Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 442

Search results for: capacities

442 The Importance of Absorptive Capacities in the Foreign Direct Investment-Growth Nexus: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Edmund Kwablah, Anthony Amoah

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The merits associated with Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows to host countries in Sub-Saharan Africa cannot be overemphasized. Against this background, countries have sought to design and implement strategic policies geared towards enhacing FDI and promoting economic growth. In this study, we used the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares technique and a panel data for Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries spanning from 1998 to 2016. We hypothesize that FDI’s effect on economic growth is contingent on some absorptive capacities (e.g., financial market development and economic freedom) of the host country. We used financial market data that accounts for market fragility as a measure of financial market development and economic freedom data which uses the overall score of all the freedom indicators as a measure of economic freedom. Our results suggest that FDI has a statistically positive effect on economic growth when we account for host country’s absorptive capacities. However, a negative relationship will ensue if these absorptive capacities are not accounted for. We recommend that a developing continent like SSA should focus on identifying and building the relevant absorptive capacities that can translate the effect of FDI into a positive growth. This is because an economy with sound absorptive capacities reduces business risk and spur economic growth.

Keywords: FDI, absorptive capacity, economic growth, FMOLS, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares, SSA

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441 Measures of Reliability and Transportation Quality on an Urban Rail Transit Network in Case of Links’ Capacities Loss

Authors: Jie Liu, Jinqu Cheng, Qiyuan Peng, Yong Yin

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Urban rail transit (URT) plays a significant role in dealing with traffic congestion and environmental problems in cities. However, equipment failure and obstruction of links often lead to URT links’ capacities loss in daily operation. It affects the reliability and transport service quality of URT network seriously. In order to measure the influence of links’ capacities loss on reliability and transport service quality of URT network, passengers are divided into three categories in case of links’ capacities loss. Passengers in category 1 are less affected by the loss of links’ capacities. Their travel is reliable since their travel quality is not significantly reduced. Passengers in category 2 are affected by the loss of links’ capacities heavily. Their travel is not reliable since their travel quality is reduced seriously. However, passengers in category 2 still can travel on URT. Passengers in category 3 can not travel on URT because their travel paths’ passenger flow exceeds capacities. Their travel is not reliable. Thus, the proportion of passengers in category 1 whose travel is reliable is defined as reliability indicator of URT network. The transport service quality of URT network is related to passengers’ travel time, passengers’ transfer times and whether seats are available to passengers. The generalized travel cost is a comprehensive reflection of travel time, transfer times and travel comfort. Therefore, passengers’ average generalized travel cost is used as transport service quality indicator of URT network. The impact of links’ capacities loss on transport service quality of URT network is measured with passengers’ relative average generalized travel cost with and without links’ capacities loss. The proportion of the passengers affected by links and betweenness of links are used to determine the important links in URT network. The stochastic user equilibrium distribution model based on the improved logit model is used to determine passengers’ categories and calculate passengers’ generalized travel cost in case of links’ capacities loss, which is solved with method of successive weighted averages algorithm. The reliability and transport service quality indicators of URT network are calculated with the solution result. Taking Wuhan Metro as a case, the reliability and transport service quality of Wuhan metro network is measured with indicators and method proposed in this paper. The result shows that using the proportion of the passengers affected by links can identify important links effectively which have great influence on reliability and transport service quality of URT network; The important links are mostly connected to transfer stations and the passenger flow of important links is high; With the increase of number of failure links and the proportion of capacity loss, the reliability of the network keeps decreasing, the proportion of passengers in category 3 keeps increasing and the proportion of passengers in category 2 increases at first and then decreases; When the number of failure links and the proportion of capacity loss increased to a certain level, the decline of transport service quality is weakened.

Keywords: urban rail transit network, reliability, transport service quality, links’ capacities loss, important links

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440 Oil Logistics for Refining to Northern Europe

Authors: Vladimir Klepikov

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To develop the programs to supply crude oil to North European refineries, it is necessary to take into account the refineries’ location, crude refining capacity, and the transport infrastructure capacity. Among the countries of the region, we include those having a marine boundary along the Northern Sea and the Baltic Sea (from France in the west to Finland in the east). The paper envisages the geographic allocation of the refineries and contains the evaluation of the refineries’ capacities for the region under review. The sustainable operations of refineries in the region are determined by the transportation system capacity to supply crude oil to them. The assessment of capacity of crude oil transportation to the refineries is conducted. The research is performed for the period of 2005/2015, using the quantitative analysis method. The countries are classified by the refineries’ aggregate capacities and the crude oil output on their territory. The crude oil output capacities in the region in the period under review are determined. The capacities of the region’s transportation system to supply crude oil produced in the region to the refineries are revealed. The analysis suggested that imported raw materials are the main source of oil for the refineries in the region. The main sources of crude oil supplies to North European refineries are reviewed. The change in the refineries’ capacities in the group of countries and each particular country, as well as the utilization of the refineries' capacities in the region in the period under review, was studied. The input suggests that the bulk of crude oil is supplied by marine and pipeline transport. The paper contains the assessment of the crude oil transportation by pipeline transport in the overall crude oil cargo flow. The refineries’ production rate for the groups of countries under the review and for each particular country was the subject of study. Our study yielded the trend towards the increase in the crude oil refining at the refineries of the region and reduction in the crude oil output. If this trend persists in the near future, the cargo flow of imported crude oil and the utilization of the North European logistics infrastructure may increase. According to the study, the existing transport infrastructure in the region is able to handle the increasing imported crude oil flow.

Keywords: European region, infrastructure, oil terminal capacity, pipeline capacity, tanker draft

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439 Knowledge, Hierarchy and Decision-Making: Analysis of Documentary Filmmaking Practices in India

Authors: Nivedita Ghosh

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In his critique of Lefebvre’s view that ‘technological capacities’ are class-dependent, Francois Hetman argues that technology today is participatory, allowing the entry of individuals from different levels of social stratification. As a result, we are entering into an era of technology operators or ‘clerks’ who become the new decision-makers because of the knowledge they possess of the use of technologies. In response to Hetman’s thesis, this paper argues that knowledge of technology, while indeed providing a momentary space for decision-making, does not necessarily restructure social hierarchies. Through case studies presented from the world of Indian documentary filmmaking, this paper puts forth the view that Hetman’s clerks, despite being technologically advanced, do not break into the filmmaking hierarchical order. This remains true even for a situation where technical knowledge rests most with those in the lowest rungs of the filmmaking ladder. Instead, technological knowledge provides the space for other kinds of relationships to evolve, such as those of ‘trusting the technician’ or ‘admiration for the technician’s work’. Furthermore, what continues to define documentary filmmaking hierarchy is conceptualization capacities of the practitioners, which are influenced by a similarity in socio-cultural backgrounds and film school training accessible primarily to the filmmakers instead of the technicians. Accordingly, the paper concludes with the argument that more than ‘technological-capacities’, it is ‘conceptualization capacities’ which are class-dependent, especially when we study the field of documentary filmmaking.

Keywords: documentary filmmaking, India, technology, knowledge, hierarchy

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438 Collapse Performance of Steel Frame with Hysteric Energy Dissipating Devices

Authors: Hyung-Joon Kim, Jin-Young Park

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Energy dissipating devices (EDDs) have become more popular as seismic-force-resisting systems for building structures. However, there is little information on the collapse capacities of frames employing EDDs which are an important criterion for their seismic design. This study investigates the collapse capacities of steel frames with TADAS hysteric energy dissipative devices (HEDDs) that become an alternative to steel braced frames. To do this, 5-story steel ordinary concentrically braced frame and steel frame with HEDDs are designed and modeled. Nonlinear dynamic analyses and incremental dynamic analysis with 40 ground motions scaled to maximum considered earthquake are carried out. It is shown from analysis results that the significant enhancement in terms of the collapse capacities is found due to the introduction HEDDs.

Keywords: collapse capacity, incremental dynamic analysis, steel braced frame, TADAS hysteric energy dissipative device

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437 Khon Kaen University Family Health Assessment Tool Training Program on Primary Care Unit Nurses’ Skills

Authors: Suwarno, D. Jongudomkarn

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Family Health Assessment (FHA) is a key process to identify the family health needs, family health problems, and family health history. Assessing the family health is not only from the assessment tool but also from health care provider especially Nurse. Nurses’ have duties to assess the family as holistic view and they have to increase their capacities (knowledge, skills and experiences) in FHA. Thus, the continuing nursing education-training program on using the KKU FHA Tool was aimed to enhance the participant nurses’ capacities in (FHA) based on such tool. The aim of this study was to evaluate the KKU FHA Tool training program on PCU nurses’ capacity before and after training program in Primary Care Unit Bantul, Yogyakarta. The Quasi-Experiment with one group pre-, post-test design as a research design with convenient sampling technique and one group pre- post test formula for Nurses who work in Six PCU Bantul, Yogyakarta as much as fourteen respondents. The research processes were used training program with module, video and handbook KKU FHA Tool, KKU FHA tool form and capacities questionnaires. It was analyzed by descriptive data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Paired Sample t-test. The overall comparing analysis of paired sample t-test revealed that the mean values of pre-test were 3.35 with SD 0.417, post-test was 3.86 with SD 0.154 and post-test in later two weeks was 4.00 with SD 0.243. It was found that the p value of among the pre-test, the intermediate post-test and the post–test in later two weeks were 0.000. The p value of the intermediate post-test and post-test in later two weeks was 0.053. KKU FHA Tool training program in PCU Bantul Yogyakarta was enhanced the participant nurses’ capacities significantly. In conclusion, we are recommending KKU FHA Tool forms have to develop and implement with qualitative research as complementary data in PCU Bantul Yogyakarta by Focus Group Discussion.

Keywords: family health assessment, KKU FHA tool, training program, nurses capacities

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436 Transpersonal Model of an Individual's Creative Experiencef

Authors: Anatoliy Kharkhurin

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Modifications that the prefix ‘trans-‘ refers to start within a person. This presentation focuses on the transpersonal that goes beyond the individual (trans-personal) to encompass wider aspects of humanities, specifically peak experience as a culminating stage of the creative act. It proposes a model according to which the peak experience results from a harmonious vibration of four spheres, which transcend an individual’s capacities and bring one to a qualitatively different level of experience. Each sphere represents an aspect of creative activity: superconscious, intellectual, emotive and active. Each sphere corresponds to one of four creative functions: authenticity, novelty, aesthetics, and utility, respectively. The creative act starts in the superconscious sphere: the supreme pleasure of Creation is reflected in creative pleasure, which is realized in creative will. These three instances serve as a source of force axes, which penetrate other spheres, and in place of infiltration establish restrictive, expansive, and integrative principles, respectively; the latter balances the other two and ensures a harmonious vibration within a sphere. This Hegelian-like triad is realized within each sphere in the form of creative capacities. The intellectual sphere nurtures capacities to invent and to elaborate, which are integrated by capacity to conceptualize. The emotive sphere nurtures satiation and restrictive capacities integrated by capacity to balance. The active sphere nurtures goal orientation and stabilization capacities integrated by capacity for self-expression. All four spheres vibrate within each other – the superconscious sphere being in the core of the structure followed by intellectual, emotive, and active spheres, respectively – thereby reflecting the path of creative production. If the spheres vibrate in-phase, their amplitudes amplify the creative energy; if in antiphase – the amplitudes reduce the creative energy. Thus, creative act is perceived as continuum with perfectly harmonious vibration within and between the spheres on one side and perfectly disharmonious vibration on the other.

Keywords: creativity, model, transpersonal, peak experience

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435 Experimental Investigation of Powder Holding Capacities of H13 and H14 Class Activated Carbon Filters Based on En 779 Standard

Authors: Abdullah Işıktaş, Kevser Dincer

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The use of HEPA filters for air conditioning systems in clean rooms tends to increase progressively in pharmaceutical, food stuff industries and in hospitals. There are two standards widely used for HEPA filters; the EN 1822 standards published by the European Union, CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and the US based IEST standard (Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology. Both standards exhibit some differences in the definitions of efficiency and its measurement methods. While IEST standard defines efficiency at the grit diameter of 0.3 µm, the EN 1822 standard takes MPPS (Most Penetrating Particle Size) as the basis of its definition. That is, the most difficult grit size to catch up. On the other hand, while IEST suggests that photometer and grit counters be used for filter testing, in EN 1822 standard, only the grit (grain) counters are recommended for that purpose. In this study, powder holding capacities of H13 and H14 grade materials under the EN 779 standard are investigated experimentally by using activated carbon. Measurements were taken on an experimental set up based on the TS 932 standard. Filter efficiency was measured by injecting test powder at amounts predetermined in the standards into the filters at certain intervals. The data obtained showed that the powder holding capacities of the activated carbon filter are high enough to yield efficiency of around 90% and that the H13 and H14 filters exhibit high efficiency suitable for the standard used.

Keywords: activated carbon filters, HEPA filters, powder holding capacities, air conditioning systems

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434 Paradox of Growing Adaptive Capacities for Sustainability Transformation in Urban Water Management in Bangladesh

Authors: T. Yasmin, M. A. Farrelly, B. C. Rogers

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Urban water governance in developing countries faces numerous challenges arising from uncontrolled urban population expansion, water pollution, greater economic push and more recently, climate change impact while undergoing transitioning towards a sustainable system. Sustainability transition requires developing adaptive capacities of the socio-ecological and socio-technical system to be able to deal with complexity. Adaptive capacities deliver strategies to connect individuals, organizations, agencies and institutions at multiple levels for dealing with such complexity. Understanding the level of adaptive capacities for sustainability transformation thus has gained significant research attention within developed countries, much less so in developing countries. Filling this gap, this article develops a conceptual framework for analysing the level of adaptive capacities (if any) within a developing context. This framework then applied to the chronological development of urban water governance strategies in Bangladesh for almost two centuries. The chronological analysis of governance interventions has revealed that crisis (public health, food and natural hazards) became the opportunities and thus opened the windows for experimentation and learning to occur as a deviation from traditional practices. Self-organization and networks thus created the platform for development or disruptions to occur for creating change. Leadership (internal or external) is important for nurturing and upscaling theses development or disruptions towards guiding policy vision and targets as well as championing ground implementation. In the case of Bangladesh, the leadership from the international and national aid organizations and targets have always lead the development whereas more often social capital tools (trust, power relations, cultural norms) act as disruptions. Historically, this has been evident in the development pathways of urban water governance in Bangladesh. Overall this research has shown some level of adaptive capacities is growing for sustainable urban growth in big cities, nevertheless unclear regarding the growth in medium and small cities context.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, Bangladesh, sustainability transformation, water governance

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433 Unified Assessment of Power System Reserve-based Reliability Levels

Authors: B. M. Alshammari, M. A. El-Kady

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This paper presents a unified framework for assessment of reserve-based reliability levels in electric power systems. The unified approach is based on reserve-based analysis and assessment of the relationship between available generation capacities and required demand levels. The developed approach takes into account the load variations as well as contingencies which occur randomly causing some generation and/or transmission capacities to be lost (become unavailable). The calculated reserve based indices, which are important to assess the reserve capabilities of the power system for various operating scenarios are therefore probabilistic in nature. They reflect the fact that neither the load levels nor the generation or transmission capacities are known with absolute certainty. They are rather subjects to random variations and consequently. The calculated reserve-based reliability indices are all subjects to random variations where only expected values of these indices can be evaluated. This paper presents a unified approach to reserve-based reliability assessment of power systems using various reserve assessment criteria. Practical applications are also presented for demonstration purposes to the Saudi electricity power grid.

Keywords: assessment, power system, reserve, reliability

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432 Public Participation for an Effective Flood Risk Management: Building Social Capacities in Ribera Alta Del Ebro, Spain

Authors: Alba Ballester Ciuró, Marc Pares Franzi

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While coming decades are likely to see a higher flood risk in Europe and greater socio-economic damages, traditional flood risk management has become inefficient. In response to that, new approaches such as capacity building and public participation have recently been incorporated in natural hazards mitigation policy (i.e. Sendai Framework for Action, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and EU Floods Directive). By integrating capacity building and public participation, we present a research concerning the promotion of participatory social capacity building actions for flood risk mitigation at the local level. Social capacities have been defined as the resources and abilities available at individual and collective level that can be used to anticipate, respond to, cope with, recover from and adapt to external stressors. Social capacity building is understood as a process of identifying communities’ social capacities and of applying collaborative strategies to improve them. This paper presents a proposal of systematization of participatory social capacity building process for flood risk mitigation, and its implementation in a high risk of flooding area in the Ebro river basin: Ribera Alta del Ebro. To develop this process, we designed and tested a tool that allows measuring and building five types of social capacities: knowledge, motivation, networks, participation and finance. The tool implementation has allowed us to assess social capacities in the area. Upon the results of the assessment we have developed a co-decision process with stakeholders and flood risk management authorities on which participatory activities could be employed to improve social capacities for flood risk mitigation. Based on the results of this process, and focused on the weaker social capacities, we developed a set of participatory actions in the area oriented to general public and stakeholders: informative sessions on flood risk management plan and flood insurances, interpretative river descents on flood risk management (with journalists, teachers, and general public), interpretative visit to the floodplain, workshop on agricultural insurance, deliberative workshop on project funding, deliberative workshops in schools on flood risk management (playing with a flood risk model). The combination of obtaining data through a mixed-methods approach of qualitative inquiry and quantitative surveys, as well as action research through co-decision processes and pilot participatory activities, show us the significant impact of public participation on social capacity building for flood risk mitigation and contributes to the understanding of which main factors intervene in this process.

Keywords: flood risk management, public participation, risk reduction, social capacities, vulnerability assessment

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431 Unbalanced Mean-Time and Buffer Effects in Lines Suffering Breakdown

Authors: Sabry Shaaban, Tom McNamara, Sarah Hudson

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This article studies the performance of unpaced serial production lines that are subject to breakdown and are imbalanced in terms of both of their processing time means (MTs) and buffer storage capacities (BCs). Simulation results show that the best pattern in terms of throughput is a balanced line with respect to average buffer level; the best configuration is a monotone decreasing MT order, together with an ascending BC arrangement. Statistical analysis shows that BC, patterns of MT and BC imbalance, line length and degree of imbalance all contribute significantly to performance. Results show that unbalanced lines cope well with unreliability.

Keywords: unreliable unpaced serial lines, simulation, unequal mean operation times, uneven buffer capacities, patterns of imbalance, throughput, average buffer level

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430 Evaluating of Design Codes for Circular High Strength Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns

Authors: Soner Guler, Eylem Guzel, Mustafa Gülen

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Recently, concrete-filled steel tube columns are highly popular in high-rise buildings. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete-filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and American Concrete Institute (ACI) design codes. The axial load capacities of fifteen concrete-filled steel tubes stub columns were compared with design codes EU4 and ACI. The results showed that the EC4 overestimate the axial load capacity for all the specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Eurocode 4, ACI design codes

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429 Removal of Copper(II) and Lead(II) from Aqueous Phase by Plum Stone Activated Carbon

Authors: Serife Parlayici, Erol Pehlivan

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In this study, plum stone shell activated carbon (PS-AC) was prepared to adsorb Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions. Some important parameters that influence the adsorption of metal ions such as pH, contact time and metal concentration have been systematically investigated in batch type reactors. The characterization of adsorbent is carried out by means of FTIR and SEM. It was found that the adsorption capacities of PS-AC were pH-dependent, and the optimal pH values were 4.5 and 5.0 for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption was rapid and the equilibrium was reached within 60 minutes to remove of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions. The adsorption stability was studied in various doses of adsorbent. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium studies of PS-AC. Adsorption data showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) is compatible with Langmuir isotherm model. The result showed that adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 33.22 mg/g and 57.80 mg/g for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

Keywords: plum-stone, activated carbon, copper and lead, isotherms

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428 Effect of Elastic Modulus Varieties on Helical Pile Behavior in Sand

Authors: Javad Shamsi Soosahab, Reza Ziaie Moayed

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The compressive and tensile bearing capacity of helical piles in sand is investigated by means of numerical modeling. The analyses are carried out using two-dimensional finite-element software, Optum G2. The load–displacement behavior under compression and tension is compared in different relative densities for constant and various elastic modulus. The criterion used to find the ultimate axial load is the load corresponding to 5% of the helical diameter. The results show that relative density of sand plays an essential role in the response of ultimate capacities towards various condition. Increase in elastic modulus with depth is found to play a relatively more significant role to the increase in ultimate compressive load capacities, however tension bearing capacity decreases.

Keywords: helical piles, Optum G2, relative density, constant and various elastic modulus

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427 Contextual Enablers and Behaviour Outputs for Action of Knowledge Workers

Authors: Juan-Gabriel Cegarra-Navarro, Alexeis Garcia-Perez, Denise Bedford

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This paper provides guidelines for what constitutes a knowledge worker. Many graduates from non-managerial domains adopt, at some point in their professional careers, management roles at different levels, ranging from team leaders through to executive leadership. This is particularly relevant for professionals from an engineering background. Moving from a technical to an executive-level requires an understanding of those behaviour management techniques that can motivate and support individuals and their performance. Further, the transition to management also demands a shift of contextual enablers from tangible to intangible resources, which allows individuals to create new capacities, competencies, and capabilities. In this dynamic process, the knowledge worker becomes that key individual who can help members of the management board to transform information into relevant knowledge. However, despite its relevance in shaping the future of the organization in its transition to the knowledge economy, the role of a knowledge worker has not yet been studied to an appropriate level in the current literature. In this study, the authors review both the contextual enablers and behaviour outputs related to the role of the knowledge worker and relate these to their ability to deal with everyday management issues such as knowledge heterogeneity, varying motivations, information overload, or outdated information. This study highlights that the aggregate of capacities, competences and capabilities (CCCs) can be defined as knowledge structures, the study proposes several contextual enablers and behaviour outputs that knowledge workers can use to work cooperatively, acquire, distribute and knowledge. Therefore, this study contributes to a better comprehension of how CCCs can be managed at different levels through their contextual enablers and behaviour outputs.

Keywords: knowledge workers, capabilities, capacities, competences, knowledge structures

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426 Ground Improvement Using Deep Vibro Techniques at Madhepura E-Loco Project

Authors: A. Sekhar, N. Ramakrishna Raju

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This paper is a result of ground improvement using deep vibro techniques with combination of sand and stone columns performed on a highly liquefaction susceptible site (70 to 80% sand strata and balance silt) with low bearing capacities due to high settlements located (earth quake zone V as per IS code) at Madhepura, Bihar state in northern part of India. Initially, it was envisaged with bored cast in-situ/precast piles, stone/sand columns. However, after detail analysis to address both liquefaction and improve bearing capacities simultaneously, it was analyzed the deep vibro techniques with combination of sand and stone columns is excellent solution for given site condition which may be first time in India. First after detail soil investigation, pre eCPT test was conducted to evaluate the potential depth of liquefaction to densify silty sandy soils to improve factor of safety against liquefaction. Then trail test were being carried out at site by deep vibro compaction technique with sand and stone columns combination with different spacings of columns in triangular shape with different timings during each lift of vibro up to ground level. Different spacings and timing was done to obtain the most effective spacing and timing with vibro compaction technique to achieve maximum densification of saturated loose silty sandy soils uniformly for complete treated area. Then again, post eCPT test and plate load tests were conducted at all trail locations of different spacings and timing of sand and stone columns to evaluate the best results for obtaining the required factor of safety against liquefaction and the desired bearing capacities with reduced settlements for construction of industrial structures. After reviewing these results, it was noticed that the ground layers are densified more than the expected with improved factor of safety against liquefaction and achieved good bearing capacities for a given settlements as per IS codal provisions. It was also worked out for cost-effectiveness of lightly loaded single storied structures by using deep vibro technique with sand column avoiding stone. The results were observed satisfactory for resting the lightly loaded foundations. In this technique, the most important is to mitigating liquefaction with improved bearing capacities and reduced settlements to acceptable limits as per IS: 1904-1986 simultaneously up to a depth of 19M. To our best knowledge it was executed first time in India.

Keywords: ground improvement, deep vibro techniques, liquefaction, bearing capacity, settlement

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425 The Relevance of the Generalist Judge’s Discretionary Limits in the Institutional Debate

Authors: Antonio Sepúlveda, Camila Marques, Carlos Bolonha, Igor De Lazari, Henrique Rangel

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The judicial practice faces a tension between normative discretion and institutional capacities. There are clarity graduations of the statutory text that might induce different specialization levels of the judges. A major problem stemming from that tension is a greater discretion without a proportional specialization. The normative clarity, although its absence can be overcome through specialization, avoids problems related to disproportionate discretion and judicial dissonance. When judicial interpretation deals with the lack of legal clarity, a significant juridical insecurity frame is verified. Decisional uniformity mechanisms are created in order to surpass these problems. Brazil brings great examples, such as the súmulas, the enunciados, and the súmulas vinculantes. Despite of the resistance presented to the latter, mainly based on judges’ independence, even countries of the Common Law tradition develop such mechanisms. The British Guidelines face the lack of legal clarity problem and promote a decisional consonance system.

Keywords: generalist judges, institutional capacities, normative clarity, normative discretion

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424 A Conceptual Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Oil and Gas Critical Infrastructures in the Niger Delta

Authors: Justin A. Udie, Subhes C. Bhatthacharyya, Leticia Ozawa-Meida

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The impact of climate change is severe in the Niger Delta and critical oil and gas infrastructures are vulnerable. This is partly due to lack of specific impact assessment framework to assess impact indices on both existing and new infrastructures. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the assessment of climate change impact on critical oil and gas infrastructure in the region. Comparative and documentary methods as well as analysis of frameworks were used to develop a flexible, integrated and conceptual four dimensional framework underpinning; 1. Scoping – the theoretical identification of inherent climate burdens, review of exposure, adaptive capacities and delineation of critical infrastructure; 2. Vulnerability assessment – presents a systematic procedure for the assessment of infrastructure vulnerability. It provides real time re-scoping, practical need for data collection, analysis and review. Physical examination of systems is encouraged to complement the scoped data and ascertain the level of exposure to relevant climate risks in the area; 3. New infrastructure – consider infrastructures that are still at developmental level. It seeks to suggest the inclusion of flexible adaptive capacities in original design of infrastructures in line with climate threats and projections; 4. The Mainstreaming Climate Impact Assessment into government’s environmental decision making approach. Though this framework is designed specifically for the estimation of exposure, adaptive capacities and criticality of vulnerable oil and gas infrastructures in the Niger Delta to climate burdens; it is recommended for researchers and experts as a first-hand generic and practicable tool which can be used for the assessment of other infrastructures perceived as critical and vulnerable. The paper does not provide further tools that synch into the methodological approach but presents pointers upon which a pragmatic methodology can be developed.

Keywords: adaptation, assessment, conceptual, climate, change, framework, vulnerability

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423 Cobalt Ions Adsorption by Quartz and Illite and Calcite from Waste Water

Authors: Saad A. Aljlil

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Adsorption of cobalt ions on quartz and illite and calcite from waste water was investigated. The effect of pH on the adsorption of cobalt ions was studied. The maximum capacities of cobalt ions of the three adsorbents increase with increasing cobalt solution temperature. The maximum capacities were (4.66) mg/g for quartz, (3.94) mg/g for illite, and (3.44) mg/g for calcite. The enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy for adsorption of cobalt ions on the three adsorbents were calculated. It was found that the adsorption process of the cobalt ions of the adsorbent was an endothermic process. consequently increasing the temperature causes the increase of the cobalt ions adsorption of the adsorbents. Therefore, the adsorption process is preferred at high temperature levels. The equilibrium adsorption data were correlated using Langmuir model, Freundlich model. The experimental data of cobalt ions of the adsorbents correlated well with Freundlich model.

Keywords: adsorption, Langmuir, Freundlich, quartz, illite, calcite, waste water

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422 Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Kefir, Kefir Yogurt and Chickpea Yogurt

Authors: Nuray Güzeler, Elif Ari, Gözde Konuray, Çağla Özbek

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The consumption of functional foods is very common. For this reason, many products which are probiotic, prebiotic, energy reduced and fat reduced are developed. In this research, physicochemical and microbiological properties of functional kefir, kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt were examined. For this purpose, pH values, titration acidities, viscosity values, water holding capacities, serum separation values, acetaldehyde contents, tyrosine contents, the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria count and mold-yeast counts were determined. As a result of performed analysis, the differences between titration acidities, serum separation values, water holding capacities, acetaldehyde and tyrosine contents of samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences on pH values, viscosities, and microbiological properties of samples (p > 0.05). Consequently industrial production of functional kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt may be advised.

Keywords: chickpea yogurt, kefir, kefir yogurt, milk

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421 Comparative Isotherms Studies on Adsorptive Removal of Methyl Orange from Wastewater by Watermelon Rinds and Neem-Tree Leaves

Authors: Sadiq Sani, Muhammad B. Ibrahim

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Watermelon rinds powder (WRP) and neem-tree leaves powder (NLP) were used as adsorbents for equilibrium adsorption isotherms studies for detoxification of methyl orange dye (MO) from simulated wastewater. The applicability of the process to various isotherm models was tested. All isotherms from the experimental data showed excellent linear reliability (R2: 0.9487-0.9992) but adsorptions onto WRP were more reliable (R2: 0.9724-0.9992) than onto NLP (R2: 0.9487-0.9989) except for Temkin’s Isotherm where reliability was better onto NLP (R2: 0.9937) than onto WRP (R2: 0.9935). Dubinin-Radushkevich’s monolayer adsorption capacities for both WRP and NLP (qD: 20.72 mg/g, 23.09 mg/g) were better than Langmuir’s (qm: 18.62 mg/g, 21.23 mg/g) with both capacities higher for adsorption onto NLP (qD: 23.09 mg/g; qm: 21.23 mg/g) than onto WRP (qD: 20.72 mg/g; qm: 18.62 mg/g). While values for Langmuir’s separation factor (RL) for both adsorbents suggested unfavourable adsorption processes (RL: -0.0461, -0.0250), Freundlich constant (nF) indicated favourable process onto both WRP (nF: 3.78) and NLP (nF: 5.47). Adsorption onto NLP had higher Dubinin-Radushkevich’s mean free energy of adsorption (E: 0.13 kJ/mol) than WRP (E: 0.08 kJ/mol) and Temkin’s heat of adsorption (bT) was better onto NLP (bT: -0.54 kJ/mol) than onto WRP (bT: -0.95 kJ/mol) all of which suggested physical adsorption.

Keywords: adsorption isotherms, methyl orange, neem leaves, watermelon rinds

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420 Iron Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Fabricated Calcite Ooids

Authors: Al-Sayed A. Bakr, W. A. Makled

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The precipitated low magnesium calcite ooids in assembled softening unit from natural Mediterranean seawater samples were used as adsorbent media in a comparative study with granular activated carbon media in a two separated single-media filtration vessels (operating in parallel) for removal of iron from aqueous solutions. In each vessel, the maximum bed capacity, which required to be filled, was 13.2 l and the bed filled in the vessels of ooids and GAC were 8.6, and 6.6 l, respectively. The operating conditions applied to the semi-pilot filtration unit were constant pH (7.5), different temperatures (293, 303 and 313 k), different flow rates (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 l/min), different initial Fe(II) concentrations (15–105 mg/ l) and the calculated adsorbent masses were 34.1 and 123 g/l for GAC and calcite ooids, respectively. At higher temperature (313 k) and higher flow rate (60 l/min), the maximum adsorption capacities for ferrous ions by GAC and calcite ooids filters were 3.87 and 1.29 mg/g and at lower flow rate (20 l/min), the maximum adsorption capacities were 2.21 and 3.95 mg/g, respectively. From the experimental data, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used to verify the adsorption performance. Therefore, the calcite ooids could act as new highly effective materials in iron removal from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: water treatment, calcite ooids, activated carbon, Fe(II) removal, filtration

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419 Testing the Impact of Formal Interpreting Training on Working Memory Capacity: Evidence from Turkish-English Student-Interpreters

Authors: Elena Antonova Unlu, Cigdem Sagin Simsek

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The research presents two studies examining the impact of formal interpreting training (FIT) on Working Memory Capacity (WMC) of student-interpreters. In Study 1, the storage and processing capacities of the working memory (WM) of last-year student-interpreters were compared with those of last-year Foreign Language Education (FLE) students. In Study 2, the impact of FIT on the WMC of student-interpreters was examined via comparing their results on WM tasks at the beginning and the end of their FIT. In both studies, Digit Span Task (DST) and Reading Span Task (RST) were utilized for testing storage and processing capacities of WM. The results of Study 1 revealed that the last-year student-interpreters outperformed the control groups on the RST but not on the DST. The findings of Study 2 were consistent with Study 1 showing that after FIT, the student-interpreters performed better on the RST but not on the DST. Our findings can be considered as evidence supporting the view that FIT has a beneficial effect not only on the interpreting skills of student-interpreters but also on the central executive and processing capacity of their WM.

Keywords: working memory capacity, formal interpreting training, student-interpreters, cross-sectional and longitudinal data

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418 Federalism and Foreign Affairs: The International Relations of Mexican Sub-State Governments

Authors: Jorge A. Schiavon

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This article analyzes the international relations of sub-State governments (IRSSG) in Mexico. It aims to answer five questions: 1) What explains the recent and dramatic increase in their international activities? 2) What is the impact of federalism on the foreign affairs of the federal units? 3) What are the levels or degrees of IRSSG and how have they changed over the last years? 4) How do Mexican federal units institutionalize their international activities? 5) What are the perceptions and capacities of the federal units in their internationalization process? The first section argues that the growth in the IRSSG is generated by growing interdependence and globalization in the international system, and democratization, decentralization and structural reform in the national arena. The second section sustains that the renewed Mexican federalism has generated the incentives for SSG to participate more intensively in international affairs. The third section defends that there is a wide variation in their degree of international participation, which is measured in three moments in time (2004 2009 and 2014), and explains how this activity has changed in the last decade. The fourth section studies the institutionalization of the IRSSG in Mexico through the analysis of Inter-Institutional Agreements (IIA). Finally, the last section concentrates in explaining the perceptions and capacities of Mexican sub-State governments to conduct international relations.

Keywords: federalism, foreign policy, international relations of sub-state governments, paradiplomacy, Mexico

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417 Capacities of Early Childhood Education Professionals for the Prevention of Social Exclusion of Children

Authors: Dejana Bouillet, Vlatka Domović

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Both policymakers and researchers recognize that participating in early childhood education and care (ECEC) is useful for all children, especially for those who are exposed to the high risk of social exclusion. Social exclusion of children is understood as a multidimensional construct including economic, social, cultural, health, and other aspects of disadvantage and deprivation, which individually or combined can have an unfavorable effect on the current life and development of a child, as well as on the child’s development and on disadvantaged life chances in adult life. ECEC institutions should be able to promote educational approaches that portray developmental, cultural, language, and other diversity amongst children. However, little is known about the ways in which Croatian ECEC institutions recognize and respect the diversity of children and their families and how they respond to their educational needs. That is why this paper is dedicated to the analysis of the capacities of ECEC professionals to respond to the demands of educational needs of this very diverse group of children and their families. The results obtained in the frame of the project “Models of response to educational needs of children at risk of social exclusion in ECEC institutions,” funded by the Croatian Science Foundation, will be presented. The research methodology arises from explanations of educational processes and risks of social exclusion as a complex and heterogeneous phenomenon. The preliminary results of the qualitative data analysis of educational practices regarding capacities to identify and appropriately respond to the requirements of children at risk of social exclusion will be presented. The data have been collected by interviewing educational staff in 10 Croatian ECEC institutions (n = 10). The questions in the interviews were related to various aspects of inclusive institutional policy, culture, and practices. According to the analysis, it is possible to conclude that Croatian ECEC professionals are still faced with great challenges in the process of implementation of inclusive policies, culture, and practices. There are several baselines of this conclusion. The interviewed educational professionals are not familiar enough with the whole complexity and diversity of needs of children at risk of social exclusion, and the ECEC institutions do not have enough resources to provide all interventions that these children and their families need.

Keywords: children at risk of social exclusion, ECEC professionals, inclusive policies, culture and practices, quallitative analysis

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416 Administrators' Information Management Capacity and Decision-Making Effectiveness on Staff Promotion in the Teaching Service Commissions in South – West, Nigeria

Authors: Olatunji Sabitu Alimi

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This study investigated the extent to which administrators’ information storage, retrieval and processing capacities influence decisions on staff promotion in the Teaching Service Commissions (TESCOMs) in The South-West, Nigeria. One research question and two research hypotheses were formulated and tested respectively at 0.05 level of significance. The study used the descriptive research of the survey type. One hundred (100) staff on salary grade level 09 constituted the sample. Multi- stage, stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 100 staff from the TESCOMs in The South-West, Nigeria. Two questionnaires titled Administrators’ Information Storage, Retrieval and Processing Capacities (AISRPC), and Staff Promotion Effectiveness (SPE) were used for data collection. The inventory was validated and subjected to test-re-test and reliability coefficient of r = 0.79 was obtained. The data were collected and analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient and simple percentage. The study found that Administrators at TESCOM stored their information in files, hard copies, soft copies, open registry and departmentally in varying degrees while they also processed information manually and through electronics for decision making. In addition, there is a significant relationship between administrators’ information storage and retrieval capacities in the TESCOMs in South – West, Nigeria, (r cal = 0.598 > r table = 0.195). Furthermore, administrators’ information processing capacity and staff promotion effectiveness were found to be significantly related (r cal = 0.209 > r table = 0.195 at 0.05 level of significance). The study recommended that training, seminars, workshops should be organized for administrators on information management, while educational organizations should provide Information Management Technology (ICT) equipment for the administrators in the TESCOMs. The staff of TESCOM should be promoted having satisfied the promotion criteria such as spending required number of years on a grade level, a clean record of service and vacancy.

Keywords: information processing capacity, staff promotion effectiveness, teaching service commission, Nigeria

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415 Experimental and Numerical Study of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to Axial and Eccentric Loads

Authors: Chengfeng Fang, Mohamed Ali Sadakkathulla, Abdul Sheikh

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Ultra-high-performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is a specially formulated cement-based composite characterized with an ultra-high compressive strength (fc = 240 MPa) and a low water-cement ratio (W/B= 0.2). With such material characteristics, UHPFRC is favored for the design and constructions of structures required high structural performance and slender geometries. Unlike conventional concrete, the structural performance of members manufactured with UHPFRC has not yet been fully studied, particularly, for UHPFRC columns with high slenderness. In this study, the behaviors of slender UHPFRC columns under concentric or eccentric load will be investigated both experimentally and numerically. Four slender UHPFRC columns were tested under eccentric loads with eccentricities, of 0 mm, 35 mm, 50 mm, and 85 mm, respectively, and one UHPFRC beam was tested under four-point bending. Finite element (FE) analysis was conducted with concrete damage plasticity (CDP) modulus to simulating the load-middle height or middle span deflection relationships and damage patterns of all UHPFRC members. Simulated results were compared against the experimental results and observation to gain the confidence of FE model, and this model was further extended to conduct parametric studies, which aim to investigate the effects of slenderness regarding failure modes and load-moment interaction relationships. Experimental results showed that the load bearing capacities of the slender columns reduced with an increase in eccentricity. Comparisons between load-middle height and middle span deflection relationships as well as damage patterns of all UHPFRC members obtained both experimentally and numerically demonstrated high accuracy of the FE simulations. Based on the available FE model, the following parametric study indicated that a further increase in the slenderness of column resulted in significant decreases in the load-bearing capacities, ductility index, and flexural bending capacities.

Keywords: eccentric loads, ductility index, RC column, slenderness, UHPFRC

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414 Permeable Reactive Pavement for Controlling the Transport of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-Benzene, and Xylene (BTEX) Contaminants

Authors: Shengyi Huang, Chenju Liang

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Volatile organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) are common contaminants in environment, which could come from asphalt concrete or exhaust emissions of vehicles. The BTEX may invade to the subsurface environment via wet and dry atmospheric depositions. If there aren’t available ways for controlling contaminants’ fate and transport, they would extensively harm natural environment. In the 1st phase of this study, various adsorbents were screened for a suitable one to be an additive in the porous asphalt mixture. In the 2nd phase, addition of the selected adsorbent was incorporated with the design of porous asphalt concrete (PAC) to produce the permeable reactive pavement (PRP), which was subsequently tested for the potential of adsorbing aqueous BTEX as compared to the PAC, in the 3rd phase. The PRP was prepared according to the following steps: firstly, the suitable adsorbent was chosen based on the analytical results of specific surface area analysis, thermal-gravimetric analysis, adsorption kinetics and isotherms, and thermal dynamics analysis; secondly, the materials of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, filler, asphalt, and fiber were tested in order to meet regulated specifications (e.g., water adsorption, soundness, viscosity etc.) for preparing the PRP; thirdly, the amount of adsorbent additive was determined in the PRP; fourthly, the prepared PAC and PRP were examined for their physical properties (e.g., abrasion loss, drain-down loss, Marshall stability, Marshall flow, dynamic stability etc.). As a result of comparison between PRP and PAC, the PRP showed better physical performance than the traditional PAC. At last, the Marshall Specimen column tests were conducted to explore the adsorption capacities of PAC and PRPs. The BTEX adsorption capacities of PRPs are higher than those obtained from traditional PAC. In summary, PRPs showed superior physical performance and adsorption capacities, which exhibit the potential of PRP to be applied as a replacement of PAC for better controlling the transport of non-point source pollutants.

Keywords: porous asphalt concrete, volatile organic compounds, permeable reactive pavement, non-point source pollution

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413 Characterization of High Carbon Ash from Pulp and Paper mill for Potential Utilization

Authors: Ruma Rano, Firoza Sultana, Bishal Bhuyan, Nurul Alam Mazumder

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Fly ash collected from Cachar Paper Mill, Assam, India has been thoroughly characterized in respect of its physico-chemical, morphological and mineralogical features were concerned by using density, LOI, FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDS etc. The results reveal that there is a striking difference in the features and properties of the coarser and finer fractions .The high carbon ash consists of large unburnt carbon (chars), irregular carbonaceous particles in the coarser fraction, which appear to be porous and may be used as domestic fuel. The percentage of char albeit the carbon content decreases with decrease in size of particles. The various fractions essentially contain quartz and mullite as the main mineral phases. For suggesting the potential utilization channels, number of experiments were performed correlating the total characteristic features. Water holding capacities of different size classified fractions were determined, the coarser fractions have unexpectedly higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained with potential use in agriculture. Another potential application of coarser particles is used as adsorbent for effluents containing waste organic materials. Thus thorough characterization leads to not only a definite direction about the uses of the value added components but also gives useful information regarding the prevailing combustion process.

Keywords: chars, porous, water holding capacity, combustion process

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