Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3683

Search results for: leadership effectiveness

3683 Exploring the State of Leadership Effectiveness of Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Ojeka Alexandra

Abstract:

The study investigated the leadership effectiveness of leaders of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The study sought to examine the leadership styles adopted, the leadership energy and effectiveness of the leaders of two tertiary institutions. The research was undertaken at two institutions, one Polytechnic and one University. The population of the study was the lecturers and the heads of departments of the two institutions. The leadership matrix and leadership effectiveness index questionnaires were employed to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The preferred and practiced styles were compared and contrasted to determine whether or not they were used to achieve goals and objectives of the lecturers and the organizations. The recommendations contribute towards the academic and professional development of the lecturers and their institutions.

Keywords: leadership, leadership effectiveness, leadership energy, tertiary institutions, and leadership styles

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
3682 Perceived Effectiveness of Academic Leadership Development Program in the Digital Age: The Contribution of Motivational Factors and Peer Interaction

Authors: Dinh Ngoc Bich Khuyen, Chang Zhu

Abstract:

Due to the radical changes and complexities within academic institutions, leadership development addressed to academic leaders in the digital age has become more important. Unfortunately, studies on outcome assessment of leadership development and its related factors have not been evaluated rigorously. The current study investigated the contribution of peer interaction and two subscales of motivation to the effectiveness of the leadership development programs perceived by learners in a diverse context. Of 73 participants, the majority of workshop attendees were junior and middle-level leaders from both European universities and Chinese universities who participated in the leadership development programs organized under an EU project. PLS-SEM was employed to validate the instrument and answer the research questions, respectively. The finding reveals that self-growth and peer interaction significantly contribute to perceived effectiveness, whereas networking motivator shows non-significant impact. Besides, the new contribution of these findings is to show that peer interaction fully mediates the relationship between self-growth and perceived effectiveness. To this end, the findings highlight the importance of dispositional factors regarding the quality of the leadership development program in HE contexts and the potential of such program to enhance the knowledge and capacities of academic leaders regarding university governance and leadership.

Keywords: higher education, leadership development, effectiveness, middle-level leaders, junior-level leaders

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
3681 Senior Leadership Team Coaching in Action: Creating High-Performance Teams

Authors: Siqi Fang, Jingxi Hou

Abstract:

Positive psychology and coaching psychology share a number of fundamental assumptions and common themes. Blending positive psychology, mindfulness, and coaching psychology, our work in team coaching with leaders enhances both leadership and team effectiveness. Although individual coaching has proven to be effective, this article advocates the benefits of leadership coaching in team settings, because durable changes in leadership behaviors are more likely to occur. Does leadership team coaching really work? Does it help improve senior leadership team effectiveness and productivity? This action research study answers these questions by tracking the progress of three typical senior leadership teams consisting of 31 executives participating in a six-month team coaching program. Assessments (pre- and post), workshops, and feedback based on ego development theories and mindfulness were applied to upgrade the senior leadership teams’ transformational stages and reframe their organizational leadership cultures. Results suggest that the team effectiveness of the three leadership teams increased up to 43 percent according to post-survey feedback from superior, direct report, and peers. Discussion is offered to show that senior leadership team coaching help teams to achieve a consensus on common purposes, establish a foundation of trust, improve collective skills, and promote efficient operation. All factors translate into better team performance. Implications of the results for future executive development programs are discussed and specific recommendations are provided.

Keywords: action research, ego development, mindfulness, senior leadership team coaching, team effectiveness, transformational stages

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
3680 The Role of Executive Functions and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership: A Neuropsychological Perspective

Authors: Chrysovalanto Sofia Karatosidi, Dimitra Iordanoglou

Abstract:

The overlap of leadership skills with personality traits, beliefs, values, and the integration of cognitive abilities, analytical and critical thinking skills into leadership competencies raises the need to segregate further and investigate them. Hence, the domains of cognitive functions that contribute to leadership effectiveness should also be identified. Organizational cognitive neuroscience and neuroleadership can shed light on the study of these critical leadership skills. As the first part of our research, this pilot study aims to explore the relationships between higher-order cognitive functions (executive functions), trait emotional intelligence (EI), personality, and general cognitive ability in leadership. Twenty-six graduate and postgraduate students were assessed on neuropsychological tests that measure important aspects of executive functions (EF) and completed self-reported questionnaires about trait EI, personality, leadership styles, and leadership effectiveness. Specifically, we examined four core EF—fluency (phonemic and semantic), information updating and monitoring, working memory, and inhibition of prepotent responses. Leadership effectiveness was positively associated with phonemic fluency (PF), which involves mental flexibility, in turn, an increasingly important ability for future leaders in this rapidly changing world. Transformational leadership was positively associated with trait EI, extraversion, and openness to experience, a result that is following previous findings. The relationship between specific EF constructs and leadership effectiveness emphasizes the role of higher-order cognitive functions in the field of leadership as an individual difference. EF brings a new perspective into leadership literature by providing a direct, non-invasive, scientifically-valid connection between brain function and leadership behavior.

Keywords: cognitive neuroscience, emotional intelligence, executive functions, leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
3679 Authentic and Transformational Leadership Model of the Directors of Tambon Health Promoting Hospitals Effecting to the Effectiveness of Southern Tambon Health Promoting Hospitals: The Interaction and Invariance Tests of Gender Factor

Authors: Suphap Sikkhaphan, Muwanga Zake, Johnnie Wycliffe Frank

Abstract:

The purposes of the study included a) investigating the authentic and transformational leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals b) evaluating the relation between the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals and the effectiveness of their hospitals and c) assessing the invariance test of the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals. All 400 southern tambon health promoting hospital directors were enrolled into the study. Half were males (200), and another half were females (200). They were sampled via a stratified method. A research tool was a questionnaire paper containing 4 different sections. The Alpha-Cronbach’s Coefficient was equally to .98. Descriptive analysis was used for demographic data, and inferential statistics was used for the relation and invariance tests of authentic and transformational leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals. The findings revealed overall the authentic and transformation leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals has the relation to the effectiveness of the hospitals. Only the factor of “strong community support” was statistically significantly related to the authentic leadership (p < .05). However, there were four latent variables statistically related to the transformational leadership including, competency and work climate, management system, network cooperation, and strong community support (p = .01). Regarding the relation between the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals and the effectiveness of their hospitals, four casual variables of authentic leadership were not related to those latent variables. In contrast, all four latent variables of transformational leadership has statistically significantly related to the effectiveness of tambon health promoting hospitals (p = .001). Furthermore, only management system variable was significantly related to those casual variables of the authentic leadership (p < .05). Regarding the invariance test, the result found no statistical significance of the authentic and transformational leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals, especially between male and female genders (p > .05).

Keywords: authentic leadership, transformational leadership, tambon health promoting hospital

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3678 Exploratory Study of Contemporary Models of Leadership

Authors: Gadah Alkeniah

Abstract:

Leadership is acknowledged internationally as fundamental to school efficiency and school enhancement nevertheless there are various understandings of what leadership is and how it is realised in practice. There are a number of educational leadership models that are considered important. However, the present study uses a systematic review method to examine and compare five models of the most well-known contemporary models of leadership as well as introduces the dimension of each model. Our results reveal that recently the distributed leadership has grown in popularity within the field of education. The study concludes by suggesting future directions in leadership development and education research.

Keywords: distributed leadership, instructional leadership, leadership models, moral leadership, strategic leadership, transformational leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
3677 Team Members' Perception of Team Leader's Effectiveness in Biotechnology Industry in India

Authors: Keerthana Gonella, Kamesh Apparaju

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Teams are all pervasive and team leadership is a much discussed topic in managing projects that characterize the modern work environment. Biotechnology industry in India is an area of research interest for scholars on leadership, especially, team leadership. The present paper examines the perception of team members on the effectiveness of their team leaders in the biotechnology industry in India. This is an empirical study in which the data was collected by administering the closed-ended questionnaire to the respondents from across India. The effectiveness of the team leader is dependent upon his goal orientation that creates a collaborative climate. Leaders with technical know-how inspire teamwork with trust. They build confidence, mitigate the differences and expand team capabilities through teamwork. Effective leaders also create team identity making the most of the differences with a vision.

Keywords: collaboration, perception, team, team capabilities, team leadership

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3676 The Effects of Three Leadership Styles on Individual Performance

Authors: Leilei Liang

Abstract:

Leadership is commonly classified as formal leadership and informal leadership, which ignores and neglects the effects of 3rd type leadership. The emergence of 3rd type of leadership is closely related to special relations. To figure out the mechanism and effects of 3rd type leadership as well as the impacts of formal leadership and informal leadership on employee performance, this study collects data from 350 participants through a survey and proposes three hypotheses respectively from the perspective of expectation theory. The analytical results provide strong evidence for two of the three hypotheses, which demonstrate the positive correlation between formal leadership and individual performance and the negative relationship between 3rd type leadership and individual performance. This study contributes to leadership literature by putting forward the concept of the 3rd type of leadership. In addition, the effects of formal leadership, informal leadership, and 3rd type leadership on individual performance are discussed respectively in this study.

Keywords: formal leadership, informal leadership, 3rd leadership, individual performance, expectation theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
3675 The Social Change Leadership Model for Administrators and Teachers Development in Northeast Thailand

Authors: D. Thawinkarn, S. Wongbutlee

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The Social Change Leadership model is strongly aligned with administration’s mission. This research aims to examine the elements of social change leadership, build and develop leadership for social change, and evaluate effectiveness of leadership development model for social change. The research operation has 3 phases: model studies by in-depth interviews and survey research; drafting and creating model which verified by the experts; and trial of model in schools. The results showed that administrators and teachers have the elements of leadership for social change in moderate level. These elements are ranged descending from consciousness of self, common purpose, congruence, collaboration, commitment, citizenship, and controversy with civility. Model of leadership for social change is included the principles, objectives, content, process. Workshop process: Results show that the model of leadership development for social change in administrators and teachers leads to higher score in leadership evaluation prior to administering the operation.

Keywords: leadership, social change model, organization, administrators

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3674 Distributive School Leadership in Croatian Primary Schools

Authors: Iva Buchberger, Vesna Kovač

Abstract:

Global education policy trends and recommendations underline the importance of (distributive) school leadership as a school effectiveness key factor. In this context, the broader aim of this research (supported by the Croatian Science Foundation) is to identify school leadership characteristics in Croatian schools and to examine the correlation between school leadership and school effectiveness. The aim of the proposed conference paper is to focus on the school leadership characteristics which are additionally explained with school leadership facilitators that contribute to (distributive) school leadership development. The aforementioned school leadership characteristics include the following dimensions: (a) participation in the process of making different types of decisions, (b) influence in the decision making process, (c) social interactions between different stakeholders in the decision making process in schools. Further, the school leadership facilitators are categorized as follows: (a) principal’s activities (such as providing support to different stakeholders and developing mutual trust among them), (b) stakeholders’ characteristics (such as developed stakeholders’ interest and competence to participate in decision-making process), (c) organizational and material resources (such as school material conditions, the necessary information and time as resources for making decisions). The data were collected by a constructed and validated questionnaire for examining the school leadership characteristics and facilitators from teachers’ perspective. The main population in this study consists of all primary schools in Croatia while the sample is comprised of 100 primary schools, selected by random sampling. Furthermore, the sample of teachers was selected by an additional procedure taking into consideration the independent variables of sex, work experience, etc. Data processing was performed by standard statistical methods of descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical program IBM SPSS 20.0 was used for data processing. The results of this study show that there is a (positive) correlation between school leadership characteristics and school leadership facilitators. Specifically, it is noteworthy to mention that all the dimensions of school leadership characteristics are in positive correlation with the categories of school leadership facilitators. These results are indicative for the education policy creators who should ensure positive and supportive environment for the school leadership development including the development of school leadership characteristics and school leadership facilitators.

Keywords: distributive school leadership, school effectiveness , school leadership characteristics, school leadership facilitators

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
3673 A Literature Review of Servant Leadership and Criticism of Advanced Research

Authors: So-Jung Kim, Kyoung-Seok Kim, Yeong-Gyeong Choi

Abstract:

Although there are many theories and discussion of leadership, the necessity of having a new leadership paradigm was emphasized. The existing leadership characteristic of instruction and control revealed its limitations. Market competition becomes fierce and economic recession never ends worldwide. Of the leadership theories, servant leadership was introduced recently and is in line with the environmental changes of the organization. Servant leadership is a combination of two words, 'servant' and 'leader' and can be defined as the role of the leader who focuses on doing voluntary work for others with altruistic ethics, makes members, customers, and local communities a priority, and makes a commitment to satisfying their needs. This leadership received attention as one field of leadership in the late 1990s and secured its legitimacy. This study discusses the existing research trends of leadership, the concept, behavior characteristics, and lower dimensions of servant leadership, compares servant leadership with the existing leadership researches and diagnoses if servant leadership is a useful concept for further leadership researches. Finally, this study criticizes the limitations in the existing researches on servant leadership.

Keywords: leadership philosophy, leadership theory, servant leadership, traditional leadership

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3672 Digital Leadership and HR practices

Authors: Joanna Konstantinou

Abstract:

Due to the pandemic, we have recently witnessed an explosion of HR Tech offering a variety of solutions for digital transformation, as well as a large number of HR practices implemented by professionals both in data science and occupational psychology. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of these practices and their effectiveness and to develop an understanding of digital leadership. The study will be based on semi-structured interviews using qualitative research methods and tools.

Keywords: HR practices, digital trasformation, pandemic, digital leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
3671 Study on Principals Using Change Leadership to Promote School Innovation: A Case Study of a Primary School in Taiwan

Authors: Chih-Wen Fan

Abstract:

Backgrounds/ Research goals: School improvement requires change leadership, which often means discomfort. Principals are the key people that determine the effectiveness of schools. In an era of organization’s pursuit of speed and effectiveness, the school administration has to be accountable and innovative. Effective principals work to improve achievement by focusing on the administrative and teaching quality of improvement. However, there is a lack of literature addressing the relevant case studies on school change leadership. This article explores how principals can use change leadership to drive school change. It analyze the driving factors of principal changes in the case school, the beliefs of change leadership, specific methods, and what impact they have. Methods: This study applies the case study research method to the selected primary school located in an urban area for the case study, which has achieved excellent performance after reform and innovation. The researchers selected an older primary school located in an urban area that was transformed into a high-performance primary school after changes were enacted by the principal. The selected case was recommended by three supervisors of the Education Department. The case school underwent leadership change by the new principal during his term and won an award from the Ministry of Education. Total of 8 teachers are interviewed. The data encoding includes interviews and documents. Expected results/ conclusions: The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The influence for Principal Lin's change leadership is from internal and external environmental development and change pressures. (2) The principal's belief in change leadership is to recognize the sense of crisis and to create a climate of change and demand for change. (3) The principal's specific actions are intended to identify key members, resolve resistance, use innovative thinking, and promote organizational learning. (4) Principal Lin's change leadership can enhance the professional functions of all employees through appropriate authorization. (5) The effectiveness of change leadership lies in teachers' participation in decision-making; the school's reputation has been enhanced through featured courses.

Keywords: change leadership, empowerment, crisis awareness, case study

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3670 Leadership Education for Law Enforcement Mid-Level Managers: The Mediating Role of Effectiveness of Training on Transformational and Authentic Leadership Traits

Authors: Kevin Baxter, Ron Grove, James Pitney, John Harrison, Ozlem Gumus

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to determine the mediating effect of effectiveness of the training provided by Northwestern University’s School of Police Staff and Command (SPSC), on the ability of law enforcement mid-level managers to learn transformational and authentic leadership traits. This study will also evaluate the leadership styles, of course, graduates compared to non-attendees using a static group comparison design. The Louisiana State Police pay approximately $40,000 in salary, tuition, housing, and meals for each state police lieutenant attending the 10-week program of the SPSC. This school lists the development of transformational leaders as an increasing element. Additionally, the SPSC curriculum addresses all four components of authentic leadership - self-awareness, transparency, ethical/moral, and balanced processing. Upon return to law enforcement in roles of mid-level management, there are questions as to whether or not students revert to an “autocratic” leadership style. Insufficient evidence exists to support claims for the effectiveness of management training or leadership development. Though it is widely recognized that transformational styles are beneficial to law enforcement, there is little evidence that suggests police leadership styles are changing. Police organizations continue to hold to a more transactional style (i.e., most senior police leaders remain autocrats). Additionally, research in the application of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership related to police organizations is minimal. The population of the study is law enforcement mid-level managers from various states within the United States who completed leadership training presented by the SPSC. The sample will be composed of 66 active law enforcement mid-level managers (lieutenants and captains) who have graduated from SPSC and 65 active law enforcement mid-level managers (lieutenants and captains) who have not attended SPSC. Participants will answer demographics questions, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, and the Kirkpatrick Hybrid Evaluation Survey. Analysis from descriptive statistics, group comparison, one-way MANCOVA, and the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model survey will be used to determine training effectiveness in the four levels of reaction, learning, behavior, and results. Independent variables are SPSC graduates (two groups: upper and lower) and no-SPSC attendees, and dependent variables are transformational and authentic leadership scores. SPSC graduates are expected to have higher MLQ scores for transformational leadership traits and higher ALQ scores for authentic leadership traits than SPSC non-attendees. We also expect the graduates to rate the efficacy of SPSC leadership training as high. This study will validate (or invalidate) the benefits, costs, and resources required for leadership development from a nationally recognized police leadership program, and it will also help fill the gap in the literature that exists between law enforcement professional development and transformational and authentic leadership styles.

Keywords: training effectiveness, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, law enforcement mid-level manager

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3669 The Successful in Construction Project via Effectiveness of Project Team

Authors: Zarabizan Zakaria, Hayati Zainal

Abstract:

The construction industry is one of the most important sectors that contribute to the nation’s economy and catalyze towards the growth of other industries. However, some construction projects have not been completed on its stipulated time and duration, scope and budget due to several factors. This problem arises due to the weaknesses of human factors, especially from ineffective leadership quality practiced by project managers and contractors in managing project teams. Therefore, a construction project should impose the element of Project Team. The project team is formed in the implementation of the project which includes the project brief, project scope, customer requirements and provided designs. Many organizations in the construction sector use teams to meet today's global competition and customer expectations, however, team effectiveness evaluation is required. In insuring the construction team is successful and effectiveness, the construction department must encourage, measure, set up, and evaluate or review the effectiveness of project team that was formed. In order to produce a better outcome for a high-end project, an effective and efficient project team is required which also help in increasing overall productivity. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of team effectiveness in the construction project team based on the overall construction project performance. It examines several different factors which related to team effectiveness. It also examines the relationship between team effectiveness factor and project performance aspect. Team Effect Review and Project Performance Review are developed to be used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using several statistical tests. Results obtained from data analysis are validated using semi-structured interviews. Besides that, a comprehensive survey were developed to assess the way construction project teams in order to maintain its effectiveness throughout the project phase. In order to determine a project successful it has been found that Project Team Leadership is the most important factor. In addition, the definition of team effectiveness in the construction project team is developed based on the perspective of project clients and project team members. The results of this study are expected to provide an idea on the factors that are needed to be focused on improving the team's effectiveness towards project performance aspects. At the same time, the definition of team effectiveness from team members and owner views has been developed in order to provide a better understanding of the word team's effectiveness in construction projects.

Keywords: project team, leadership, construction project, project successful

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3668 The Effects of Social Capital and Empowering Leadership on Team Cohesion

Authors: Y. R. Lai, J. C. Jehng, T. T. Chang

Abstract:

Team is a popular job design in the management settings. Because people on a team need to work together to complete a lot of tasks, the interaction between team members strongly influences team effectiveness. The study examines the effect of social capital and empowering leadership on team cohesion. There are three facets of social capital: structural facet, relational facet, and cognitive facet. Empowering leadership includes enhancing the meaningfulness of work, fostering participation in decision making, expressing confidence in high performance, and providing autonomy from bureaucratic constraints. Data were collected from 181 team members of 47 teams in the real estate agency industry. The results show that the relational social capital, enhancing the meaningfulness of work, and providing autonomy from bureaucratic constraints are positively related to two dimensions of team cohesion: sense of belonging and feelings of moral. Additionally, expressing confidence in high performance is negatively related to sense of belonging.

Keywords: social capital, empowering leadership, team cohesion, team effectiveness

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3667 Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Use of Scharmer’s Theory-U Model in Action-Learning-Based Leadership Development Program

Authors: Donald C. Lantu, Henndy Ginting, M. Yorga Permana, Dany M. A. Ramdlany

Abstract:

We constructed a training program for top-talents of a Bank with Scharmer Theory-U as the model. In this training program, we implemented the action learning perspective, as it is claimed to be the most effective one currently available. In the process, participants were encouraged to be more involved, especially compared to traditional lecturing. The goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness of this particular training. The program consists of six days non-residential workshop within two months. Between each workshop, the participants were involved in the works of action learning group. They were challenged by dealing with the real problem related to their tasks at work. The participants of the program were 30 best talents who were chosen according to their yearly performance. Using paired difference statistical test in the behavioral assessment, we found that the training was not effective to increase participants’ leadership competencies. For the future development program, we suggested to modify the goals of the program toward the next stage of development.

Keywords: action learning, behavior, leadership development, Theory-U

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3666 The Effectiveness of Conflict Management of Factories' Employee in Thailand

Authors: Pacharaporn Lekyan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the conflict management affecting the workplace and analyze the ability of the prediction of leadership of the headman and the methods to handle the conflict in an organization. The quantitative research and developed the questionnaire in order to collect information from the respondents from 200 samples from leader or manager who worked in frozen food factories in Thailand. The result analysis shows about the problem of the relationship between conflict management factors, leadership, and the confliction in organization. The emotion of the leader in the organization is not the only factor that can affect conflict management but also the emotion of surrounding people which this factor can happen all the time and shows that four out of five factors of interpersonal conflict management have affected on emotion intelligence and also shows that the behaviors of leadership have an influence on conflict management.

Keywords: conflict management, emotional intelligence, leadership, factories' employee

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3665 The Effect of Leadership Styles on Continuous Improvement Teams

Authors: Paul W. Murray

Abstract:

This research explores the relationship between leadership style and continuous improvement (CI) teams. CI teams have several features that are not always found in other types of teams, including multi-functional members, short time period for performance, positive and actionable results, and exposure to senior leadership. There is not only one best style of leadership for these teams. Instead, it is important to select the best leadership style for the situation. The leader must have the flexibility to change styles and the skill to use the chosen style effectively in order to ensure the team’s success.

Keywords: leadership style, lean manufacturing, teams, cross-functional

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3664 Leadership Effectiveness Compared among Three Cultures Using Voice Pitches

Authors: Asena Biber, Ates Gul Ergun, Seda Bulut

Abstract:

Based on the literature, there are large numbers of studies investigating the relationship between culture and leadership effectiveness. Although giving effective speeches is vital characteristic for a leader to be perceived as effective, to our knowledge, there is no research study the determinants of perceived effective leader speech. The aim of this study is to find the effects of both culture and voice pitch on perceptions of leader's speech effectiveness. Our hypothesis is that people from high power distance countries will perceive leaders' speech effective when the leader's voice pitch is high, comparing with people from relatively low power distance countries. The participants of the study were 36 undergraduate students (12 Pakistanis, 12 Nigerians, and 12 Turks) who are studying in Turkey. National power distance scores of Nigerians ranked as first, Turks ranked as second and Pakistanis ranked as third. There are two independent variables in this study; three nationality groups that representing three levels of power distance and voice pitch of the leader which is manipulated as high and low levels. Researchers prepared an audio to manipulate high and low conditions of voice pitch. A professional whose native language is English read the predetermined speech in high and low voice pitch conditions. Voice pitch was measured using Hertz (Hz) and Decibel (dB). Each nationality group (Pakistan, Nigeria, and Turkey) were divided into groups of six students who listened to either the low or high pitch conditions in the cubicles of the laboratory. It was expected from participants to listen to the audio and fill in the questionnaire which was measuring the leadership effectiveness on a response scale ranging from 1 to 5. To determine the effects of nationality and voice pitch on perceived effectiveness of leader' voice pitch, 3 (Pakistani, Nigerian, and Turk) x 2 (low voice pitch and high voice pitch) two way between subjects analysis of variances was carried out. The results indicated that there was no significant main effect of voice pitch and interaction effect on perceived effectiveness of the leader’s voice pitch. However, there was a significant main effect of nationality on perceived effectiveness of the leader's voice pitch. Based on the results of Turkey’s HSD post-hoc test, only the perceived effectiveness of the leader's speech difference between Pakistanis and Nigerians was statistically significant. The results show that the hypothesis of this study was not supported. As limitations of the study, it is of importance to mention that the sample size should be bigger. Also, the language of the questionnaire and speech should be in the participant’s native language in further studies.

Keywords: culture, leadership effectiveness, power distance, voice pitch

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3663 The Capability of Organizational Leadership: Development of Conceptual Framework

Authors: Kurmet Kivipõld, Maaja Vadi

Abstract:

Current paper develops the conceptual framework for organizational leadership capability. Organizational leadership here is understood as collective multi-level phenomenon which has been embedded into organizational processes as a capability at the level of the entire organization. The paper analyses and systematises the theo¬retical approaches to multi-level leadership in existing literature. This analysis marks the foundation of collective leadership at the organizational level, which forms the basis for the development of the conceptual framework of organi¬zational leadership capability. The developed conceptual framework of organiza¬tional leadership capability is formed from the synthesis of the three groups of base theories – traditional leadership theories, the resource-based view from strategic management and complexity theory from system theories. These conceptual sources present the main characteristics that determine the nature of organizational leadership capability and are the basis for its mea¬surement.

Keywords: leadership, organizational capability, organizational leadership, resource-based view, system theory

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3662 Effect of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance

Authors: Khadija Mushtaq, Mian Saqib Mehmood

Abstract:

This paper attempts to determine the impact of leadership style and learning orientation on organizational performance in Pakistan. A sample of 158 middle managers selected from sports and surgical factories from Sialkot. The empirical estimation is based on a multiple linear regression analysis of the relationship between leadership style, learning orientation and organizational performance. Leadership style is measure through transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The transformational leadership has insignificant impact on organizational performance. The transactional leadership has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Learning orientation also has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Linear regression used to estimate the relation between dependent and independent variables. This study suggests top manger should prefer continuous process for improvement for any change in system rather radical change.

Keywords: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, learning orientation, organizational performance, Pakistan

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3661 Teachers Leadership Dimension in History Learning

Authors: Lee Bih Ni, Zulfhikar Rabe, Nurul Asyikin Hassan

Abstract:

The Ministry of Education Malaysia dynamically and drastically made the subject of History mandatory to be in force in 2013. This is in recognition of the nation's heritage and treasures in maintaining true facts and information for future generations of the State. History reveals the civilization of a nation and the fact of national cultural heritage. Civilization needs to be preserved as a legacy of sovereign heritage. Today's generation is the catalyst for future heirs who will support the principle and direction of the country. In line with the National Education Philosophy that aims to shape the potential development of individuals holistically and uniquely in order to produce a balanced and harmonious student in terms of intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical. Hence, understanding the importance of studying the history subject as a pillar of identity and the history of nationhood is to be a priority in the pursuit of knowledge and empowering the spirit of statehood that is nurtured through continuous learning at school. Judging from the aspect of teacher leadership role in integrating history in a combined way based on Teacher Education Philosophy. It empowers the teaching profession towards the teacher to support noble character. It also supports progressive and scientific views. Teachers are willing to uphold the State's aspirations and celebrate the country's cultural heritage. They guarantee individual development and maintain a united, democratic, progressive and disciplined society. Teacher's role as a change and leadership agent in education begins in the classroom through formal or informal educational processes. This situation is expanded in schools, communities and countries. The focus of this paper is on the role of teacher leadership influencing the effectiveness of teaching and learning history in the classroom environment. Leadership guides to teachers' perceptions on the role of teacher leadership, teaching leadership, and the teacher leadership role and effective teacher leadership role. Discussions give emphasis on aspects of factors affecting the classroom environment, forming the classroom agenda, effective classroom implementation methods, suitable climate for historical learning and teacher challenges in implicating the effectiveness of teaching and learning processes.

Keywords: teacher leadership, leadership lessons, effective classroom, effective teacher

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3660 A Study of Small Business Failure: Impact of Leadership and the Leadership Process

Authors: Theresa Robinson Harris

Abstract:

Small businesses are important to the United States economy, yet the majority struggle to remain relevant and close before their fifth year. This qualitative study explored small business failure by comparing the experiences of small-business owners to understand their involvement with leadership during the early stages of the business, and the impact of this on the firms’ ability to survive. Participants’ experiences from two groups were compared to glean an understanding of the leadership process, how leadership differs between the groups, and to see what themes or constructs emerged that could help to explain the high failure rate. Leadership was perceived to be important when envisioning a path for the future and when providing a platform for employees to succeed. Those who embraced leadership as a skillset were more likely to get through the challenges of the early developmental years while those ignoring the importance of leadership were more likely to close prematurely. These findings suggest a disconnect with regards to the understanding, role, and benefits of leadership in small organizations, particularly young organizations in the early stages of development.

Keywords: leadership, small business, entrepreneurship, success, failure

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3659 The Significant of Effective Leadership on Management Growth and Survival: A Case Study of Bunato Limited Company, Ring Road Ibadan

Authors: A. S. Adegoke, O. N. Popoola

Abstract:

The central purpose of management in any organization is that of coordinating the efforts of people towards the achievement of its goal. Effective and productive management is the function of leadership. Leadership plays a critical role in helping groups, organizations and societies to achieve their goals. Factors considered to make leadership to be effective are intelligence, social maturity, inner motivation and achievement drives and lastly, human relations attitudes. The factors affecting leadership style and effectiveness were examined. Also, the study examined which of the various leadership style best befits an organization and discussed the ways in which the style was determined. In order to meet the objectives of this study, different types of methods of data gathering were carried out. The methods include data from primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include personal interview, personal observation, and questionnaire while data from secondary sources were derived from various books, journal write up and other documentary records. Data were collected from respondents through questionnaire, and the field research carried out through oral interview to test each of the related hypotheses. From the data analysed it was determined that 45% strongly agreed that leadership traits are inborn not acquired and 28.3% agreed that leadership traits are inborn, while 11.7% and 10% strongly disagreed and disagreed respectively and 5% were undecided. 48.4% strongly agreed, and 43.3% agreed that environmental factors determined the appropriate style of leadership to be employed while 3.3% strongly disagreed, 1.7% disagreed and 3.3% were undecided. From the study, no single style of leadership is appropriate in any situation instead of concentrating on single leadership style; leader can vary approaches depending on forces in the leaders, characteristic of the subordinates, situational forces of the organization, lastly the expectations and behaviour of superior.

Keywords: hypothesis, leadership, management, organization

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3658 Importance of Collegiality to Improve the Effectiveness of a Poorly Resourced School

Authors: Prakash Singh

Abstract:

This study focused on the importance of collegiality to improve the effectiveness of a poorly resourced school (PRS). In an effective school that embraces collegiality as its culture, one can expect to find a teaching staff and a management team that shares responsibilities and accountabilities through the development of a common purpose and vision, regardless of whether the school is considered to be poorly resourced or not. Working together in collegial teams is a more effective way to accomplish tasks and to create a climate for effective learning, even for learners in PRSs from poor communities. The main aim of this study was therefore to determine whether collegiality as a leadership strategy could extract the best from people in a PRS, and consequently create the most effective and efficient educational climate possible. The responses received from the teachers and the principal at the PRS supports the notion that collegiality does have a positive influence on learning, as demonstrated by the improved academic achievement of the learners. The teachers were now more involved in the school. They agreed that this was a positive development. Their descriptions of increased involvement, shared accountability and shared decision-making identified important aspects of collegiality that transformed the school from being dysfunctional. Hence, it is abundantly clear that a collegial leadership style can help extract the best from people because the most effective and efficient educational climate can be created at a school when collegiality is employed. Collegial leadership demonstrates that even in PRSs, there are boundless opportunities to improve teaching and learning.

Keywords: collegiality, collegial leadership, effective educational climate, poorly resourced school

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3657 Perceived Role of Business School in Developing Leadership in Students

Authors: Ranala Nirmala, Rajanala Krishna Gopal

Abstract:

Business schools train management graduates to join the industry in managerial positions. Most of the managerial positions require leadership competency and while some of the business schools have leadership development as a course, many assume leadership development among students through their curriculum. While literature supports the need for leadership development among students, there are few studies which explored the role of department and leadership skills in business management students. This paper is based on an empirical study of students of a university based business school and explored the relationship between the perceived role of department, including the faculty, infrastructure, etc on the leadership skills and potential of the students. Students have been administered an instrument that captured different leadership aspects of the students and the data was reduced into fourteen dimensions including leadership skills perceived by student, role of department in developing leadership skills, leadership potential of students, etc. Anova and regression analysis are the primary statistical tools were used (using SPSS 17.0) and the results revealed that there is a significant relationship between the student perceptions of their leadership potential and the role of department, the faculty, the curriculum, etc. This study supports introducing focused courses in management curriculum to promote leadership among students.

Keywords: students, management education, leadership, role of institution

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3656 Inconsistent Safety Leadership as a Predictor of Employee Safety Behavior

Authors: Jane Mullen, Ann Rheaume, Kevin Kelloway

Abstract:

Research on the effects of inconsistent safety leadership is limited, particularly regarding employee safety behavior in organizations. Inconsistent safety leadership occurs when organizational leaders display both effective and ineffective styles of safety leadership (i.e., transformational vs laissez-faire). In this study, we examine the effect of inconsistent safety leadership style on employee safety participation. Defined as the interaction of S.A.F.E.R (Speak, Act, Focus, Engage and Recognize) leadership style and passive leadership style, inconsistent safety leadership was found to be a significant predictor of safety participation in a sample of 307 nurses in Eastern Canada. Results of the moderated regression analysis also showed a significant main effect for S.A.F.E.R leadership, but not for passive leadership. To further explore the significant interaction, the simple slopes for S.A.F.E.R leadership at high and low levels (1 SD above and below the mean) of passive leadership were plotted. As predicted, the positive effects of S.A.F.E.R leadership behavior were attenuated when leaders were perceived by employees as also displaying high levels of passive leadership (i.e., inconsistent leadership styles). The research makes important theoretical and practical contributions to the occupational health and safety literature. The results demonstrate that leadership behavior, which is characteristic of the S.A.F.E.R model, is positively associated with employee safety participation. This finding is particularly important as researchers continue to explore what leaders can do to engage employees in work-related safety activities. The results also demonstrate how passive leadership may undermine the positive outcomes associated with safety leadership behavior in organizations. The data suggest that employee safety behavior is highest when leaders engage in safety effective leadership behavior on a consistent basis, rather than periodically.

Keywords: employee safety behavior, leadership, participation, safety training

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3655 Distributed Leadership: An Alternative at Higher Education Institutions in Turkey

Authors: Sakine Sincer

Abstract:

In today’s world, which takes further steps towards globalization each and every day, societies and cultures are re-shaped while the demands of the changing world are described once more. In this atmosphere, where the speed of change sometimes reaches a terrifying point, it is possible to state that effective leaders are needed more than ever in order to meet the above-stated needs and demands. The question of what effective leadership is keeping its importance on the agenda. Most of the answers to this question has mostly focused on the approach of distributed leadership recently. This study aims at analyzing the applicability of distributed leadership, which is accepted to be an example of effective leadership that can meet the needs of global world, which is changing more and more rapidly nowadays, at higher education institutions in Turkey. Within the framework of this study, first of all, the historical development of distributed leadership is addressed, and then a theoretical framework is drawn for this approach by means of underlying what distributed leadership is and is not. After that, different points of view about the approach are laid out within the borders of opinions expressed by Gronn and Spillane, who are accepted to be the most famous advocators of distributed leadership. Then, exemplar practices of distributed leadership are included in the study before drawing attention to the strengths and weaknesses of this approach. Lastly, the applicability of distributed leadership at higher education institutions in Turkey is analyzed. This study is carried out with the method of literature review by resorting to first- and second-hand sources on distributed leadership.

Keywords: globalization, school leadership, distributed leadership, higher education, management

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3654 Managerial Leadership Styles of Deans in Indonesian Universities

Authors: Jenny Ngo, Harry De Boer, Jurgen Enders

Abstract:

Indonesian higher education has experienced significant changes over the last decade. In 1999, the government published an overall strategy for decentralization and enhancement of local autonomy in many sectors, including (higher) education. Indonesian higher education reforms have forced universities to restructure their internal university governance to become more entrepreneurial. These new types of internal university governance are likely to affect the institutions’ leadership and management. This paper discusses the approach and findings of a study on the managerial leadership styles of deans in Indonesian universities. The study aims to get a better understanding of styles exhibited by deans manifested in their behaviors. Using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, in combination with the competing values framework, a large-scale survey was conducted to gather information on the deans’ behaviors, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Based on the responses of a sample of 218 deans, the study identifies a number of leadership styles: the Master, the Competitive Consultant, the Consensual Goal-Setter, the Focused Team Captain, and the Informed Trust-Builder style. The study demonstrates that attitudes are the primary determinant of the styles that were found. Perceived behavioral control is a factor that explains some managerial leadership styles. By understanding the attitudes of deans in Indonesian universities, and their leadership styles, universities can strengthen their management and governance, and thus improve their effectiveness.

Keywords: deans, Indonesian higher education, leadership and management styles, decentralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 275