Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3654

Search results for: stress amplitude

3654 Plastic Strain Accumulation Due to Asymmetric Cyclic Loading of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C

Authors: R. S. Rajpurohit, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh


Asymmetric stress cycling leads to accumulation of plastic strain which is called as ratcheting strain. The problem is generally associated with nuclear fuel cladding materials used in nuclear power plants and pressurized pipelines. In the present investigation, asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with three different parameters namely, mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate (keeping two parameters constant and varying third parameter) to see the plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life and deformation behavior of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C. The tests were conducted with variable mean stress (45-70 MPa), stress amplitude (95-120 MPa) and stress rate (30-750 MPa/s) and tested specimens were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that with the increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, the ratcheting strain accumulation increases with reduction in fatigue life. However, increase in stress rate leads to improvement in fatigue life of the material due to small ratcheting strain accumulation. Fractographs showed a decrease in area fraction of fatigue failed region.

Keywords: asymmetric cyclic loading, ratcheting fatigue, mean stress, stress amplitude, stress rate, plastic strain

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3653 Effect of Grain Size and Stress Parameters on Ratcheting Behaviour of Two Different Single Phase FCC Metals

Authors: Jayanta Kumar Mahato, Partha Sarathi De, Amrita Kundu, P. C. Chakraborti


Ratcheting is one of the most important phenomena to be considered for design and safety assessment of structural components subjected to stress controlled asymmetric cyclic loading in the elasto-plastic domain. In the present study uniaxial ratcheting behavior of commercially pure annealed OFHC copper and aluminium with two different grain sizes has been investigated. Stress-controlled tests have been conducted at various combinations of stress amplitude and mean stress. These stresses were selected in such a way that the ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) of the selected materials remains constant. It is found that irrespective of grain size the ratcheting fatigue lives decrease with the increase of both stress amplitude and mean stress following power relationships. However, the effect of stress amplitude on ratcheting lives is observed higher as compared to mean stress for both the FCC metals. It is also found that for both FCC metals ratcheting fatigue lives at a constant ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σ ₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) are more in case fine grain size. So far ratcheting strain rate is concerned, it decreases rapidly within first few cycles and then a steady state is reached. Finally, the ratcheting strain rate increases up to the complete failure of the specimens due to a very large increase of true stress for a substantial reduction in cross-sectional area. The steady state ratcheting strain rate increases with the increase in both stress amplitude and mean stress. Interestingly, a unique perfectly power relationship between steady state ratcheting strain rate and cycles to failure has been found irrespective of stress combination for both FCC metals. Similar to ratcheting strain rate, the strain energy density decreases rapidly within first few cycles followed by steady state and then increases up to a failure of the specimens irrespective of stress combinations for both FCC metals; but strain energy density at steady state decreases with increase in mean stress and increases with the increase of stress amplitude. From the fractography study, it is found that the void density increases with the increase of maximum stress, but the void size and void density are almost same for any combination of stress parameters considering constant maximum stress.

Keywords: ratcheting phenomena, grain size, stress parameter, ratcheting lives, ratcheting strain rate

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3652 A Comparative Study of the Effects of Vibratory Stress Relief and Thermal Aging on the Residual Stress of Explosives Materials

Authors: Xuemei Yang, Xin Sun, Cheng Fu, Qiong Lan, Chao Han


Residual stresses, which can be produced during the manufacturing process of plastic bonded explosive (PBX), play an important role in weapon system security and reliability. Residual stresses can and do change in service. This paper mainly studies the influence of vibratory stress relief (VSR) and thermal aging on residual stress of explosives. Firstly, the residual stress relaxation of PBX via different physical condition of VSR, such as vibration time, amplitude and dynamic strain, were studied by drill-hole technique. The result indicated that the vibratory amplitude, time and dynamic strain had a significant influence on the residual stress relief of PBX. The rate of residual stress relief of PBX increases first and then decreases with the increase of dynamic strain, amplitude and time, because the activation energy is too small to make the PBX yield plastic deformation at first. Then the dynamic strain, time and amplitude exceed a certain threshold, the residual stress changes show the same rule and decrease sharply, this sharply drop of residual stress relief rate may have been caused by over vibration. Meanwhile, the comparison between VSR and thermal aging was also studied. The conclusion is that the reduction ratio of residual stress after VSR process with applicable vibratory parameters could be equivalent to 73% of thermal aging with 7 days. In addition, the density attenuation rate, mechanical property, and dimensional stability with 3 months after VSR process was almost the same compared with thermal aging. However, compared with traditional thermal aging, VSR only takes a very short time, which greatly improves the efficiency of aging treatment for explosive materials. Therefore, the VSR could be a potential alternative technique in the industry of residual stress relaxation of PBX explosives.

Keywords: explosives, residual stresses, thermal aging, vibratory stress relief, VSR

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3651 Effect of Single Overload Ratio and Stress Ratio on Fatigue Crack Growth

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab


In this investigation, variation of cyclic loading effect on fatigue crack growth is studied. This study is performed on 2024 T351 and 7050-T74 aluminum alloys, used in aeronautical structures. The propagation model used in this study is NASGRO model. In constant amplitude loading (CA), the effect of stress ratio has been investigated. Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate were affected by this factor. Results showed an increasing in fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) with increasing stress ratio. Variable amplitude loading (VAL) can take many forms i.e with a single overload, overload band etc. The shape of these loads affects strongly the fracture life and FCGRs. The application of a single overload (ORL) decrease the FCGR and increase the delay crack length caused by the formation of a larger plastic zone compared to the plastic zone due without VAL. The fatigue behavior of the both material under single overload has been compared.

Keywords: fatigue crack growth, overload ratio, stress ratio, generalized willenborg model, retardation, al-alloys

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3650 Jump-Like Deformation of Ultrafinegrained AZ31 at Temperature 4,2 - 0,5 K

Authors: Pavel Zabrodin


The drawback of magnesium alloys is poor plasticity, which complicates the forming. Effective way of improving the properties of the cast magnesium alloy AZ31 (3 wt. % Al, 0.8 wt. % Zn, 0.2 wt. % Mn)) is to combine hot extrusion at 350°C and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 180°C. Because of reduced grain sizes, changes in the nature of the grain boundaries, and enhancement of a texture that favors basal dislocation glide, after this kind of processing, increase yield stress and ductility. For study of the effect of microstructure on the mechanisms for plastic deformation, there is some interest in investigating the mechanical properties of the ultrafinegrained (UFG) Mg alloy at low temperatures, before and after annealing. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation the Mg alloy of dependent on microstructure. Reduction of the average density of dislocations and grain growth during annealing causing a reduction in the amplitude of the jump-like deformation and changes in the distribution of surges in amplitude. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation UFG alloy dependent on temperature of deformation. Plastic deformation of UFG alloy at a temperature of 10 K occurs uniformly - peculiarities is not observed. Increasing of the temperature of deformation from 4,2 to 0,5 K is causing a reduction in the amplitude and increasing the frequency of the jump-like deformation.

Keywords: jump-like deformation, low temperature, plasticity, magnesium alloy

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3649 Interaction between Trapezoidal Hill and Subsurface Cavity under SH Wave Incidence

Authors: Yuanrui Xu, Zailin Yang, Yunqiu Song, Guanxixi Jiang


It is an important subject of seismology on the influence of local topography on ground motion during earthquake. In mountainous areas with complex terrain, the construction of the tunnel is often the most effective transportation scheme. In these projects, the local terrain can be simplified into hills with different shapes, and the underground tunnel structure can be regarded as a subsurface cavity. The presence of the subsurface cavity affects the strength of the rock mass and changes the deformation and failure characteristics. Moreover, the scattering of the elastic waves by underground structures usually interacts with local terrains, which leads to a significant influence on the surface displacement of the terrains. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to study the surface displacement of local terrains with underground tunnels in earthquake engineering and seismology. In this work, the region is divided into three regions by the method of region matching. By using the fractional Bessel function and Hankel function, the complex function method, and the wave function expansion method, the wavefield expression of SH waves is introduced. With the help of a constitutive relation between the displacement and the stress components, the hoop stress and radial stress is obtained subsequently. Then, utilizing the continuous condition at different region boundaries, the undetermined coefficients in wave fields are solved by the Fourier series expansion and truncation of the finite term. Finally, the validity of the method is verified, and the surface displacement amplitude is calculated. The surface displacement amplitude curve is discussed in the numerical results. The results show that different parameters, such as radius and buried depth of the tunnel, wave number, and incident angle of the SH wave, have a significant influence on the amplitude of surface displacement. For the underground tunnel, the increase of buried depth will make the response of surface displacement amplitude increases at first and then decreases. However, the increase of radius leads the response of surface displacement amplitude to appear an opposite phenomenon. The increase of SH wave number can enlarge the amplitude of surface displacement, and the change of incident angle can obviously affect the amplitude fluctuation.

Keywords: method of region matching, scattering of SH wave, subsurface cavity, trapezoidal hill

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3648 Autonomic Nervous System Changes Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Clinical and Electrophysiological Study

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan


The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically and electro physiologically the autonomic nervous system changes associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study included 25 patients with RA [22 women (88%)] and 30 apparently healthy control subjects [27 women (90%)]. A thorough clinical examination was carried out. Disease activity and functional disability were assessed. Tests for assessment of autonomic functions include active and passive orthostatic stress tests, and sympathetic skin response (SSR). The presence of abnormality in 2 tests or more was a clue for the presence of autonomic neuropathy (AN). Sural sensory nerve conduction study and posterior tibial motor nerve conduction study were done. There was a statistically significant decrease in standing systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) components of the active orthostatic stress test and SSR amplitude as well as statistically significant prolongation of SSR latency of RA patients when compared to control. Three patients (12%) had clinical symptoms suggestive of AN; increased to 14 patients (56 %) when orthostatic stress tests and SSR were utilized. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with different disease activity score 28 with 4 variables grades of RA activity and SSR latency and amplitude. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with different Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index grades of RA functional disability and SSR latency and amplitude. In conclusion, autonomic neuropathy is a common extra-articular manifestation of RA affecting sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers.

Keywords: autonomic neuropathy, orthostatic stress test, rheumatoid arthritis, sympathetic skin response

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3647 Fatigue Crack Initiation of Al-Alloys: Effect of Heat Treatment Condition

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab


In this investigation an empirical study was made on fatigue crack initiation on 7075 T6 and 7075 T71 al-alloys under constant amplitude loading. At initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was applied. Single Edge Notch Tensile specimen with semi circular notch is used. Based on experimental results, effect of mean stress, is highlights on fatigue initiation life. Results show that fatigue life initiation is affected by notch geometry and mean stress.

Keywords: fatigue crack initiation, al-alloy, mean stress, heat treatment state

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3646 Stress Study in Implants Dental

Authors: M. Benlebna, B. Serier, B. Bachir Bouiadjra, S. Khalkhal


This study focuses on the mechanical behavior of a dental prosthesis subjected to dynamic loads chewing. It covers a three-dimensional analysis by the finite element method, the level of distribution of equivalent stresses induced in the bone between the implants (depending on the number of implants). The studied structure, consisting of a braced, implant and mandibular bone is subjected to dynamic loading of variable amplitude in three directions corrono-apical, mesial-distal and bucco-lingual. These efforts simulate those of mastication. We show that compared to the implantation of a single implant, implantology using two implants promotes the weakening of the bones. This weakness is all the more likely that the implants are located in close proximity to one another.

Keywords: stress, bone, dental implant, distribution, stress levels, dynamic, effort, interaction, prosthesis

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3645 Influence of Vibration Amplitude on Reaction Time and Drowsiness Level

Authors: Mohd A. Azizan, Mohd Z. Zali


It is well established that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human health, comfort, and performance. However, there is little quantitative knowledge on performance combined with drowsiness level during vibration exposure. This paper reports a study investigating the influence of vibration amplitude on seated occupant reaction time and drowsiness level. Eighteen male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Before commencing the experiment, total transmitted acceleration measured at interfaces between the seat pan and seatback to human body was adjusted to become 0.2 ms-2 r.m.s and 0.4 ms-2 r.m.s for each volunteer. Seated volunteers were exposed to Gaussian random vibration with frequency band 1-15 Hz at two level of amplitude (low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude) for 20-minutes in separate days. For the purpose of drowsiness measurement, volunteers were asked to complete 10-minutes PVT test before and after vibration exposure and rate their subjective drowsiness by giving score using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) before vibration, every 5-minutes interval and following 20-minutes of vibration exposure. Strong evidence of drowsiness was found as there was a significant increase in reaction time and number of lapse following exposure to vibration in both conditions. However, the effect is more apparent in medium vibration amplitude. A steady increase of drowsiness level can also be observed in KSS in all volunteers. However, no significant differences were found in KSS between low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude. It is concluded that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human alertness level and more pronounced at higher vibration amplitude. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of vibration in promoting drowsiness, especially at higher vibration amplitude.

Keywords: drowsiness, human vibration, karolinska sleepiness scale, psychomotor vigilance test

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3644 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama


This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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3643 The Effect of Dark energy on Amplitude of Gravitational Waves

Authors: Jafar Khodagholizadeh


In this talk, we study the tensor mode equation of perturbation in the presence of nonzero $-\Lambda$ as dark energy, whose dynamic nature depends on the Hubble parameter $ H$ and/or its time derivative. Dark energy, according to the total vacuum contribution, has little effect during the radiation-dominated era, but it reduces the squared amplitude of gravitational waves (GWs) up to $60\%$ for the wavelengths that enter the horizon during the matter-dominated era. Moreover, the observations bound on dark energy models, such as running vacuum model (RVM), generalized running vacuum model (GRVM), and generalized running vacuum subcase (GRVS), are effective in reducing the GWs’ amplitude. Although this effect is less for the wavelengths that enter the horizon at later times, this reduction is stable and permanent.

Keywords: gravitational waves, dark energy, GW's amplitude, all stage universe

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3642 Mindful Habits to Remain Unruffled by Stress in the Workplace

Authors: Sandeep Nath


There are good stresses and bad stresses. To tell the difference, recognize early signs of stress, and label stress conditions correctly, we need to understand stress triggers and the mechanism of stress as it arises. By understanding this through mindfulness of body, mind, and spirit, we can be prepared to prevent harmful stress from escalating and ruining health; physical, mental, and emotional. We can also prepare others/peers to be stress-free. The understanding of this is available in a form closest to our natural being, in ancient oriental wisdom, and is brought together as actionable habits in the movement called RENEWALism. The constructs of RENEWALism Habits are detailed in this paper, and case studies presented of how mindfulness has equipped individuals with both capability and capacity to handle their situations and environments despite the odds.

Keywords: habits, mindfulness, renewalism, stress

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3641 Large Amplitude Free Vibration of a Very Sag Marine Cable

Authors: O. Punjarat, S. Chucheepsakul, T. Phanyasahachart


This paper focuses on a variational formulation of large amplitude free vibration behavior of a very sag marine cable. In the static equilibrium state, the marine cable has a very large sag configuration. In the motion state, the marine cable is assumed to vibrate in in-plane motion with large amplitude from the static equilibrium position. The total virtual work-energy of the marine cable at the dynamic state is formulated which involves the virtual strain energy due to axial deformation, the virtual work done by effective weight, and the inertia forces. The equations of motion for the large amplitude free vibration of marine cable are obtained by taking into account the difference between the Euler’s equation in the static state and the displaced state. Based on the Galerkin finite element procedure, the linear and nonlinear stiffness matrices, and mass matrices of the marine cable are obtained and the eigenvalue problem is solved. The natural frequency spectrum and the large amplitude free vibration behavior of marine cable are presented.

Keywords: axial deformation, free vibration, Galerkin finite element method, large amplitude, variational method

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3640 Effects of Positron Concentration and Temperature on Ion-Acoustic Solitons in Magnetized Electron-Positron-Ion Plasma

Authors: S. K. Jain, M. K. Mishra


Oblique propagation of ion-acoustic solitons in magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma with warm adiabatic ions and isothermal electrons has been studied. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation using reductive perturbation method has been derived for the system, which admits an obliquely propagating soliton solution. It is found that for the selected set of parameter values, the system supports only compressive solitons. Investigations reveal that an increase in positron concentration diminishes the amplitude as well as the width of the soliton. It is also found that the temperature ratio of electron to positron (γ) affects the amplitude of the solitary wave. An external magnetic field do not affect the amplitude of ion-acoustic solitons, but obliqueness angle (θ), the angle between wave vector and magnetic field affects the amplitude. The amplitude of the ion-acoustic solitons increases with increase in angle of obliqueness. Magnetization and obliqueness drastically affect the width of the soliton. An increase in ionic temperature decreases the amplitude and width. For the fixed set of parameters, profiles have been drawn to study the combined effect with variation of two parameters on the characteristics of the ion-acoustic solitons (i.e., amplitude and width). The result may be applicable to plasma in the laboratory as well as in the magnetospheric region of the earth.

Keywords: ion-acoustic solitons, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma, reductive perturbation method

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3639 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim


The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

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3638 Non-Linear Velocity Fields in Turbulent Wave Boundary Layer

Authors: Shamsul Chowdhury


The objective of this paper is to present the detailed analysis of the turbulent wave boundary layer produced by progressive finite-amplitude waves theory. Most of the works have done for the mass transport in the turbulent boundary layer assuming the eddy viscosity is not time varying, where the sediment movement is induced by the mean velocity. Near the ocean bottom, the waves produce a thin turbulent boundary layer, where the flow is highly rotational, and shear stress associated with the fluid motion cannot be neglected. The magnitude and the predominant direction of the sediment transport near the bottom are known to be closely related to the flow in the wave induced boundary layer. The magnitude of water particle velocity at the Crest phase differs from the one of the Trough phases due to the non-linearity of the waves, which plays an important role to determine the sediment movement. The non-linearity of the waves become predominant in the surf zone area, where the sediment movement occurs vigorously. Therefore, in order to describe the flow near the bottom and relationship between the flow and the movement of the sediment, the analysis was done using the non-linear boundary layer equation and the finite amplitude wave theory was applied to represent the velocity fields in the turbulent wave boundary layer. At first, the calculation was done for turbulent wave boundary layer by two-dimensional model where throughout the calculation is non-linear. But Stokes second order wave profile is adopted at the upper boundary. The calculated profile was compared with the experimental data. Finally, the calculation is done based on various modes of the velocity and turbulent energy. The mean velocity is found to differ from condition of the relative depth and the roughness. It is also found that due to non-linearity, the absolute value for velocity and turbulent energy as well as Reynolds stress are asymmetric. The mean velocity of the laminar boundary layer is always positive but in the turbulent boundary layer plays a very complicated role.

Keywords: wave boundary, mass transport, mean velocity, shear stress

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3637 Cyclic Stress and Masing Behaviour of Modified 9Cr-1Mo at RT and 300 °C

Authors: Preeti Verma, P. Chellapandi, N.C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh


Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is widely used for structural components like heat exchangers, pressure vessels and steam generator in the nuclear reactors. It is also found to be a candidate material for future metallic fuel sodium cooled fast breeder reactor because of its high thermal conductivity, lower thermal expansion coefficient, micro structural stability, high irradiation void swelling resistance and higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking in water-steam systems compared to austenitic stainless steels. The components of steam generators that operate at elevated temperatures are often subjected to repeated thermal stresses as a result of temperature gradients which occur on heating and cooling during start-ups and shutdowns or during variations in operating conditions of a reactor. These transient thermal stresses give rise to LCF damage. In the present investigation strain controlled low cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature and 300 °C in normalized and tempered condition using total strain amplitudes in the range from ±0.25% to ±0.5% at strain rate of 10-2 s-1. Cyclic Stress response at high strain amplitudes (±0.31% to ±0.5%) showed initial softening followed by hardening upto a few cycles and subsequent softening till failure. The extent of softening increased with increase in strain amplitude and temperature. Depends on the strain amplitude of the test the stress strain hysteresis loops displayed Masing behaviour at higher strain amplitudes and non-Masing at lower strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. It is quite opposite to the usual Masing and Non-Masing behaviour reported earlier for different materials. Low cycle fatigue damage was evaluated in terms of plastic strain and plastic strain energy approach at room temperature and 300 °C. It was observed that the plastic strain energy approach was found to be more closely matches with the experimental fatigue lives particularly, at 300 °C where dynamic strain aging was observed.

Keywords: Modified 9Cr-mo steel, low cycle fatigue, Masing behavior, cyclic softening

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3636 A Strategy Therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa Induced by Argon Laser in Rabbits by High Dose Adult Stem Cells

Authors: Hager E. Amer, Hany El Saftawy, Laila Rashed, Ahmed M. Ata, Fatma Metwally, Hesham Mettawei, Hossam E. Sayed, Tamer Adel, Kareem M. El Sawah


Aim: The purpose of this study is to regenerate the damaged photoreceptor cells as a result of argon laser as a model of Retinitis Pigmentosa in rabbits' retina by using adult stem cells from rabbits' bone marrow. Background: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited disorders that primarily affect photoreceptor and pigment epithelium function. RP leads to loss of the rod outer segment and shorten the photoreceptor layer and expose the photoreceptor cell body to high-pressure levels in oxygen (oxidative stress) leads to apoptosis to the rod and cone cells. In particular, there is no specific treatment for retinitis pigmentosa. Materials and Methods: Forty Two Giant (Rex) rabbits were used in this experiment divided into 3 groups: Group 1: Control (6 rabbits), Group 2: Argon laser radiated as a model of retinitis pigmentosa (12 rabbits), Group 3: Laser radiated and treated by 6 million stem cells (12 rabbits). The last two groups are divided each into two subgroups each subgroup contains 6 rabbits, the ophthalmological examination was performed on rabbits, blood samples and retina samples were taken after 25 days and after 36 days from the laser radiation (10 days and 21 days after stem cells insertion in group 3) to perform the biochemical analysis. Results: Compared to control Group, a decrease of ERG wave amplitude and antioxidant substances (Glutathione) in blood and retina in group 2, and an increase of oxidative stress substances (Nitric oxide, Malonaldehyde, and carponyl protein) and apoptotic substances (Advanced glycation end product and M-metalloproteinase) in blood and retina. Compared to group 2, mostly increases of antioxidant substances and ERG wave amplitude in group 3, and mostly decreases in oxidative stress substances and apoptotic substances. Conclusion: Insertion of 6 million stem cells intravitreous gives good results in regeneration of the damaged photoreceptor cells after 21 days.

Keywords: retinitis pigmentosa, stem cells, argon laser, oxidative stress, apoptosis

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3635 An Analytical Approach for the Fracture Characterization in Concrete under Fatigue Loading

Authors: Bineet Kumar


Many civil engineering infrastructures frequently encounter repetitive loading during their service life. Due to the inherent complexity observed in concrete, like quasi-brittle materials, understanding the fatigue behavior in concrete still posesa challenge. Moreover, the fracture process zone characteristics ahead of the crack tip have been observed to be different in fatigue loading than in the monotonic cases. Therefore, it is crucial to comprehend the energy dissipation associated with the fracture process zone (FPZ) due to repetitive loading. It is well known that stiffness degradation due to cyclic loadingprovides a better understanding of the fracture behavior of concrete. Under repetitive load cycles, concrete members exhibit a two-stage stiffness degradation process. Experimentally it has been observed that the stiffness decreases initially with an increase in crack length and subsequently increases. In this work, an attempt has been made to propose an analytical expression to predict energy dissipation and later the stiffness degradation as a function of crack length. Three-point bend specimens have been considered in the present work to derive the formulations. In this approach, the expression for the resultant stress distribution below the neutral axis has been derived by correlating the bending stress with the cohesive stresses developed ahead of the crack tip due to the existence of the fracture process zone. This resultant stress expression is utilized to estimate the dissipated energydue to crack propagation as a function of crack length. Further, the formulation for the stiffness degradation has been developed by relating the dissipated energy with the work done. It can be used to predict the critical crack length and fatigue life. An attempt has been made to understand the influence of stress amplitude on the damage pattern by using the information on the rate of stiffness degradation. It has been demonstrated that with the increase in the stress amplitude, the damage/FPZ proceeds more in the direction of crack propagation compared to the damage in the direction parallel to the span of the beam, which causes a lesser rate of stiffness degradation for the incremental crack length. Further, the effect of loading frequency has been investigated in terms of stiffness degradation. Under low-frequency loading cases, the damage/FPZ has been found to spread more in the direction parallel to the span, in turn reducing the critical crack length and fatigue life. In such a case, a higher rate of stiffness degradation has been observed in comparison to the high-frequency loading case.

Keywords: fatigue life, fatigue, fracture, concrete

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3634 Relationship between Stress and Personality in Young Adults

Authors: Sneha Sadana


Human beings are unique and so are their reactions towards varied stimuli. This study focuses on the impact personality has on how one deals with stressful situations. It can be intriguing to know how big of an impact our personality has on the way we react and how it is wired in us to respond to things in a particular manner all because of our personality and the traits which make us who we are. The study was done on 150 college going students, 75 males and 75 females mainly from Ahmedabad, India pursuing a variety of different streams and subjects. The questionnaire consists of two standardized questionnaires which measure stress and personality. The Student Stress Scale by Manju Agarwal evaluates stress of subjects and the big five personality locator by Norman.
The findings showed that there exists a positive relationship between stress and neuroticism and an inverse relationship between stress and sociability, stress and openness, stress and agreeableness and stress and conscientiousness.
And on doing a further comparative analysis on personality types of the same sample it was found out that females were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, sociability, openness, and neuroticism. In males, however, it was observed that males were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, neuroticism, sociability, and openness

Keywords: college students, personality, stress, theories of personality

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3633 The Influence of Residual Stress on Hardness and Microstructure in Railway Rails

Authors: Muhammet Emre Turan, Sait Özçelik, Yavuz Sun


In railway rails, residual stress was measured and the values of residual stress were associated with hardness and micro structure in this study. At first, three rails as one meter long were taken and residual stresses were measured by cutting method according to the EN 13674-1 standardization. In this study, strain gauge that is an electrical apparatus was used. During the cutting, change in resistance in rail gave us residual stress value via computer program. After residual stress measurement, Brinell hardness distribution were performed for head parts of rails. Thus, the relationship between residual stress and hardness were established. In addition to that, micro structure analysis was carried out by optical microscope. The results show that, the micro structure and hardness value was changed with residual stress.

Keywords: residual stress, hardness, micro structure, rail, strain gauge

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3632 Simulation of Stress in Graphite Anode of Lithium-Ion Battery: Intra and Inter-Particle

Authors: Wenxin Mei, Jinhua Sun, Qingsong Wang


The volume expansion of lithium-ion batteries is mainly induced by intercalation induced stress within the negative electrode, resulting in capacity degradation and even battery failure. Stress generation due to lithium intercalation into graphite particles is investigated based on an electrochemical-mechanical model in this work. The two-dimensional model presented is fully coupled, inclusive of the impacts of intercalation-induced stress, stress-induced intercalation, to evaluate the lithium concentration, stress generation, and displacement intra and inter-particle. The results show that the distribution of lithium concentration and stress exhibits an analogous pattern, which reflects the relation between lithium diffusion and stress. The results of inter-particle stress indicate that larger Von-Mises stress is displayed where the two particles are in contact with each other, and deformation at the edge of particles is also observed, predicting fracture. Additionally, the maximum inter-particle stress at the end of lithium intercalation is nearly ten times the intraparticle stress. And the maximum inter-particle displacement is increased by 24% compared to the single-particle. Finally, the effect of graphite particle arrangement on inter-particle stress is studied. It is found that inter-particle stress with tighter arrangement exhibits lower stress. This work can provide guidance for predicting the intra and inter-particle stress to take measures to avoid cracking of electrode material.

Keywords: electrochemical-mechanical model, graphite particle, lithium concentration, lithium ion battery, stress

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3631 Environmental Effect on Corrosion Fatigue Behaviors of Steam Generator Forging in Simulated Pressurized Water Reactor Environment

Authors: Yakui Bai, Chen Sun, Ke Wang


An experimental investigation of environmental effect on fatigue behavior in SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 Steam Generator Forging CAP1400 nuclear power plant has been carried out. In order to simulate actual loading condition, a range of strain amplitude was applied in different low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests. The current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) design fatigue code does not take full account of the interactions of environmental, loading, and material's factors. A range of strain amplitude was applied in different low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests at a strain rate of 0.01%s⁻¹. A design fatigue model was constructed by taking environmentally assisted fatigue effects into account, and the corresponding design curves were given for the convenience of engineering applications. The corrosion fatigue experiment was performed in a strain control mode in 320℃ borated and lithiated water environment to evaluate the effects of a mixed environment on fatigue life. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in steam generator large forging in primary water of pressurized water reactor was also observed. In addition, it is found that the CF life of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 decreases with increasing temperature in the water environment. The relationship between the reciprocal of temperature and the logarithm of fatigue life was found to be linear. Through experiments and subsequent analysis, the mechanisms of reduced low cycle fatigue life have been investigated for steam generator forging.

Keywords: failure behavior, low alloy steel, steam generator forging, stress corrosion cracking

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3630 Rock Thickness Measurement by Using Self-Excited Acoustical System

Authors: Janusz Kwaśniewski, Ireneusz Dominik, Krzysztof Lalik


The knowledge about rock layers thickness, especially above drilled mining pavements are crucial for workers safety. The measuring systems used nowadays are generally imperfect and there is a strong demand for improvement. The application of a new type of a measurement system called Self-Excited Acoustical System is presented in the paper. The system was applied until now to monitor stress changes in metal and concrete constructions. The change in measurement methodology resulted in possibility of measuring the thickness of the rocks above the tunnels as well as thickness of a singular rock layer. The idea is to find two resonance frequencies of the self-exited system, which consists of a vibration exciter and vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which operate in a closed loop with a positive feedback. The resonance with the higher amplitude determines thickness of the whole rock, whereas the lower amplitude resonance indicates thickness of a singular layer. The results of the laboratory tests conducted on a group of different rock materials are also presented.

Keywords: auto-oscillator, non-destructive testing, rock thickness measurement, geotechnic

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3629 Variation in Adaptation Strategies of Commelina Communis L. Biotypes under Drought Stress Condition

Authors: Muhammad Haroon, LI Xiangju


C. communis L. is an important weed of many crop, but very little information about the adaptation strategies of C. communis L. biotypes under drought stress. We investigated five biotypes of C. communis L under drought stress to identify the adaptation mechanism. The expression of drought stress related genes (DRS1, EREB and HRB1) was up-regulated in biotypes, while in some biotypes their expression was down regulated. All five biotypes can thus regulate water balance to consume less water to maintain their status under drought stress condition. This result concluded that C. communis L. biotypes can survive longer under drought stress condition. Weed scientist should seek more effective management strategies to deal with C. communis L.

Keywords: C. communis, biotypes, drought stress, gene expression

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3628 Frontal Oscillatory Activity and Phase–Amplitude Coupling during Chan Meditation

Authors: Arthur C. Tsai, Chii-Shyang Kuo, Vincent S. C. Chien, Michelle Liou, Philip E. Cheng


Meditation enhances mental abilities and it is an antidote to anxiety. However, very little is known about brain mechanisms and cortico-subcortical interactions underlying meditation-induced anxiety relief. In this study, the changes of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in which the amplitude of the beta frequency band were modulated in phase with delta rhythm were investigated after eight-week of meditation training. The study hypothesized that through a concentrate but relaxed mental training the delta-beta coupling in the frontal regions is attenuated. The delta-beta coupling analysis was applied to within and between maximally-independent component sources returned from the extended infomax independent components analysis (ICA) algorithm on the continuous EEG data during mediation. A unique meditative concentration task through relaxing body and mind was used with a constant level of moderate mental effort, so as to approach an ‘emptiness’ meditative state. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used in this study. To evaluate cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling of component sources, the modulation index (MI) with statistics to calculate circular phase statistics were estimated. Our findings reveal that a significant delta-beta decoupling was observed in a set of frontal regions bilaterally. In addition, beta frequency band of prefrontal component were amplitude modulated in phase with the delta rhythm of medial frontal component.

Keywords: phase-amplitude coupling, ICA, meditation, EEG

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3627 Effectiveness of Raga Desi Todi on Depression, Anxiety and Stress Among Adults

Authors: Sushila Pareek, Divya Shekhawat


Music has been shown as a therapeutic agent in depression, anxiety, and stress. A pilot study was carried out to see the therapeutic effects of Indian classical instrumental Raga Todi on depression, anxiety, and stress. 50 individuals diagnosed with depression, anxiety, and stress with DSM-V were taken for the study. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group received the instrumental raga Todi whereas the other control group didn't receive any intervention. DASS-21 was used on the baseline and after the intervention to measure depression, anxiety, and stress. The result indicates that anxiety, stress, and depression level was reduced after listening to the raga desi Todi. It was concluded that raga desi Todi is an effective intervention for reducing depression, anxiety, and stress.

Keywords: raga, anxiety, stress, depression, DASS-21, mental health

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3626 The Comparison of of Stress Level between Students with Parents and Those without Parents

Authors: Hendeh Majdi, Zahra Arzjani


This research aimed at the comparison of level of stress between students had parents and those without parents by descriptive-analytical study. To do research number of 128 questionnaires (64 students with parents and 64 students without parents) were distributed among high school in Ray city, Tehran province through classified sampling. The results showed that level of stress in stud tent without parents has been effective and the most important proposal is that necessity study should be considered in decreasing level of stress in students without parent.

Keywords: stress, students with parents, without parents, Ray city

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3625 Strategies to Improve Heat Stress Tolerance in Chickpea and Dissecting the Cross Talk Mechanism

Authors: Renu Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar


In northern India, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) come across with terminal high-temperature stress during reproductive stage which leads to reduced yield. Hence, stable production of chickpea will depend on the development of new methods like ‘priming’ which allow improved adaptation to the drought and heat stress. In the present experiment, 11-day chickpea seedling was primed with mild drought stress and put on recovery stage by irrigating and finally 30-day seedlings were exposed to heat stress 38°C (4 hours), 35°C (8 hours) and 32°C (12 hours). To study the effect of combinatorial stress, heat and drought stress was applied simultaneously. Analyses of various physiological parameters like membrane damage assay, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative enzyme, total sugars were estimated at all stages. To study the effect of heat stress on the metabolites of the plants, GC-MS and HPLC were performed, while at transcriptional level Real-Time PCR of predicted heat stress-related genes was done. It was concluded that the heat stress significantly affected the chickpea plant at physiological and molecular level in all the five varieties. Results also show less damaging effect in primed plants by increasing the activity of antioxidative enzymes and increased expression of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors.

Keywords: chickpea, combinatorial stress, heat stress, oxidative stress, priming, RT-PCR

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