Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2165

Search results for: reflection and transmission

2165 Modeling Reflection and Transmission of Elastodiffussive Wave Sata Semiconductor Interface

Authors: Amit Sharma, J. N. Sharma


This paper deals with the study of reflection and transmission characteristics of acoustic waves at the interface of a semiconductor halfspace and elastic solid. The amplitude ratios (reflection and transmission coefficients) of reflected and transmitted waves to that of incident wave varying with the incident angles have been examined for the case of quasi-longitudinal wave. The special cases of normal and grazing incidence have also been derived with the help of Gauss elimination method. The mathematical model consisting of governing partial differential equations of motion and charge carriers diffusion of n-type semiconductors and elastic solid has been solved both analytically and numerically in the study. The numerical computations of reflection and transmission coefficients has been carried out by using MATLAB programming software for silicon (Si) semiconductor and copper elastic solid. The computer simulated results have been plotted graphically for Si semiconductors. The study may be useful in semiconductors, geology, and seismology in addition to surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

Keywords: quasilongitudinal, reflection and transmission, semiconductors, acoustics

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2164 Microwave Transmission through Metamaterial Based on Permalloy Flakes under Magnetic Resonance and Antiresonance Conditions

Authors: Anatoly B. Rinkevich, Eugeny A. Kuznetsov, Yuri I. Ryabkov


Transmission of electromagnetic waves through a plate of metamaterial based on permalloy flakes and reflection from the plate is investigated. The metamaterial is prepared of permalloy flakes sized from few to 50μ placed into epoxy-amine matrix. Two series of metamaterial samples are under study with the volume portion of permalloy particles 15% and 30%. There is no direct electrical contact between permalloy particles. Microwave measurements have been carried out at frequencies of 12 to 30 GHz in magnetic fields up to 12 kOe. Sharp decrease of transmitted wave is observed under ferromagnetic resonance condition caused by absorption. Under magnetic antiresonance condition, in opposite, maximum of reflection coefficient is observed at frequencies exceeding 30 GHz. For example, for metamaterial sample with the volume portion of permalloy of 30%, the variation of reflection coefficient in magnetic field reaches 300%. These high variations are of interest to develop magnetic field driven microwave devices. Magnetic field variations of refractive index are also estimated.

Keywords: ferromagnetic resonance, magnetic antiresonance, microwave metamaterials, permalloy flakes, transmission and reflection coefficients

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2163 Investigation of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges under Blasting Loads Based on Slope Reflection

Authors: Yuan Li, Yitao Han, Zhao Zhu


In this paper, the effect of blasting loads on steel-concrete composite bridges has been investigated considering the slope reflection effect. Reasonable values of girder size, plate thickness, stiffening rib, and other design parameters were selected according to design specifications. Modified RHT (Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma) was used as constitutive relation in analyses. In order to simulate the slope reflection effect, the slope of the bridge was precisely built in the model. Different blasting conditions, including top, middle, and bottom explosions, were simulated. The multi-Euler domain method based on fully coupled Lagrange and Euler models was adopted for the structural analysis of the explosion process using commercial software AUTODYN. The obtained results showed that explosion overpressure was increased by 3006, 879, and 449kPa, corresponding to explosions occurring at the top, middle, and bottom of the slope, respectively. At the same time, due to energy accumulation and transmission dissipation caused by slope reflection, the corresponding yield lengths of steel beams were increased by 8, 0, and 5m, respectively.

Keywords: steel-concrete composite bridge, explosion damage, slope reflection, blasting loads, RHT

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2162 An Exploratory Study on the Impact of Video-stimulated Reflection on Novice EFL Teachers’ Professional Development

Authors: Ibrahima Diallo


The literature on teacher education foregrounds reflection as an important aspect of professional practice. Reflection for a teacher consists in critically analysing and evaluating retrospectively a lesson to see what worked, what did not work, and how to improve it for the future. Now, many teacher education programmes worldwide consider the ability to reflect as one of the hallmarks of an effective educator. However, in some context like Senegal, reflection has not been given due consideration in teacher education programmes. In contexts where it has been in the education landscape for some time now, reflection is mostly depicted as an individual written activity and many teacher trainees have become disenchanted by the repeated enactments of this task that is solely intended to satisfy course requirements. This has resulted in whitewashing weaknesses or even ‘faking’ reflection. Besides, the “one-size-fits-all” approach of reflection could not flourish because how reflection impacts on practice is still unproven. Therefore, reflective practice needs to be contextualised and made more thought-provoking through dialogue and by using classroom data. There is also a need to highlight change brought in teachers’ practice through reflection. So, this study introduces reflection in a new context and aims to show evidenced change in novice EFL teachers’ practice through dialogic data-led reflection. The purpose of this study is also to contribute to the scarce literature on reflection in sub-Saharan Africa by bringing new perspectives on contextualised teacher-led reflection. Eight novice EFL teachers participated in this qualitative longitudinal study, and data have been gathered online through post-lesson reflection recordings and lesson videos for a period of four months. Then, the data have been thematically analysed using NVivo to systematically organize and manage the large amount of data. The analysis followed the six steps approach to thematic analysis. Major themes related to teachers’ classroom practice and their conception of reflection emerged from the analysis of the data. The results showed that post-lesson reflection with a peer can help novice EFL teachers gained more awareness on their classroom practice. Dialogic reflection also helped them evaluate their lessons and seek for improvement. The analysis of the data also gave insight on teachers’ conception of reflection in an EFL context. It was found that teachers were more engaged in reflection when using their lesson video recordings. Change in teaching behaviour as a result of reflection was evidenced by the analysis of the lesson video recordings. This study has shown that video-stimulated reflection is practical form of professional development that can be embedded in teachers’ professional life.

Keywords: novice EFL teachers, practice, professional development, video-stimulated reflection

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2161 Analysis of Reflection of Elastic Waves in Three Dimensional Model Comprised with Viscoelastic Anisotropic Medium

Authors: Amares Chattopadhyay, Akanksha Srivastava


A unified approach to study the reflection of a plane wave in three-dimensional model comprised of the triclinic viscoelastic medium. The phase velocities of reflected qP, qSV and qSH wave have been calculated for the concerned medium by using the eigenvalue approach. The generalized method has been implemented to compute the complex form of amplitude ratios. Further, we discussed the nature of reflection coefficients of qP, qSV and qSH wave. The viscoelastic parameter, polar angle and azimuthal angle are found to be strongly influenced by amplitude ratios. The research article is particularly focused to study the effect of viscoelasticity associated with highly anisotropic media which exhibits the notable information about the reflection coefficients of qP, qSV, and qSH wave. The outcomes may further useful to the better exploration of all types of hydrocarbon reservoir and advancement in the field of reflection seismology.

Keywords: amplitude ratios, three dimensional, triclinic, viscoelastic

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2160 Simulation of Reflection Loss for Carbon and Nickel-Carbon Thin Films

Authors: M. Emami, R. Tarighi, R. Goodarzi


Maximal radar wave absorbing cannot be achieved by shaping alone. We have to focus on the parameters of absorbing materials such as permittivity, permeability, and thickness so that best absorbing according to our necessity can happen. The real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity (εr' and εr") and permeability (µr' and µr") were obtained by simulation. The microwave absorbing property of carbon and Ni(C) is simulated in this study by MATLAB software; the simulation was in the frequency range between 2 to 12 GHz for carbon black (C), and carbon coated nickel (Ni(C)) with different thicknesses. In fact, we draw reflection loss (RL) for C and Ni-C via frequency. We have compared their absorption for 3-mm thickness and predicted for other thicknesses by using of electromagnetic wave transmission theory. The results showed that reflection loss position changes in low frequency with increasing of thickness. We found out that, in all cases, using nanocomposites as absorbance cannot get better results relative to pure nanoparticles. The frequency where absorption is maximum can determine the best choice between nanocomposites and pure nanoparticles. Also, we could find an optimal thickness for long wavelength absorbing in order to utilize them in protecting shields and covering.

Keywords: absorbing, carbon, carbon nickel, frequency, thicknesses

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2159 Microwave Absorption Properties of Low Density Polyethelene-Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposite

Authors: Reza Fazaeli, Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamid Targhagh


Low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites with 3, 5 and 7 wt. % cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanopowder fabricated with extrusion mixing and followed up by hot press to reach compact samples. The transmission/reflection measurements were carried out with a network analyzer in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz. By increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder, reflection loss (S11) increases, while transferring loss (S21) decreases. Reflectivity (R) calculations made using S11 and S21. Increase in percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % in composite leaded to higher reflectivity amount, and revealed that increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % leads to further microwave absorption in 8-12 GHz range.

Keywords: nanocomposite, cobalt ferrite, low density polyethylene, microwave absorption

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2158 Study on the Non-Contact Sheet Resistance Measuring of Silver Nanowire Coated Film Using Terahertz Wave

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Wan-Ho Chung, Hak-Sung Kim


In this work, non-destructive evaluation was conducted to measure the sheet resistance of silver nanowire coated film and find a damage of that film using terahertz (THz) wave. Pulse type THz instrument was used, and the measurement was performed under transmission and pitch-catch reflection modes with 30 degree of incidence angle. In the transmission mode, the intensity of the THz wave was gradually increased as the conductivity decreased. Meanwhile, the intensity of THz wave was decreased as the conductivity decreased in the pitch-catch reflection mode. To confirm the conductivity of the film, sheet resistance was measured by 4-point probe station. Interaction formula was drawn from a relation between the intensity and the sheet resistance. Through substituting sheet resistance to the formula and comparing the resultant value with measured maximum THz wave intensity, measurement of sheet resistance using THz wave was more suitable than that using 4-point probe station. In addition, the damage on the silver nanowire coated film was detected by applying the THz image system. Therefore, the reliability of the entire film can be also be ensured. In conclusion, real-time monitoring using the THz wave can be applied in the transparent electrodes with detecting the damaged area as well as measuring the sheet resistance.

Keywords: terahertz wave, sheet resistance, non-destructive evaluation, silver nanowire

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2157 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee


One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: microwave absorber, reflection loss, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), X-Band

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2156 Improved Performance Scheme for Joint Transmission in Downlink Coordinated Multi-Point Transmission

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Su-Hyun Jung, Myoung-Jin Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, improved performance scheme for joint transmission is proposed in downlink (DL) coordinated multi-point(CoMP) in case of constraint transmission power. This scheme is that serving transmission point (TP) request a joint transmission to inter-TP and selects one pre-coding technique according to channel state information(CSI) from user equipment(UE). The simulation results show that the bit error rate(BER) and throughput performances of the proposed scheme provide high spectral efficiency and reliable data at the cell edge.

Keywords: CoMP, joint transmission, minimum mean square error, zero-forcing, zero-forcing dirty paper coding

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2155 Research on Transmission Parameters Determination Method Based on Dynamic Characteristic Analysis

Authors: Baoshan Huang, Fanbiao Bao, Bing Li, Lianghua Zeng, Yi Zheng


Parameter control strategy based on statistical characteristics can analyze the choice of the transmission ratio of an automobile transmission. According to the difference of the transmission gear, the number and spacing of the gear can be determined. Transmission ratio distribution of transmission needs to satisfy certain distribution law. According to the statistic characteristics of driving parameters, the shift control strategy of the vehicle is analyzed. CVT shift schedule adjustment algorithm based on statistical characteristic parameters can be seen from the above analysis, if according to the certain algorithm to adjust the size of, can adjust the target point are in the best efficiency curve and dynamic curve between the location, to alter the vehicle characteristics. Based on the dynamic characteristics and the practical application of the vehicle, this paper presents the setting scheme of the transmission ratio.

Keywords: vehicle dynamics, transmission ratio, transmission parameters, statistical characteristics

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2154 Application of the Seismic Reflection Survey to an Active Fault Imaging

Authors: Nomin-Erdene Erdenetsogt, Tseedulam Khuut, Batsaikhan Tserenpil, Bayarsaikhan Enkhee


As the framework of 60 years of development of Astronomical and Geophysical science in modern Mongolia, various geophysical methods (electrical tomography, ground-penetrating radar, and high-resolution reflection seismic profiles) were used to image an active fault in-depth range between few decimeters to few tens meters. An active fault was fractured by an earthquake magnitude 7.6 during 1967. After geophysical investigations, trench excavations were done at the sites to expose the fault surfaces. The complex geophysical survey in the Mogod fault, Bulgan region of central Mongolia shows an interpretable reflection arrivals range of < 5 m to 50 m with the potential for increased resolution. Reflection profiles were used to help interpret the significance of neotectonic surface deformation at earthquake active fault. The interpreted profiles show a range of shallow fault structures and provide subsurface evidence with support of paleoseismologic trenching photos, electrical surveys.

Keywords: Mogod fault, geophysics, seismic processing, seismic reflection survey

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2153 Research Trends in High Voltage Power Transmission

Authors: Tlotlollo Sidwell Hlalele, Shengzhi Du


High voltage transmission is the most pivotal process in the electrical power industry. It requires a robust infrastructure that can last for decades without causing impairment in human life. Due to the so-called global warming, power transmission system has started to experience some challenges which could presumably escalate more in future. These challenges are earthquake resistance, transmission power losses, and high electromagnetic field. In this paper, research efforts aim to address these challenges are discussed. We focus in particular on the research in regenerative electric energy such as: wind, hydropower, biomass and sea-waves based on the energy storage and transmission possibility. We conclude by drawing attention to specific areas that we believe need more research.

Keywords: power transmission, regenerative energy, power quality, energy storage

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2152 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Single and Twin Offshore Rubble Mound Breakwaters under Regular and Random Waves

Authors: M. Alkhalidi, S. Neelamani, Z. Al-Zaqah


This paper investigates the interaction of single and twin offshore rubble mound breakwaters with regular and random water waves through physical modeling to assess their reflection, transmission and energy dissipation characteristics. Various combinations of wave heights and wave periods were utilized in a series of experiments, along with three different water depths. The single and twin permeable breakwater models were both constructed with one layer of rubbles. Both models had the same total volume; however, the single breakwater was of trapezoidal type while the twin breakwaters were of triangular type. Physical modeling experiments were carried out in the wave flume of the coastal engineering laboratory of Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). Measurements of the six wave probes which were fixed in the two-dimensional wave flume were collected and used to determine the generated incident wave heights, as well as the reflected and transmitted wave heights resulting from the wave-breakwater interaction. The possible factors affecting the wave attenuation efficiency of the breakwater models are the relative water depth (d/L), wave steepness (H/L), relative wave height ((h-d)/Hi), relative height of the breakwater (h/d), and relative clear spacing between the twin breakwaters (S/h). The results indicated that the single and double breakwaters show different responds to the change in their relative height as well as the relative wave height which demonstrates that the effect of the relative water depth on wave reflection, transmission, and energy dissipation is highly influenced by the change in the relative breakwater height, the relative wave height and the relative breakwater spacing. In general, within the range of the relative water depth tested in this study, and under both regular and random waves, it is found that the single breakwater allows for lower wave transmission and shows higher energy dissipation effect than both of the tested twin breakwaters, and hence has the best overall performance.

Keywords: random waves, regular waves, relative water depth, relative wave height, single breakwater, twin breakwater, wave steepness

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2151 Enhancement of the Performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV Transmission Line Using STATCOM: A Case Study

Authors: Ali Hamad, Ibrahim Al-Drous, Saleh Al-Jufout


This paper presents a case study of using STATCOM to enhance the performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV transmission line. The location of the STATCOM was identified maintaining minimum voltage drops at the 110 load nodes. The transmission line and the 110 load nodes have been modeled by MATLAB/Simulink. The suggested STATCOM and its location will increase the transmission capability of this transmission line and overcome the overload expected in the year 2020. The annual percentage loading rise has been considered as 14%. A graphical representation of the line voltages and the voltage drops at different load nodes has been illustrated.

Keywords: FACTS, MATLAB, STATCOM, transmission line, voltage drop

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2150 Performance Analysis of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser and Distributed Feedback Laser for Community Access Television

Authors: Ashima Rai


CATV transmission systems have altered from old cable based one-way analog video transmission to two ways hybrid fiber transmission. The use of optical fiber reduces the RF amplifiers in the transmission, high transmission power or lower fiber transmission losses are required to increase system capability. This paper evaluates and compares Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser and Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) for CATV transmission. The simulation results exhibit the better performer among both lasers taking into consideration the parameters chosen for evaluation.

Keywords: Distributed Feedback (DFB), Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL), Community Access Television (CATV), Composite Second Order (CSO), Composite Triple Beat (CTB), RF

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2149 Non-Destructive Technique for Detection of Voids in the IC Package Using Terahertz-Time Domain Spectrometer

Authors: Sung-Hyeon Park, Jin-Wook Jang, Hak-Sung Kim


In recent years, Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) imaging method has been received considerable interest as a promising non-destructive technique for detection of internal defects. In comparison to other non-destructive techniques such as x-ray inspection method, scanning acoustic tomograph (SAT) and microwave inspection method, THz-TDS imaging method has many advantages: First, it can measure the exact thickness and location of defects. Second, it doesn’t require the liquid couplant while it is very crucial to deliver that power of ultrasonic wave in SAT method. Third, it didn’t damage to materials and be harmful to human bodies while x-ray inspection method does. Finally, it exhibits better spatial resolution than microwave inspection method. However, this technology couldn’t be applied to IC package because THz radiation can penetrate through a wide variety of materials including polymers and ceramics except of metals. Therefore, it is difficult to detect the defects in IC package which are composed of not only epoxy and semiconductor materials but also various metals such as copper, aluminum and gold. In this work, we proposed a special method for detecting the void in the IC package using THz-TDS imaging system. The IC package specimens for this study are prepared by Packaging Engineering Team in Samsung Electronics. Our THz-TDS imaging system has a special reflection mode called pitch-catch mode which can change the incidence angle in the reflection mode from 10 o to 70 o while the others have transmission and the normal reflection mode or the reflection mode fixed at certain angle. Therefore, to find the voids in the IC package, we investigated the appropriate angle as changing the incidence angle of THz wave emitter and detector. As the results, the voids in the IC packages were successfully detected using our THz-TDS imaging system.

Keywords: terahertz, non-destructive technique, void, IC package

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2148 Utilizing Reflection as a Tool for Experiential Learning through a Simulated Activity

Authors: Nadira Zaidi


The aim of this study is to gain direct feedback of interviewees in a simulated interview process. Reflection based on qualitative data analysis has been utilized through the Gibbs Reflective Cycle, with 30 students as respondents at the Undergraduate level. The respondents reflected on the positive and negative aspects of this active learning process in order to increase their performance in actual job interviews. Results indicate that students engaged in the process successfully imbibed the feedback that they received from the interviewers and also identified the areas that needed improvement.

Keywords: experiential learning, positive and negative impact, reflection, simulated

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2147 Transmission Line Inspection Using Drones

Authors: Jae Kyung Lee, Joon Young Park


Maintenance on power transmission lines requires a lot of works. Sometimes they should be maintained on live-line environment with high altitude. Therefore, there always exist risks of falling from height and electric shock. To decline those risks, drones are recently applying on the electric power industry. This paper presents new operational technology while inspecting power transmission line. This paper also describes a technique for creating a flight path of a drone for transmission line inspection and a technique for controlling the drones of different types. Its technical and economical feasibilities have confirmed through experiments.

Keywords: drones, transmission line, inspection, control system

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2146 Conversion of HVAC Lines into HVDC in Transmission Expansion Planning

Authors: Juan P. Novoa, Mario A. Rios


This paper presents a transmission planning methodology that considers the conversion of HVAC transmission lines to HVDC as an alternative of expansion of power systems, as a consequence of restrictions for the construction of new lines. The transmission expansion planning problem formulates an optimization problem that minimizes the total cost that includes the investment cost to convert lines from HVAC to HVDC and possible required reinforcements of the power system prior to the conversion. The costs analysis assesses the impact of the conversion on the reliability because transmission lines are out of service during the conversion work. The presented methodology is applied to a test system considering a planning a horizon of 10 years.

Keywords: transmission expansion planning, HVDC, cost optimization, energy non-supplied

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2145 The Impact of System Cascading Collapse and Transmission Line Outages to the Transfer Capability Assessment

Authors: Nur Ashida Salim, Muhammad Murtadha Othman, Ismail Musirin, Mohd Salleh Serwan


Uncertainty of system operating conditions is one of the causative reasons which may render to the instability of a transmission system. This will encumber the performance of transmission system to efficiently transmit the electrical power between areas. For that reason, accurate assessment of Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM) is essential in order to ensure effective power transfer between areas during the occurrence of system uncertainties. The power transfer is also called as the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) in which it is the information required by the utilities and marketers to instigate selling and buying the electric energy. This paper proposes a computationally effective approach to estimate TRM and ATC by considering the uncertainties of system cascading collapse and transmission line outages which is identified as the main reasons in power system instability. In accordance to the results that have been obtained, the proposed method is essential for the transmission providers which could help the power marketers and planning sectors in the operation and reserving transmission services based on the ATC calculated.

Keywords: system cascading collapse, transmission line outages, transmission reliability margin, available transfer capability

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2144 Using Immersive Study Abroad Experiences to Strengthen Preservice Teachers’ Critical Reflection Skills on Future Classroom Practices

Authors: Meredith Jones, Susan Catapano, Carol McNulty


Study abroad experiences create unique learning opportunities for preservice teachers to strengthen their reflective thinking practices through applied learning experiences. Not only do study abroad experiences provide opportunities for students to expand their cultural sensitivity, but incorporating applied learning experiences in study abroad trips creates unique opportunities for preservice teachers to engage in critical reflection on their teaching skills. Applied learning experiences are designed to nurture learning and growth through a reflective, experiential process outside the traditional classroom setting. As students participate in applied learning experiences, they engage in critical reflection independently, with their peers, and with university faculty. Critical reflection within applied learning contexts generates, deepens, and documents learning but must be intentionally designed to be effective. Grounded in Dewey’s model of reflection, this qualitative study examines longitudinal data from various study abroad cohorts from a particular university. Reflective data was collected during the study abroad trip, and follow up data on critical reflection of teaching practices were collected six months and a year after the trip. Dewey’s model of reflection requires preservice teachers to make sense of their experiences by reflecting on theoretical knowledge, experiences, and pedagogical knowledge. Guided reflection provides preservice teachers with a framework to respond to questions and ideas critical to the applied learning outcomes. Prompts are used to engage preservice teachers in reflecting on situations they have experienced and how they can be transferred to their teaching. Findings from this study noted that students with previous field experiences, or work in the field, engaged in more critical reflection on pedagogical knowledge throughout their applied learning experience. Preservice teachers with limited experiences in the field benefited from engaging in critical reflection prompted by university faculty during the applied learning experience. However, they were able to independently engage in critical reflection once they began work in the field through university field placements, internships, or student teaching. Finally, students who participated in study abroad applied learning experiences reported their critical reflection on their teaching practices, and cultural sensitivity enhanced their teaching and relationships with children once they formally entered the teaching profession.

Keywords: applied learning experiences, critical reflection, cultural sensitivity, preservice teachers, teacher education

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2143 Determination of the Optimal DG PV Interconnection Location Using Losses and Voltage Regulation as Assessment Indicators Case Study: ECG 33 kV Sub-Transmission Network

Authors: Ekow A. Kwofie, Emmanuel K. Anto, Godfred Mensah


In this paper, CYME Distribution software has been used to assess the impacts of solar Photovoltaic (PV) distributed generation (DG) plant on the Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) 33 kV sub-transmission network at different PV penetration levels. As ECG begins to encourage DG PV interconnections within its network, there has been the need to assess the impacts on the sub-transmission losses and voltage contribution. In Tema, a city in Accra - Ghana, ECG has a 33 kV sub-transmission network made up of 20 No. 33 kV buses that was modeled. Three different locations were chosen: The source bus, a bus along the sub-transmission radial network and a bus at the tail end to determine the optimal location for DG PV interconnection. The optimal location was determined based on sub-transmission technical losses and voltage impact. PV capacities at different penetration levels were modeled at each location and simulations performed to determine the optimal PV penetration level. Interconnection at a bus along (or in the middle of) the sub-transmission network offered the highest benefits at an optimal PV penetration level of 80%. At that location, the maximum voltage improvement of 0.789% on the neighboring 33 kV buses and maximum loss reduction of 6.033% over the base case scenario were recorded. Hence, the optimal location for DG PV integration within the 33 kV sub-transmission utility network is at a bus along the sub-transmission radial network.

Keywords: distributed generation photovoltaic (DG PV), optimal location, penetration level, sub–transmission network

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2142 Transient Voltage Distribution on the Single Phase Transmission Line under Short Circuit Fault Effect

Authors: A. Kojah, A. Nacaroğlu


Single phase transmission lines are used to transfer data or energy between two users. Transient conditions such as switching operations and short circuit faults cause the generation of the fluctuation on the waveform to be transmitted. Spatial voltage distribution on the single phase transmission line may change owing to the position and duration of the short circuit fault in the system. In this paper, the state space representation of the single phase transmission line for short circuit fault and for various types of terminations is given. Since the transmission line is modeled in time domain using distributed parametric elements, the mathematical representation of the event is given in state space (time domain) differential equation form. It also makes easy to solve the problem because of the time and space dependent characteristics of the voltage variations on the distributed parametrically modeled transmission line.

Keywords: energy transmission, transient effects, transmission line, transient voltage, RLC short circuit, single phase

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2141 Effect of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Activities to Thai Undergraduate Student Teachers Attitude and Their Achievement

Authors: Thanawit Tongmai, Chatchawan Saewor


Learning management is very important for students’ development. To promote students’ potential, the teacher should design appropriate learning activity that brings their students potential out. Problem based learning has been using worldwide and it has presented numerous of success. This research aims to study third year students’ attitude and their achievement in scientific research course. To find the results, mix method was used to design research conduction. The researcher used PBL and reflection activity in the class. The students had to choose a topic, reviewed information, designed experimental, wrote academic report and presented their research by themselves. The researcher was only a facilitator. Reflection activity was used to progressing and consulting their research. The data was collected along with research conduction by questionnaire and test, including attitude, opinion and their achievement. The result of this study showed that 74.71% from all of students (n = 87) benefited from PBL and reflection activity, while 25.19% were just satisfied. 100% of students had a positive reflection toward PBL activity and they believed that PBL was the best pedagogy method for scientific research course. The achievements of these students were higher than the previous study (P < 0.05). The student’s learning achievement, A, B+ and B, was 48.28, 28.74 and 22.98% respectively. Therefore, it can conclude that PBL activity is appropriate for scientific research course and it can also promote student’s achievement.

Keywords: reflection, attitude, learning, achievement, PBL

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2140 Effect of Sedimentation on Torque Transmission in the Larger Radius Magnetorheological Clutch

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Chiranjit Sarkar


Sedimentation of magnetorheological (MR) fluid affects its working. MR fluid is a smart fluid that has unique qualities such as quick responsiveness and easy controllability. It is used in the MR damper, MR brake, and MR clutch. In this work effect of sedimentation on torque transmission in the shear mode operated MR clutch is investigated. A test rig is developed to test the impact of sedimentation on torque transmission in the MR clutch. Torque transmission capability of MR clutch has been measured under two conditions to confirm the result of sedimentation. The first experiment is done just after filling and the other after one week. It has been observed that transmission torque is decreased after sedimentation. Hence sedimentation affects the working of the MR clutch.

Keywords: clutch, magnetorheological fluid, sedimentation, torque

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2139 Reflection Phase Tuning of Graphene Plasmons by Substrate Design

Authors: Xiaojie Jiang, Wei Cai, Yinxiao Xiang, Ni Zhang, Mengxin Ren, Xinzheng Zhang, Jingjun Xu


Reflection phase of graphene plasmons (GPs) at an abrupt interface is very important, which determines the plasmon resonance of graphene structures of deep sub-wavelength scales. However, at an abrupt graphene edge, the reflection phase is always a constant, ΦR ≈ π/4. In this work, we show that the reflection phase of GPs can be efficiently changed through substrate design. Reflection phase of graphene plasmons (GPs) at an abrupt interface is very important, which determines the plasmon resonance of graphene structures of deep sub-wavelength scales. However, at an abrupt graphene edge, the reflection phase is always a constant, ΦR ≈ π/4. In this work, we show that the reflection phase of GPs can be efficiently changed through substrate design. Specifically, the reflection phase is no longer π/4 at the interface formed by placing a graphene sheet on different substrates. Moreover, tailorable reflection phase of GPs up to 2π variation can be further achieved by scattering GPs at a junction consisting of two such dielectric interfaces with various gap width acting as a Fabry-Perot cavity. Besides, the evolution of plasmon mode in graphene ribbons based on the interface reflection phase tuning is predicted, which is expected to be observed in near-field experiments with scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Our work provides another way for in-plane plasmon control, which should find applications for integrated plasmon devices design using graphene.Specifically, the reflection phase is no longer π/4 at the interface formed by placing a graphene sheet on different substrates. Moreover, tailorable reflection phase of GPs up to 2π variation can be further achieved by scattering GPs at a junction consisting of two such dielectric interfaces with various gap width acting as a Fabry-Perot cavity. Besides, the evolution of plasmon mode in graphene ribbons based on the interface reflection phase tuning is predicted, which is expected to be observed in near-field experiments with scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Our work provides a new way for in-plane plasmon control, which should find applications for integrated plasmon devices design using graphene.

Keywords: graphene plasmons, reflection phase tuning, plasmon mode tuning, Fabry-Perot cavity

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2138 Critical Reflection in Teaching and Learning Mathematics towards Perspective Transformation: Practices in Public and Private Schools

Authors: Arturo Tobias Calizon Jr.


The study investigated the practices in critical reflection being employed in teaching and learning mathematics in public and private schools for students to achieve perspective transformation in psychological, convictional and behavioral dimensions. There were 1,969 senior high school and college student-respondents selected at random from 33 schools. Process reflection is most commonly practiced in both public and private schools. Convictional dimension of perspective transformation is most frequently achieved. There is no significant difference in practices of process reflection between senior high school and college students. However, there is a significant difference in perspective transformation in behavioral dimension achieved by students from public and private schools. Also, there are significant differences in psychological, convictional and behavioral dimensions of perspective transformation achieved by senior high school and college students. There is a high and significant relationship between critical reflection practices and perspective transformation of students. The researcher concludes that there are teaching strategies that facilitate critical thinking, and there are learning activities that alter perspective of students about mathematics as an abstract field. The researcher further concludes that consistent use of appropriate teaching and learning activities could bring about perspective transformation in students with success.

Keywords: critical reflection, perspective transformation, process reflection, convictional dimension, teaching and learning mathematics

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2137 Volatility Transmission between Oil Price and Stock Return of Emerging and Developed Countries

Authors: Algia Hammami, Abdelfatteh Bouri


In this work, our objective is to study the transmission of volatility between oil and stock markets in developed (USA, Germany, Italy, France and Japan) and emerging countries (Tunisia, Thailand, Brazil, Argentina, and Jordan) for the period 1998-2015. Our methodology consists of analyzing the monthly data by the GARCH-BEKK model to capture the effect in terms of volatility in the variation of the oil price on the different stock market. The empirical results in the emerging countries indicate that the relationships are unidirectional from the stock market to the oil market. For the developed countries, we find that the transmission of volatility is unidirectional from the oil market to stock market. For the USA and Italy, we find no transmission between the two markets. The transmission is bi-directional only in Thailand. Following our estimates, we also noticed that the emerging countries influence almost the same extent as the developed countries, while at the transmission of volatility there a bid difference. The GARCH-BEKK model is more effective than the others versions to minimize the risk of an oil-stock portfolio.

Keywords: GARCH, oil prices, stock market, volatility transmission

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2136 Investigation on Cost Reflective Network Pricing and Modified Cost Reflective Network Pricing Methods for Transmission Service Charges

Authors: K. Iskandar, N. H. Radzi, R. Aziz, M. S. Kamaruddin, M. N. Abdullah, S. A. Jumaat


Nowadays many developing countries have been undergoing a restructuring process in the power electricity industry. This process has involved disaggregating former state-owned monopoly utilities both vertically and horizontally and introduced competition. The restructuring process has been implemented by the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) started from 13 December 1998, began operating as a wholesale market for supply of electricity to retailers and end-users in Queensland, New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, Victoria and South Australia. In this deregulated market, one of the important issues is the transmission pricing. Transmission pricing is a service that recovers existing and new cost of the transmission system. The regulation of the transmission pricing is important in determining whether the transmission service system is economically beneficial to both side of the users and utilities. Therefore, an efficient transmission pricing methodology plays an important role in the Australian NEM. In this paper, the transmission pricing methodologies that have been implemented by the Australian NEM which are the Cost Reflective Network Pricing (CRNP) and Modified Cost Reflective Network Pricing (MCRNP) methods are investigated for allocating the transmission service charges to the transmission users. A case study using 6-bus system is used in order to identify the best method that reflects a fair and equitable transmission service charge.

Keywords: cost-reflective network pricing method, modified cost-reflective network pricing method, restructuring process, transmission pricing

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