also rate their own affective commitment to their squads (N = 252, Mean Age = 22.70, Age range = 17 to 29 years, SD = 2.264, 75% males). A mediation analysis was conducted to test hypotheses. Results showed that there was a significant indirect effect between likeness for leaders and affective commitment through ethical leadership behaviour (b = .734, 95% BCa CI [.413, 1.146], p = .000); and a nonsignificant direct effect between likeness for leader and subordinates’ affective commitment (b = .526, 95% BCa CI [-.106, 1.157], p = .10), this indicated a full mediation. The results strongly suggested that the positive relationship between subordinates’ likeness for their leaders and their affective commitment to the squad is produced by perceived leaders’ ethical behaviours. Therefore, leaders should exhibit and prioritize ethical behaviours over the need to be liked by their subordinates to guarantee their affective commitment to group goals and aspirations.

Keywords: affective commitment, ethical leadership, leader cadets, likeness for leader, subordinate cadets

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554 Well-Being in the Workplace: Do Christian Leaders Behave Differently?

Authors: Mariateresa Torchia, Helene Cristini, Hannele Kauppinen

Abstract:

Leadership plays a vital role in organizations. Leaders provide directions and facilitate the processes that enable organizations to achieve their goals and objectives. However, while productivity and financial objectives are often given the greatest emphasis, leaders also have the responsibility for instituting standards of ethical conduct and moral values that guide the behavior of employees. Leaders’ behaviors such as support, empowerment and a high-quality relationship with their employees might not only prevent stress, but also improve employees’ stress coping meanwhile contributing to their affective well-being. Stemming from Girard’s Mimetic Theory, this study aims at understanding how leaders can foster well-being in organizations. To do so, we explore which is the role leaders play in conflict management, resentment management and negative emotions dissipation. Furthermore, we examine whether and to what extent religiosity impacts the way in which leaders operate in relation to employees’ well-being. Indeed, given that organizational values are crucial to ethical behavior and firms’ values may be steeled by a deep sense of spirituality and religious identification, there is a need to take a closer look at the role religion and spirituality play in influencing the way leaders impact employees’ well-being. Thus, religion might work as an overarching logic that provides a set of principles guiding leaders’ everyday practices and relations with employees. We answer our research questions using a qualitative approach. We interviewed 27 Christian leaders (members of the Christian Entrepreneurs and Leaders Association – EDC, a non-profit organization created in 1926 including 3,000 French Christian Leaders & Entrepreneurs). Our results show that well-being can have a different meaning in relation to the type of companies, size, culture, country of analysis. Moreover the values and believes of leaders influence the way they see and foster well-being among employees. Furthermore, leaders can have both a positive or negative impact on well-being. Indeed on the one side, they could increase well-being in the company while on the other hand, they could be the source of resentment and conflicts among employees. Finally, we observed that Christian leaders possess characteristics that are sometimes missing in leaders (humility, inability to compare with others, attempt to be coherent with their values and beliefs, interest in the common good instead of the personal interest, having tougher dilemmas, collectively undertaking the firm). Moreover the Christian leader believes that the common good should come before personal interest. In other words, to them, not only short –termed profit shouldn’t guide strategical decisions but also leaders should feel responsible for their employees’ well-being. Last but not least, the study is not an apologia of Christian, yet it discusses the implications of these values through the light of Girard’s mimetic theory for both theory and practice.

Keywords: Christian leaders, employees well-being, leadership, mimetic theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
553 Mastering the Innovation Paradox: The Five Unexpected Qualities of Innovation Leaders

Authors: Murtuza Ali Lakhani, Michelle Marquard

Abstract:

Given the paradoxical nature of innovation, we propose that leaders of innovation-centered organizations need certain specific qualities focused on developing higher-order structures, fostering self-organization, and nurturing constructive dissonance and conciliation. Keeping in view the prolific literature on leadership and innovation, we carry out a quantitative study with data collected over a five-year period involving 31 leaders and 209 observers (direct reports, peers, and managers) from across five companies based in the United States. Rather than accepting, as some scholars and practitioners do, that leadership is all-encompassing, we argue that it is specific to a given context, e.g., innovation. We find that leadership is the locus of innovation and that leaders able to effectively lead the innovation agenda demonstrate five specific behaviors and characteristics, namely stewardship, communication, empowerment, creativity, and vision. We demonstrate that the alignment (or misalignment) between a leader’s “self view” and “other view” is a tell-tale sign of whether (or not) the leader’s organization will succeed at innovation. We propose a scale, iLeadership, and test it psychometrically for assessment of leaders and organizational units charged with innovation.

Keywords: leadership, innovation, knowledge creating organizations, leadership behavior, leadership assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
552 Factors Influencing the Roles and Responsibilities of Middle Leaders in Saudi and English Primary Schools: A Comparative Critical Study

Authors: Saeed Musaid H. Alzahrani

Abstract:

The role of middle leaders, especially in primary schools, is a multi-faced role that has been subject to changes in nature over recent decades, with claims for more distributed leadership practices. This research examines the way 18 middle leaders in Saudi and English primary schools conceptualise their roles and responsibilities, and different factors influencing those roles and responsibilities. It begins from the premise that both the power of the role and the values of middle leaders are grounded in cultural and political bases, a belief held by the researcher as an 'insider' within the Saudi educational leadership context. The study consisted of a comparative analysis of the role and the responsibilities of middle leaders in Saudi primary schools and their equivalents in English primary schools. A purely qualitative methodological stance was adopted, using in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Middle leaders were asked to reflect deeply on their perceptions and understanding of their roles and explain what they thought influenced their daily practices and responsibilities. The findings suggest that the concept of middle leadership has been influenced by power imposed from above by political authority, via internal and external hierarchical structures, which shapes the nature of the role of the middle leaders and forces them to comply. Middle leaders seem to believe they have the power to make decisions and promote change, but these findings suggest that this is illusory. The power that keeps middle leaders performing is the power of their cultural and religious values. Those values are the resource to which they turn in their search for more energy when they lack support and are short of time taken. Middle leaders in Saudi, just like their equivalents in English schools must comply with the requirements of their role. However, Saudi middle leaders are given no leeway to make decisions or implement change, neither do they have the culture of collegiality that seems to give middle leaders in England more power over their resources and decisions. However, in neither educational setting have middle leaders been given the power to lead, so they remain managers rather than leaders. The findings of this research suggest that there are more similarities between the educational settings of Saudi and England than differences; and in the light of different factors identified in the study, suggest the establishment of a framework for middle leadership, in the hope of enhancing the way the role is practiced.

Keywords: middle leader, primary school, power, educational leadership, value, culture, model, Saudi Arabia, England

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551 Challenges Faced by Physician Leaders in Teaching Hospitals of Private Medical Schools in the National Capital Region, Philippines

Authors: Policarpio Jr. Joves

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Physicians in most teaching hospitals are commonly promoted into managerial roles, yet their training is mostly in clinical and scientific skills but not in leadership competencies. When they shift into roles of physician leadership, the majority hold on to their primary identity of physicians. These conflicting roles affect their identity and eventually their work. The physician leaders also face additional challenges related to academics which include incorporation of new knowledge into the existing curriculum, use of technology in the delivery of teaching, the need to train medical students outside of hospital wards, etc. The study aims to explore how physician leaders in teaching hospitals of private medical schools enact their leadership roles and how they face the challenges as physician leaders. The study setting shall be teaching hospitals of three private medical schools situated in the National Capital Region, Philippines. A multiple case study design shall be adopted in this research. Physicians shall be eligible to participate in the study if they are practicing clinicians limited to the five major clinical specialty: Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Family Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology. They must be teaching in the College of Medicine prior to their appointments as physician leaders in both medical school and teaching hospital. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews shall be utilized as a means of data collection, with open-ended questions, enabling physician leaders to present narratives about their identity, role enactment, conflicts, reaction of colleagues, and the challenges encountered in their day-to-day work as physician leaders. Interviews shall be combined with observations and review of records to gain more insights into how the physician leaders are 'doing' management. Within-case analysis shall be done initially followed by a thematic analysis across the cases, referred to as cross–case analysis or cross-case synthesis.

Keywords: academic leaders, academic managers, physician leaders, physician managers

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550 Characteristics of Pakistani Business Leaders: A Psychological Perspective

Authors: Hafiz Haseeb Nisar, Maryam Bilal

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This qualitative study was conducted to investigate the underlying dynamics, key success factors and characteristics of Pakistani business leaders. The sample included 5 top businessmen from different business sectors. They were approached through the magazine “Manager Today” office in Lahore. Semi-structured interview technique was used to understand their experiences, attitudes, styles of management and key factors in their business success. Grounded theory was employed to analyze data. The following themes emerged as characteristics of business leaders: optimism, assertiveness, professionalism, effective management style, business knowledge/ excellence, supportive family and strong faith in God. It was noted that all these were interlinked, which leads the businessmen to become a successful business tycoon of this country. The importance of this study rests in its eastern contribution to the theoretical framework of the psychology of business leaders and particularly these findings will help to realize the basic key factors of success behind a business leader in Pakistan.

Keywords: business psychology, characteristics, key personality factors, leadership

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549 Relationship Between Collegiality and the EQ of Leaders

Authors: Prakash Singh

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Being a collegial leader would require such a person to promote an organizational passion that identifies and acknowledges the contribution of every employee. Collegiality is about sharing responsibilities and being accountable for one’s actions. Leaders must therefore be equipped with the knowledge, skills, abilities, beliefs, and dispositions that will allow them to succeed in their organizations. These abilities should not only dwell on cognition alone, but also, equally, on the development of their emotional intelligence (EQ). It is therefore a myth that leaders are entrusted with absolute power to manage all the resources of their organizations. Workers feel confident with leaders who are adaptable, flexible and supportive when it comes to shared decision-making and the devolution of power within the organization. Research strongly supports the notion that a leader requires a high level of EQ in addition to IQ (cognitive intelligence) to achieve the goals of the organization. On the other hand, traditional managers require cognitive abilities and technical skills to get the work done by their employees. This does not imply that management is not important in organizations. However, the approach of managers becomes highly critical when the focus is purely task orientated. Enabling or empowering employees, therefore, is an important aspect in establishing emotionally intelligent collaboration, as the willing and satisfied participation of the employees can be the result of leaders’ commitment to establishing a collegial working environment as demonstrated by their behaviours. This paper therefore analyses why it matters for ideal leaders to be imbued with the traits of EQ and collegiality.

Keywords: collegiality, emotional intelligence, empowering employees, traditional managers

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548 Guideline for Happy Living According to Sufficiency Economy Philosophy of People and Community Leaders in Urban Communities

Authors: Phusit Phukamchanoad

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This research was to analyze personality’s activities based on sufficiency economy philosophy of people and community leaders in urban communities. The data were collected through questionnaires administered to 392 people and interviewed with community leaders. It was found that most people revealed that their lives depend on activities in accordance with the sufficiency economy philosophy in high level especially, being honest and aware on sufficiency, occupations, peacefulness in the community leaders’ side, they reported on extravagant reduction, planting home vegetable garden, having household accounting, expense planning by dividing into 3 categories; 1) saving for illness cover 2) saving for business cover, and 3) household daily expense. The samples were also adjusted their livings quite well with the rapid change of urbanization. Although those people have encountered with any hardships, their honesty in occupations and awareness on sufficiency remain to survive happily.

Keywords: sufficiency economy philosophy, individual and household activities, urban community

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547 Conceptualizing Creative Leadership and Collaborative School Culture

Authors: Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihi, Suhaida Abd. Kadir, Keetanjaly Arivayagan

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Lately in educational organization, voluminous studies accentuate the momentous of leadership in mobilizing creativity. Creativity skill is seen as one of the important skills required for the 21st century leadership, which is also known as the tool for creative leader’s mind in engaging and stimulating ideas to execute outcomes. Hence, leaders should create an opportunity by involving every employee and stakeholders in schools to contribute their ideas towards developing creative solutions to enhance school productivity. The focal point of this article is to offer a conceptual framework on creative leadership practices among school leaders towards collaborative school culture. Intensive reviews of literature will be used in the fields of creative leadership and school culture with the aim to nurture leaders into better leaders and encourage collaborative school culture. The framework contributes a new shed on the implication of creative leadership practices and collaborative school culture. It also will contribute a new theory development and offered suggestions for follow up research.

Keywords: 21st century leadership, creative leadership, collaborative, school culture

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546 Discussion of Leadership Styles and Performance Management in MNEs

Authors: Yin-Tsuo Huang

Abstract:

Most leadership theories focus on leader's development. However, in reality, the led is also very important in the leadership process. Development relates to ensure the individual to grow in the skills, knowledge, and abilities to perform at leaders’ highest possible level now and for the future. The topic area of the relationships among leadership styles, subordinate maturity, and information distinction was identified because it is a practical problem and personal experiences occurring in multinational enterprises. Some questions to be answered through this critical analysis of the literature are: (1) What are the effective leadership styles in the leader-member and member-member relationships? (2) How do the subordinates react to leaders’ managerial style? (3) What are the relationships among leadership styles, subordinate maturity, and resulting information distinction? (4) What kinds of information distinction effects the relationships between leadership styles and subordinate maturity? (5) Where do leaders and subordinates can get information, and how? (6) In what areas are leaders’ or subordinates’ knowledge weakest, and how can they get others to prove the information they need? (7) How important is that information to the subordinates? (8) Do the leaders keep too much information for their subordinates because it is inconvenient? The main purpose of this review is to explore the theoretical and empirical literature about the relationships among leadership style, subordinates maturity, and information distinction implications in multinational Taiwanese organizations to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry.

Keywords: leadership style, subordinate maturity, information distinction, multinational organization

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