Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 283

Search results for: wire rope isolators

283 Influence of Displacement Amplitude and Vertical Load on the Horizontal Dynamic and Static Behavior of Helical Wire Rope Isolators

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Mariacristina Spizzuoco, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

In this paper, the results of experimental tests performed on a Helical Wire Rope Isolator (HWRI) are presented in order to describe the dynamic and static behavior of the selected metal device in three different displacements ranges, namely small, relatively large, and large displacements ranges, without and under the effect of a vertical load. A testing machine, allowing to apply horizontal displacement or load histories to the tested bearing with a constant vertical load, has been adopted to perform the dynamic and static tests. According to the experimental results, the dynamic behavior of the tested device depends on the applied displacement amplitude. Indeed, the HWRI displays a softening and a hardening stiffness at small and relatively large displacements, respectively, and a stronger nonlinear stiffening behavior at large displacements. Furthermore, the experimental tests reveal that the application of a vertical load allows to have a more flexible device with higher damping properties and that the applied vertical load affects much less the dynamic response of the metal device at large displacements. Finally, a decrease in the static to dynamic effective stiffness ratio with increasing displacement amplitude has been observed.

Keywords: base isolation, earthquake engineering, experimental hysteresis loops, wire rope isolators

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
282 Evaluation of Fire Resistance of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns with Spiral Wire Rope

Authors: Ki-Seok Kwon, Heung-Youl Kim

Abstract:

This research evaluated fire resistances of high-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) column, spiral wire rope which applied with 60, and 100MPa. The fire resistance test of RC column with loading condition was conducted following the ISO 834 (3 hours). This experiment set mixing of fiber (PP fiber, Steel fiber) and types of horizontal reinforcement as a variable of reinforcement method. The fire resistance test measured the main steel bar’s max and mean temperatures also the shrinkage and shrinking ratio of columns(500 X 500 X 3,000mm) with loadings. As a result, the specimen of 60MPa attained three hours fire resistance with only spiral wire rope. Also, the specimen of 100MPa must be reinforced with fibers and spiral wire rope to attain three hours fire resistance.

Keywords: reinforced concrete column, high strength concrete, wire rope, fire resistance test

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
281 Enhancing Seismic Performance of Ductile Moment Frames with Delayed Wire-Rope Bracing Using Middle Steel Plate

Authors: Babak Dizangian, Mohammad Reza Ghasemi, Akram Ghalandari

Abstract:

Moment frames have considerable ductility against cyclic lateral loads and displacements; however, if this feature causes the relative displacement to exceed the permissible limit, it can impose unfavorable hysteretic behavior on the frame. Therefore, adding a bracing system with the capability of preserving the capacity of high energy absorption and controlling displacements without a considerable increase in the stiffness is quite important. This paper investigates the retrofitting of a single storey steel moment frame through a delayed wire-rope bracing system using a middle steel plate. In this model, the steel plate lies where the wire ropes meet, and the model geometry is such that the cables are continuously under tension so that they can take the most advantage of the inherent potential they have in tolerating tensile stress. Using the steel plate also reduces the system stiffness considerably compared to cross bracing systems and preserves the ductile frame’s energy absorption capacity. In this research, the software models of delayed wire-rope bracing system have been studied, validated, and compared with other researchers’ laboratory test results.

Keywords: cyclic loading, delayed wire rope bracing, ductile moment frame, energy absorption, hysteresis curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
280 An Advanced Exponential Model for Seismic Isolators Having Hardening or Softening Behavior at Large Displacements

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino

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In this paper, an advanced Nonlinear Exponential Model (NEM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing tangent stiffness with increasing displacement in the relatively large displacements range and a hardening or softening behavior at large displacements, is presented. The mathematical model is validated by comparing the experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops obtained during cyclic tests, conducted on a helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced bearing, with those predicted analytically. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results shows that the proposed model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the force-displacement relationship of seismic isolation devices within the large displacements range. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, unable to simulate the response of seismic isolators at large displacements, the proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation for each time step of a nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort. Furthermore, the proposed model can simulate the smooth transition of the hysteresis loops from small to large displacements by adopting only one set of five parameters determined from the experimental hysteresis loops having the largest amplitude.

Keywords: base isolation, hardening behavior, nonlinear exponential model, seismic isolators, softening behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
279 Simulation of Dynamic Behavior of Seismic Isolators Using a Parallel Elasto-Plastic Model

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

In this paper, a one-dimensional (1d) Parallel Elasto- Plastic Model (PEPM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing tangent stiffness with increasing displacement, is presented. The parallel modeling concept is applied to discretize the continuously decreasing tangent stiffness function, thus allowing to simulate the dynamic behavior of seismic isolation bearings by putting linear elastic and nonlinear elastic-perfectly plastic elements in parallel. The mathematical model has been validated by comparing the experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops, obtained testing a helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced bearing, with those predicted numerically. Good agreement between the simulated and experimental results shows that the proposed model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the forcedisplacement relationship of seismic isolators within relatively large displacements. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, the proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order ordinary nonlinear differential equation for each time step of a nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort, and requires the evaluation of only three model parameters from experimental tests, namely the initial tangent stiffness, the asymptotic tangent stiffness, and a parameter defining the transition from the initial to the asymptotic tangent stiffness.

Keywords: base isolation, earthquake engineering, parallel elasto-plastic model, seismic isolators, softening hysteresis loops

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
278 Structural Strength Evaluation and Wear Prediction of Double Helix Steel Wire Ropes for Heavy Machinery

Authors: Krunal Thakar

Abstract:

Wire ropes combine high tensile strength and flexibility as compared to other general steel products. They are used in various application areas such as cranes, mining, elevators, bridges, cable cars, etc. The earliest reported use of wire ropes was for mining hoist application in 1830s. Over the period, there have been substantial advancement in the design of wire ropes for various application areas. Under operational conditions, wire ropes are subjected to varying tensile loads and bending loads resulting in material wear and eventual structural failure due to fretting fatigue. The conventional inspection methods to determine wire failure is only limited to outer wires of rope. However, till date, there is no effective mathematical model to examine the inter wire contact forces and wear characteristics. The scope of this paper is to present a computational simulation technique to evaluate inter wire contact forces and wear, which are in many cases responsible for rope failure. Two different type of ropes, IWRC-6xFi(29) and U3xSeS(48) were taken for structural strength evaluation and wear prediction. Both ropes have a double helix twisted wire profile as per JIS standards and are mainly used in cranes. CAD models of both ropes were developed in general purpose design software using in house developed formulation to generate double helix profile. Numerical simulation was done under two different load cases (a) Axial Tension and (b) Bending over Sheave. Different parameters such as stresses, contact forces, wear depth, load-elongation, etc., were investigated and compared between both ropes. Numerical simulation method facilitates the detailed investigation of inter wire contact and wear characteristics. In addition, various selection parameters like sheave diameter, rope diameter, helix angle, swaging, maximum load carrying capacity, etc., can be quickly analyzed.

Keywords: steel wire ropes, numerical simulation, material wear, structural strength, axial tension, bending over sheave

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
277 Application of Seismic Isolators in Kutahya City Hospital Project Utilizing Double Friction Pendulum Type Devices

Authors: Kaan Yamanturk, Cihan Dogruoz

Abstract:

Seismic isolators have been utilized around the world to protect the structures, nonstructural components and contents from the damaging effects of earthquakes. In Structural Engineering, seismic isolation is used for protecting buildings and its vibration-sensitive contents from earthquakes. Seismic isolation is a passive control system that lowers effective earthquake forces by utilizing flexible bearings. One of the most significant isolation systems is seismic isolators. In this paper, double pendulum type Teflon coated seismic isolators utilized in a city hospital project by Guris Construction and Engineering Co. Inc, located in Kutahya, Turkey, have been investigated. Totally, 498 seismic isolators were applied in the project. These isolators are double friction pendulum type seismic isolation devices. The review of current practices is also examined in this study. The focus of this study is related to the application of passive seismic isolation systems for buildings as practiced in Kutahya City Hospital Project. Based on the study, the acceleration at the top floor will be 0.18 g and it will decrease 0.01 g in every floor. Therefore, seismic isolators are very important for buildings located in earthquake zones.

Keywords: maximum considered earthquake, moment resisting frame, seismic isolator, seismic design

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
276 Annealing Process Study at Galvanizing Line: Characterization and Implication Inherent to Lead Entrainment

Authors: Marcelo Franzkowiak Stahlschmidt

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This paper discusses the experiments carried out based on the wire drawing process analysis and later annealing on lead furnace on a galvanizing line. Using Design of Experiments methodology, the aim of this work is to understand the occurrence of lead entrainment originating from the annealed wires in order to decrease this problem. Wire samples were collected from wire drawing machines and galvanizing line and submitted to surface roughness analysis and its implications on lead drag out based on wire speed, wire diameter, lead bath temperature, thermal capacity of the lead kettle, wire surface condition, wire roughness and wire superficial cleanliness. Proposals to decrease lead drag out were made in order to increase wire drawing machines and galvanizing line performance.

Keywords: wire drawing process, galvanizing, heat treatment, lead

Procedia PDF Downloads 535
275 The Research of 'Rope Coiling' Effect in Near-Field Electrospinning

Authors: Feiyu Fang, Han Wang, Xin Chen, Jun Zeng, Feng Liang, Peixuan Wu

Abstract:

The 'rope coiling' effect is a normal instability phenomenon widespread exists in viscous fluid, elastic rods and polymeric fibers owing to compressive stress when they fall into a moving belt. Near-field electro-spinning is the modified electro-spinning technique has the ability to direct write micro fibers. In this research, we study the “rope coiling” effect in near-field electro-spinning. By changing the distance between nozzle and collector or the speed ratio between the charge jet speed and the platform moving speed, we obtain a pile of different models coils including the meandering, alternating and coiling patterns. Therefore, this instability can be used to direct write micro structured fibers with a one-step process.

Keywords: rope coiling effects, near-field electrospinning, direct write, micro structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
274 Bending Test Characteristics for Splicing of Thermoplastic Polymer Using Hot Gas Welding

Authors: Prantasi Harmi Tjahjanti, Iswanto Iswanto, Edi Widodo, Sholeh Pamuji

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Materials of the thermoplastic polymer when they break is usually thrown away, or is recycled which requires a long process. The purpose of this study is to splice the broken thermoplastic polymer using hot gas welding with different variations of welding wire/electrodes. Materials of thermoplastic polymer used are Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by using welding wire like the three materials. The method is carried out by using hot gas welding; there are two materials that cannot be connected, namely PE with PVC welding wire, and PP with PVC welding wire. The permeable liquid penetrant test is PP with PE welding wire, and PVC with PE welding wire. The best bending test result with the longest elongation is PE with PE welding wire with a bending test value of 179.03 kgf/mm². The microstructure was all described in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations.

Keywords: thermoplastic polymers, bending test, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), hot gas welding, bending test

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
273 Analysis of Roll-Forming for High-Density Wire of Reed

Authors: Yujeong Shin, Seong Jin Cho, Jin Ho Kim

Abstract:

In the textile-weaving machine, the reed is the core component to separate thousands of strands of yarn and to produce the fabric in a continuous high-speed movement. In addition, the reed affects the quality of the fiber. Therefore, the wire forming analysis of the main raw materials of the reed needs to be considered. Roll-forming is a key technology among the manufacturing process of reed wire using textile machine. A simulation of roll-forming line in accordance with the reduction rate is performed using LS-DYNA. The upper roller, fixed roller and reed wire are modeled by finite element. The roller is set to be rigid body and the wire of SUS430 is set to be flexible body. We predict the variation of the cross-sectional shape of the wire depending on the reduction ratio.

Keywords: textile machine, reed, rolling, reduction ratio, wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
272 Numerical Model of Low Cost Rubber Isolators for Masonry Housing in High Seismic Regions

Authors: Ahmad B. Habieb, Gabriele Milani, Tavio Tavio, Federico Milani

Abstract:

Housings in developing countries have often inadequate seismic protection, particularly for masonry. People choose this type of structure since the cost and application are relatively cheap. Seismic protection of masonry remains an interesting issue among researchers. In this study, we develop a low-cost seismic isolation system for masonry using fiber reinforced elastomeric isolators. The elastomer proposed consists of few layers of rubber pads and fiber lamina, making it lower in cost comparing to the conventional isolators. We present a finite element (FE) analysis to predict the behavior of the low cost rubber isolators undergoing moderate deformations. The FE model of the elastomer involves a hyperelastic material property for the rubber pad. We adopt a Yeoh hyperelasticity model and estimate its coefficients through the available experimental data. Having the shear behavior of the elastomers, we apply that isolation system onto small masonry housing. To attach the isolators on the building, we model the shear behavior of the isolation system by means of a damped nonlinear spring model. By this attempt, the FE analysis becomes computationally inexpensive. Several ground motion data are applied to observe its sensitivity. Roof acceleration and tensile damage of walls become the parameters to evaluate the performance of the isolators. In this study, a concrete damage plasticity model is used to model masonry in the nonlinear range. This tool is available in the standard package of Abaqus FE software. Finally, the results show that the low-cost isolators proposed are capable of reducing roof acceleration and damage level of masonry housing. Through this study, we are also capable of monitoring the shear deformation of isolators during seismic motion. It is useful to determine whether the isolator is applicable. According to the results, the deformations of isolators on the benchmark one story building are relatively small.

Keywords: masonry, low cost elastomeric isolator, finite element analysis, hyperelasticity, damped non-linear spring, concrete damage plasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
271 Measurements of Flow Mixing Behaviors Using a Wire-Mesh Sensor in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Pin Rod Assembly

Authors: Hyungmo Kim, Hwang Bae, Seok-Kyu Chang, Dong Won Lee, Yung Joo Ko, Sun Rock Choi, Hae Seob Choi, Hyeon Seok Woo, Dong-Jin Euh, Hyeong-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

Flow mixing characteristics in the wire-wrapped 37-pin rod bundle were measured by using a wire-mesh sensing system for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). The subchannel flow mixing in SFR core subchannels was an essential characteristic for verification of a core thermal design and safety analysis. A dedicated test facility including the wire-mesh sensor system and tracing liquid injection system was developed, and the conductivity fields at the end of 37-pin rod bundle were visualized in several different flow conditions. These experimental results represented the reasonable agreements with the results of CFD, and the uncertainty of the mixing experiments has been conducted to evaluate the experimental results.

Keywords: core thermal design, flow mixing, a wire-mesh sensor, a wire-wrap effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
270 Joining of Aluminum and Steel in Car Body Manufacturing

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Mohammadi

Abstract:

Zinc-coated steel sheets have been joined with aluminum samples in an overlapping as well as in a butt-joint configuration. A bi-metal-wire composed from aluminum and steel was used for additional welding experiments. An advantage of the laser-assisted bi-metal-wire welding is that the welding process is simplified since the primary joint between aluminium and steel exists already and laser welding occurs only between similar materials. FEM-simulations of the process were chosen to determine the ideal dimensions with respect to the formability of the bi-metal-wire. A prototype demonstrated the feasibility of the process.

Keywords: car body, steel sheets, formability of bi-metal-wire, laser-assisted bi-metal-wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
269 Thermomagnetic Convection of a Ferrofluid in a Non-Uniform Magnetic Field Induced a Current Carrying Wire

Authors: Ashkan Vatani, Peter Woodfield, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Dzung Dao

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Thermomagnetic convection of a ferrofluid flow induced by the non-uniform magnetic field around a current-carrying wire was theoretically analyzed and experimentally tested. To show this phenomenon, the temperature rise of a hot wire, immersed in DIW and Ferrofluid, as a result of joule heating has been measured using a transient hot-wire technique. When current is applied to the wire, a temperature gradient is imposed on the magnetic fluid resulting in non-uniform magnetic susceptibility of the ferrofluid that results in a non-uniform magnetic body force which makes the ferrofluid flow as a bulk suspension. For the case of the wire immersed in DIW, free convection is the only means of cooling, while for the case of ferrofluid a combination of both free convection and thermomagnetic convection is expected to enhance the heat transfer from the wire beyond that of DIW. Experimental results at different temperatures and for a range of constant currents applied to the wire show that thermomagnetic convection becomes effective for the currents higher than 1.5A at all temperatures. It is observed that the onset of thermomagnetic convection is directly proportional to the current applied to the wire and that the thermomagnetic convection happens much faster than the free convection. Calculations show that a 35% enhancement in heat transfer can be expected for the ferrofluid compared to DIW, for a 3A current applied to the wire.

Keywords: cooling, ferrofluid, thermomagnetic convection, magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
268 Wire Localization Procedures in Non-Palpable Breast Cancers: An Audit Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Waqas Ahmad, Eisha Tahir, Shahper Aqeel, Imran Khalid Niazi, Amjad Iqbal

Abstract:

Background: Breast conservation surgery applies a number of techniques for accurate localization of lesions. Wire localization remains the method of choice in non-palpable breast cancers post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of wire localization procedures in our department and compare it with internationally set protocols as per the Royal College of Radiologists. Post wire mammography, as well as the margin status of the postoperative specimen, assessed the accuracy of the procedure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 225 patients who presented to our department from May 2014 to June 2015 post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with non-palpable cancers. These patients are candidates for wire localized lumpectomies either under ultrasound or stereotactic guidance. Metallic marker was placed in all the patients at the time of biopsy. Post wire mammogram was performed in all the patients and the distance of the wire tip from the marker was calculated. The presence or absence of the metallic clip in the postoperative specimen, as well as the marginal status of the postoperative specimen, was noted. Results: 157 sonographic and 68 stereotactic wire localization procedures were performed. 95% of the wire tips were within 1 cm of the metallic marker. Marginal status was negative in 94% of the patients in histopathological specimen. Conclusion: Our audit report declares more than 95% accuracy of image guided wire localization in successful excision of non-palpable breast lesions.

Keywords: breast, cancer, non-palpable, wire localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
267 Comparison of Growth and Biomass of Red Alga Cultured on Rope and Net

Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Saeedeh Dashti, Hakimeh Fekrandish

Abstract:

This research has been conducted to study the method of culture and comparing growth and biomass of Gracilariacorticata cultured on rope and net for 50 days through two treatments (first treatment: culture of alga on net and the second treatment: culture of alga on rope and each treatment was repeated by four cases). During culture period, the water of aquariums was replaced once every two days for 40-50%. Also, 0.3-0.5 grams of Urea fertilizer was added to the culture environment for fertilization. Moreover, some of the environmental factors such as pH, salinity and temperature of the environment were measured on a daily basis. During the culture period, extent of longitudinal growth of the species of both treatments was equal. The said length was reached from 8-10 cm to 10.5-13 cm accordingly. The resulted weight in repetitions of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment in such a way as in the first treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 21.119 grams and in the second treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 17.663 grams. On a whole, it may be stated that that kind of alga being studied has a considerable growth with respect to its volume. The results have revealed that the percentage of daily growth and wet weight at the end of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment and it was registered as 0.934, 6.072 and 811.432 in the first treatment and 0.797, 4.990 and 758.071 in the second treatment respectively. This difference is significant (P < 0.05). Growth and biomass of G. corticata through culture on net was more emphasizing on numerous branches due to wider bed. Moreover, higher level of the species in this method was exposed to sunlight and this increased biosynthesis and eventually increases of growth and biomass.

Keywords: red alga, growth, biomass, culture, net, rope

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
266 Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of ZnO Nanowires as a Function of Nano-Diameter

Authors: L. Achou, A. Doghmane

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Elastic performances, as an essential property of nanowires (NWs), play a significant role in the design and fabrication of modern nanodevices. In this paper, our interest is focused on ZnO NWs to investigate wire diameter (Dwire ≤ 400 nm) effects on elastic properties. The plotted data reveal that a strong size dependence of the elastic constants exists when the wire diameter is smaller than ~ 100 nm. For larger diameters (Dwire > 100 nm), these ones approach their corresponding bulk values. To enrich this study, we make use of the scanning acoustic microscopy simulation technique. The calculation methodology consists of several steps: determination of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities, calculation of refection coefficients, calculation of acoustic signatures and Rayleigh velocity determination. Quantitatively, it was found that changes in ZnO diameters over the ranges 1 nm ≤ Dwire ≤ 100 nm lead to similar exponential variations, for all elastic parameters, of the from: A = a + b exp(-Dwire/c) where a, b, and c are characteristic constants of a given parameter. The developed relation can be used to predict elastic properties of such NW by just knowing its diameter and vice versa.

Keywords: elastic properties, nanowires, semiconductors, theoretical model, ZnO

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
265 Experimental Study to Determine the Effect of Wire Mesh Pore Size on Natural Draft Chimney Performance

Authors: Md. Mizanur Rahman, Chu Chi Ming, Mohd Suffian Bin Misaran

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Chimney is an important part of the industries to remove waste heat from the processes side to the atmosphere. The increased demand of energy helps to restart to think about the efficiency of chimney as well as to find out a valid option to replace forced draft chimney system from industries. In this study natural draft chimney model is air flow rate; exit air temperature and pressure losses are studied through modification with wire mesh screen and compare the results with without wire mesh screen chimney model. The heat load is varies from 0.1 kW to 1kW and three different wire mesh screens that have pore size 0.15 mm2, 0.40 mm2 and 4.0 mm2 respectively are used. The experimental results show that natural draft chimney model with wire mesh screens significantly restored the flow losses compared to the system without wire mesh screen. The natural draft chimney model with 0.40 mm2 pore size wire mesh screen can minimize the draft losses better than others and able to enhance velocity about 54 % exit air temperature about 41% and pressure loss decreased by about 20%. Therefore, it can be decided that the wire mesh screens significantly minimize the draft losses in the natural draft chimney and 0.40 mm2 pore size screen will be a suitable option.

Keywords: natural draft dhimney, wire mesh screen, natural draft flow, mechanical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
264 Innovative Three Wire Capacitor Circuit System for Efficiency and Comfort Improvement of Ceiling Fans

Authors: R. K. Saket, K. S. Anand Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents an innovative 3-wire capacitor circuit system used to increase the efficiency and comfort improvement of permanent split-capacitor ceiling fan. In this innovative circuit, current has been reduced to save electrical power. The system could be used to replace standard single phase motor 2-wire capacitor configuration by cost effective split value X rated of optimized AC capacitors with the auxiliary winding to provide reliable ceiling fan operation and improved machine performance to save power. In basic system operations, comparisons with conventional ceiling fan are described.

Keywords: permanent split-capacitor motor, innovative 3-wire capacitor circuit system, standard 2-wire capacitor circuit system, metalized film X-rated capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
263 Experimental Study on Slicing of Sapphire with Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw

Authors: Mengjun Zhang, Yuli Sun, Dunwen Zuo, Chunxiang Xie, Chunming Zhang

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Experimental study on slicing of sapphire with fixed abrasive diamond wire saw was conducted in this paper. The process parameters were optimized through orthogonal experiment of three factors and four levels. The effects of wire speed, feed speed and tension pressure on the surface roughness were analyzed. Surface roughness in cutting direction and feed direction were both detected. The results show that feed speed plays the most significant role on the surface roughness of sliced sapphire followed by wire speed and tension pressure. The optimized process parameters are as follows: wire speed 1.9 m/s, feed speed 0.187 mm/min and tension pressure 0.18 MPa. In the end, the results were verified by analysis of variance.

Keywords: fixed abrasive, diamond wire saw, slicing, sapphire, orthogonal experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
262 Impact of Welding Wire Nickel Plating Process Parameters on Ni Layer Thickness

Authors: Sylwia Wiewiorowska, Zbigniew Muskalski

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The article presents part of research on the development of nickel plated welding wire production technology, whose application will enable the elimination of the flaws of currently manufactured welding wires. The nickel plated welding wire will be distinguished by high quality, because the Ni layer which is deposited electrochemically onto it from acid baths is characterized by very good adhesion to the steel wire surface, while the ductile nickel well deforms plastically in the drawing process and the adhesion of the Ni layer increases in the drawing process due to the occurring process of diffusion between the Ni and the steel. The Ni layer obtained in the proposed technology, despite a smaller thickness than when the wire is coated with copper, is continuous and tight, thus ensuring high corrosion resistance, as well as unsusceptible to scaling, which should provide a product that meets requirements imposed by the market. The product will also reduce, to some extent, the amount of copper brought in to steel through recycling, while the wire coating nickel introduced to the weld in the welding process is expected, to a degree, to favorably influence its mechanical properties. The paper describes the tests of the process of nickel plating of f1.96 mm-diameter wires using various nickel plating baths with different process parameters.

Keywords: steel wire, properties, welding process, Ni layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
261 Analysis of Wire Coating for Heat Transfer Flow of a Viscoelastic PTT Fluid with Slip Boundary Conditions

Authors: Rehan Ali Shah, A. M. Siddiqui, T. Haroon

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Slip boundary value problem in wire coating analysis with heat transfer is examined. The fluid is assumed to be viscoelastic PTT (Phan-Thien and Tanner). The rheological constitutive equation of PTT fluid model simulates various polymer melts. Therefore, the current consequences are valuable in a number of realistic situations. Effects of slip parameter γ as well as εDec^2 (viscoelastic index) on the axial velocity, shear stress, normal stress, average velocity, volume flux, thickness of coated wire, shear stress, force on the total wire and temperature distribution profiles have been investigated. A new direction is explored to analyze the flow with the slip parameter. The slippage at the boundaries plays an important role in thickness of coated wire. It is noted that as the slip parameter increases the flow rate and thickness of coated wire increases while, temperature distribution decreases. The results reduce to no slip when the slip parameter is vanished. Furthermore, we can obtain the results for Maxwell and viscous model by setting ε and λ equal to zero respectively.

Keywords: wire coating, straight annular die, PTT fluid, heat transfer, slip boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
260 Taguchi-Based Optimization of Surface Roughness and Dimensional Accuracy in Wire EDM Process with S7 Heat Treated Steel

Authors: Joseph C. Chen, Joshua Cox

Abstract:

This research focuses on the use of the Taguchi method to reduce the surface roughness and improve dimensional accuracy of parts machined by Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) with S7 heat treated steel material. Due to its high impact toughness, the material is a candidate for a wide variety of tooling applications which require high precision in dimension and desired surface roughness. This paper demonstrates that Taguchi Parameter Design methodology is able to optimize both dimensioning and surface roughness successfully by investigating seven wire-EDM controllable parameters: pulse on time (ON), pulse off time (OFF), servo voltage (SV), voltage (V), servo feed (SF), wire tension (WT), and wire speed (WS). The temperature of the water in the Wire EDM process is investigated as the noise factor in this research. Experimental design and analysis based on L18 Taguchi orthogonal arrays are conducted. This paper demonstrates that the Taguchi-based system enables the wire EDM process to produce (1) high precision parts with an average of 0.6601 inches dimension, while the desired dimension is 0.6600 inches; and (2) surface roughness of 1.7322 microns which is significantly improved from 2.8160 microns.

Keywords: Taguchi Parameter Design, surface roughness, Wire EDM, dimensional accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
259 FEM and Experimental Modal Analysis of Computer Mount

Authors: Vishwajit Ghatge, David Looper

Abstract:

Over the last few decades, oilfield service rolling equipment has significantly increased in weight, primarily because of emissions regulations, which require larger/heavier engines, larger cooling systems, and emissions after-treatment systems, in some cases, etc. Larger engines cause more vibration and shock loads, leading to failure of electronics and control systems. If the vibrating frequency of the engine matches the system frequency, high resonance is observed on structural parts and mounts. One such existing automated control equipment system comprising wire rope mounts used for mounting computers was designed approximately 12 years ago. This includes the use of an industrial- grade computer to control the system operation. The original computer had a smaller, lighter enclosure. After a few years, a newer computer version was introduced, which was 10 lbm heavier. Some failures of internal computer parts have been documented for cases in which the old mounts were used. Because of the added weight, there is a possibility of having the two brackets impact each other under off-road conditions, which causes a high shock input to the computer parts. This added failure mode requires validating the existing mount design to suit the new heavy-weight computer. This paper discusses the modal finite element method (FEM) analysis and experimental modal analysis conducted to study the effects of vibration on the wire rope mounts and the computer. The existing mount was modelled in ANSYS software, and resultant mode shapes and frequencies were obtained. The experimental modal analysis was conducted, and actual frequency responses were observed and recorded. Results clearly revealed that at resonance frequency, the brackets were colliding and potentially causing damage to computer parts. To solve this issue, spring mounts of different stiffness were modeled in ANSYS software, and the resonant frequency was determined. Increasing the stiffness of the system increased the resonant frequency zone away from the frequency window at which the engine showed heavy vibrations or resonance. After multiple iterations in ANSYS software, the stiffness of the spring mount was finalized, which was again experimentally validated.

Keywords: experimental modal analysis, FEM Modal Analysis, frequency, modal analysis, resonance, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
258 The Pitch Diameter of Pipe Taper Thread Measurement and Uncertainty Using Three-Wire Probe

Authors: J. Kloypayan, W. Pimpakan

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The pipe taper thread measurement and uncertainty normally used the four-wire probe according to the JIS B 0262. Besides, according to the EA-10/10 standard, the pipe thread could be measured using the three-wire probe. This research proposed to use the three-wire probe measuring the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread. The measuring accessory component was designed and made, then, assembled to one side of the ULM 828 CiM machine. Therefore, this machine could be used to measure and calibrate both the pipe thread and the pipe taper thread. The equations and the expanded uncertainty for pitch diameter measurement were formulated. After the experiment, the results showed that the pipe taper thread had the pitch diameter equal to 19.165 mm and the expanded uncertainty equal to 1.88µm. Then, the experiment results were compared to the results from the National Institute of Metrology Thailand. The equivalence ratio from the comparison showed that both results were related. Thus, the proposed method of using the three-wire probe measured the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread was acceptable.

Keywords: pipe taper thread, three-wire probe, measure and calibration, the universal length measuring machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
257 Effects of Damper Locations and Base Isolators on Seismic Response of a Building Frame

Authors: Azin Shakibabarough, Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Ashutosh Bagchi

Abstract:

Structural vibration means repetitive motion that causes fatigue and reduction of the performance of a structure. An earthquake may release high amount of energy that can have adverse effect on all components of a structure. Therefore, decreasing of vibration or maintaining performance of structures such as bridges, dams, roads and buildings is important for life safety and reducing economic loss. When earthquake or any vibration happens, investigation on parts of a structure which sustain the seismic loads is mandatory to provide a safe condition for the occupants. One of the solutions for reducing the earthquake vibration in a structure is using of vibration control devices such as dampers and base isolators. The objective of this study is to investigate the optimal positions of friction dampers and base isolators for better seismic response of 2D frame. For this purpose, a two bay and six story frame with different distribution formats was modeled and some of their responses to earthquake such as inter-story drift, max joint displacement, max axial force and max bending moment were determined and compared using non-linear dynamic analysis.

Keywords: fast nonlinear analysis, friction damper, base isolator, seismic vibration control, seismic response

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
256 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

Keywords: The photon-drag effect, the constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
255 Numerical Investigation of Wire Mesh Heat Pipe for Spacecraft Applications

Authors: Jayesh Mahitkar, V. K. Singh, Surendra Singh Kachhwaha

Abstract:

Wire Mesh Heat Pipe (WMHP) as an effective component of thermal control system in the payload of spacecraft, utilizing ammonia to transfer efficient amount of heat. One dimensional generic and robust mathematical model with partial-analytical hydraulic approach (PAHA) is developed to study inside behaviour of WMHP. In this model, inside performance during operation is investigated like mass flow rate, and velocity along the wire mesh as well as vapour core is modeled respectively. This numerical model investigate heat flow along length, pressure drop along wire mesh as well as vapour line in axial direction. Furthermore, WMHP is modeled into equivalent resistance network such that total thermal resistance of heat pipe, temperature drop across evaporator end and condenser end is evaluated. This numerical investigation should be carried out for single layer and double layer wire mesh each with heat input at evaporator section is 10W, 20 W and 30 W at condenser temperature maintained at 20˚C.

Keywords: ammonia, heat transfer, modeling, wire mesh

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
254 The Applications of Wire Print in Composite Material Research and Fabrication Process

Authors: Hsu Yi-Chia, Hoy June-Hao

Abstract:

FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) is a rapid proofing method without mold, however, high material and time costs have always been a major disadvantage. Wire-printing is the next generation technology that can more flexible, and also easier to apply on a 3D printer and robotic arms printing. It can create its own construction methods. The research is mainly divided into three parts. The first is about the method of parameterizing the generated paths and the conversion of g-code to the wire-printing. The second is about material attempts and the application of effects. Third, is about the improvement of the operation of mechanical equipment and the design of robotic tool-head. The purpose of this study is to develop a new wire-print method that can efficiently generate line segments and paths in three- dimensions space. The parametric modeling software transforms the digital model into a 3D printer or robotic arms g-code, this article uses thermoplastics/ clay/composites materials for testing. The combination of materials and wire-print process makes architects and designers have the ability to research and develop works and construction in the future.

Keywords: parametric software, wire print, robotic arms fabrication, composite filament additive manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 68