Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5650

Search results for: Green's function

5650 Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach

Authors: F. U. Rahman, R. Q. Zhang


This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.

Keywords: Green’s function, hydrogen atom, Lippmann Schwinger equation, radial wave

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5649 Remarks on the Lattice Green's Function for the Anisotropic Face Cantered Cubic Lattice

Authors: Jihad H. Asad


An expression for the Green’s function (GF) of anisotropic face cantered cubic (IFCC) lattice is evaluated analytically and numerically for a single impurity problem. The density of states (DOS), phase shift and scattering cross section are expressed in terms of complete elliptic integrals of the first kind.

Keywords: lattice Green's function, elliptic integral, physics, cubic lattice

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5648 Parallel Evaluation of Sommerfeld Integrals for Multilayer Dyadic Green's Function

Authors: Duygu Kan, Mehmet Cayoren


Sommerfeld-integrals (SIs) are commonly encountered in electromagnetics problems involving analysis of antennas and scatterers embedded in planar multilayered media. Generally speaking, the analytical solution of SIs is unavailable, and it is well known that numerical evaluation of SIs is very time consuming and computationally expensive due to the highly oscillating and slowly decaying nature of the integrands. Therefore, fast computation of SIs has a paramount importance. In this paper, a parallel code has been developed to speed up the computation of SI in the framework of calculation of dyadic Green’s function in multilayered media. OpenMP shared memory approach is used to parallelize the SI algorithm and resulted in significant time savings. Moreover accelerating the computation of dyadic Green’s function is discussed based on the parallel SI algorithm developed.

Keywords: Sommerfeld-integrals, multilayer dyadic Green’s function, OpenMP, shared memory parallel programming

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5647 Empirical Green’s Function Technique for Accelerogram Synthesis: The Problem of the Use for Marine Seismic Hazard Assessment

Authors: Artem A. Krylov


Instrumental seismological researches in water areas are complicated and expensive, that leads to the lack of strong motion records in most offshore regions. In the same time the number of offshore industrial infrastructure objects, such as oil rigs, subsea pipelines, is constantly increasing. The empirical Green’s function technique proved to be very effective for accelerograms synthesis under the conditions of poorly described seismic wave propagation medium. But the selection of suitable small earthquake record in offshore regions as an empirical Green’s function is a problem because of short seafloor instrumental seismological investigation results usually with weak micro-earthquakes recordings. An approach based on moving average smoothing in the frequency domain is presented for preliminary processing of weak micro-earthquake records before using it as empirical Green’s function. The method results in significant waveform correction for modeled event. The case study for 2009 L’Aquila earthquake was used to demonstrate the suitability of the method. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (project № 18-35-00474 mol_a).

Keywords: accelerogram synthesis, empirical Green's function, marine seismology, microearthquakes

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5646 Green Function and Eshelby Tensor Based on Mindlin’s 2nd Gradient Model: An Explicit Study of Spherical Inclusion Case

Authors: A. Selmi, A. Bisharat


Using Fourier transform and based on the Mindlin's 2nd gradient model that involves two length scale parameters, the Green's function, the Eshelby tensor, and the Eshelby-like tensor for a spherical inclusion are derived. It is proved that the Eshelby tensor consists of two parts; the classical Eshelby tensor and a gradient part including the length scale parameters which enable the interpretation of the size effect. When the strain gradient is not taken into account, the obtained Green's function and Eshelby tensor reduce to its analogue based on the classical elasticity. The Eshelby tensor in and outside the inclusion, the volume average of the gradient part and the Eshelby-like tensor are explicitly obtained. Unlike the classical Eshelby tensor, the results show that the components of the new Eshelby tensor vary with the position and the inclusion dimensions. It is demonstrated that the contribution of the gradient part should not be neglected.

Keywords: Eshelby tensor, Eshelby-like tensor, Green’s function, Mindlin’s 2nd gradient model, spherical inclusion

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5645 Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Singular Value Decomposition of an Impulse Response Function

Authors: Rogelio Luck, Yucheng Liu


This paper proposes the continuous-time singular value decomposition (SVD) for the impulse response function, a special kind of Green’s functions e⁻⁽ᵗ⁻ ᵀ⁾, in order to find a set of singular functions and singular values so that the convolutions of such function with the set of singular functions on a specified domain are the solutions to the inhomogeneous differential equations for those singular functions. A numerical example was illustrated to verify the proposed method. Besides the continuous-time SVD, a discrete-time SVD is also presented for the impulse response function, which is modeled using a Toeplitz matrix in the discrete system. The proposed method has broad applications in signal processing, dynamic system analysis, acoustic analysis, thermal analysis, as well as macroeconomic modeling.

Keywords: singular value decomposition, impulse response function, Green’s function , Toeplitz matrix , Hankel matrix

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5644 Steady State Charge Transport in Quantum Dots: Nonequilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) vs. Single Electron Analysis

Authors: Mahesh Koti


In this paper, we present a quantum transport study of a quantum dot in steady state in the presence of static gate potential. We consider a quantum dot coupled to the two metallic leads. The quantum dot under study is modeled through Anderson Impurity Model (AIM) with hopping parameter modulated through voltage drop between leads and the central dot region. Based on the Landauer's formula derived from Nonequilibrium Green's Function and Single Electron Theory, the essential ingredients of transport properties are revealed. We show that the results out of two approaches closely agree with each other. We demonstrate that Landauer current response derived from single electron approach converges with non-zero interaction through gate potential whereas Landauer current response derived from Nonequilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) hits a pole.

Keywords: Anderson impurity model (AIM), nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF), Landauer's formula, single electron analysis

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5643 Exact Formulas of the End-To-End Green’s Functions in Non-hermitian Systems

Authors: Haoshu Li, Shaolong Wan


The recent focus has been on directional signal amplification of a signal input at one end of a one-dimensional chain and measured at the other end. The amplification rate is given by the end-to-end Green’s functions of the system. In this work, we derive the exact formulas for the end-to-end Green's functions of non-Hermitian single-band systems. While in the bulk region, it is found that the Green's functions are displaced from the prior established integral formula by O(e⁻ᵇᴸ). The results confirm the correspondence between the signal amplification and the non-Hermitian skin effect.

Keywords: non-Hermitian, Green's function, non-Hermitian skin effect, signal amplification

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5642 Studying the Function of Green Belt around the Metropolises

Authors: Soroush Mokallaei


Since ancient times, urbanization engineers have always thought of creating green spaces along with urbanization. Athens and Rome have attempted to construct public gardens around streets and palaces. Since then developing green space has become a part of urban civilization. In medieval ages, all Western cities had palaces and houses with internal gardens. In different sources green belt is defined as a green band of trees and bushes around the cities which has multiple functions. It is said that green belts are not only around the mountains, cities, and rivers but also around houses, subways, and highways. Constructing green belt around cities has different advantages such as: protecting cities against pollution, purifying air, screening dust, being a place for recreation, buffer zone of city internal lands, confronting the phenomenon of heat island, increasing agricultural products, helping to prevent illegal city development, confronting deforestation, preventing flood and increasing subterranean water resources.

Keywords: environment, garden cities, green belt, metropolises

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5641 A Study of the Planning and Designing of the Built Environment under the Green Transit-Oriented Development

Authors: Wann-Ming Wey


In recent years, the problems of global climate change and natural disasters have induced the concerns and attentions of environmental sustainability issues for the public. Aside from the environmental planning efforts done for human environment, Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) has been widely used as one of the future solutions for the sustainable city development. In order to be more consistent with the urban sustainable development, the development of the built environment planning based on the concept of Green TOD which combines both TOD and Green Urbanism is adapted here. The connotation of the urban development under the green TOD including the design toward environment protect, the maximum enhancement resources and the efficiency of energy use, use technology to construct green buildings and protected areas, natural ecosystems and communities linked, etc. Green TOD is not only to provide the solution to urban traffic problems, but to direct more sustainable and greener consideration for future urban development planning and design. In this study, we use both the TOD and Green Urbanism concepts to proceed to the study of the built environment planning and design. Fuzzy Delphi Technique (FDT) is utilized to screen suitable criteria of the green TOD. Furthermore, Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) were then developed to evaluate the criteria and prioritize the alternatives. The study results can be regarded as the future guidelines of the built environment planning and designing under green TOD development in Taiwan.

Keywords: green TOD, built environment, fuzzy delphi technique, quality function deployment, fuzzy analytic network process

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5640 Theoretical Analysis of the Optical and Solid State Properties of Thin Film

Authors: E. I. Ugwu


Theoretical analysis of the optical and Solid State properties of ZnS thin film using beam propagation technique in which a scalar wave is propagated through the material thin film deposited on a substrate with the assumption that the dielectric medium is section into a homogenous reference dielectric constant term, and a perturbed dielectric term, representing the deposited thin film medium is presented in this work. These two terms, constitute arbitrary complex dielectric function that describes dielectric perturbation imposed by the medium of for the system. This is substituted into a defined scalar wave equation in which the appropriate Green’s Function was defined on it and solved using series technique. The green’s value obtained from Green’s Function was used in Dyson’s and Lippmann Schwinger equations in conjunction with Born approximation method in computing the propagated field for different input regions of field wavelength during which the influence of the dielectric constants and mesh size of the thin film on the propagating field were depicted. The results obtained from the computed field were used in turn to generate the data that were used to compute the band gaps, solid state and optical properties of the thin film such as reflectance, Transmittance and reflectance with which the band gap obtained was found to be in close approximate to that of experimental value.

Keywords: scalar wave, optical and solid state properties, thin film, dielectric medium, perturbation, Lippmann Schwinger equations, Green’s Function, propagation

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5639 Green Construction in EGYPT

Authors: Hanan A. Anwar


This paper introduces green building construction in Egypt with different concepts and practices. The following study includes green building applied definition, guidelines, regulations and Standards. Evaluation of cost/benefit of green construction methods and green construction rating systems are presented. Relevant case studies will be reviewed. Four sites will be included.

Keywords: green construction, ecofreindly, self-sufficient town, carbon neutral atmosphere

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5638 Towards Green(er) Cities: The Role of Spatial Planning in Realising the Green Agenda

Authors: Elizelle Juaneé Cilliers


The green hype is becoming stronger within various disciplines, modern practices and academic thinking, enforced by concepts such as eco-health, eco-tourism, eco-cities, and eco-engineering. There is currently also an expanded scientific understanding regarding the value and benefits relating to green infrastructure, for both communities and their host cities, linked to broader sustainability and resilience thinking. The integration and implementation of green infrastructure as part of spatial planning approaches and municipal planning, are, however, more complex, especially in South Africa, inflated by limitations of budgets and human resources, development pressures, inequities in terms of green space availability and political legacies of the past. The prevailing approach to spatial planning is further contributing to complexity, linked to misguided perceptions of the function and value of green infrastructure. As such, green spaces are often considered a luxury, and green infrastructure a costly alternative, resulting in green networks being susceptible to land-use changes and under-prioritized in local authority decision-making. Spatial planning, in this sense, may well be a valuable tool to realise the green agenda, encapsulating various initiatives of sustainability as provided by a range of disciplines. This paper aims to clarify the importance and value of green infrastructure planning as a component of spatial planning approaches, in order to inform and encourage local authorities to embed sustainability thinking into city planning and decision-making approaches. It reflects on the decisive role of land-use management to guide the green agenda and refers to some recent planning initiatives. Lastly, it calls for trans-disciplinary planning approaches to build a case towards green(er) cities.

Keywords: green infrastructure, spatial planning, transdisciplinary, integrative

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5637 The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou

Authors: Huiru Chen, Xuran Zhang


At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.

Keywords: application, green technology, Hangzhou, residential architecture

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5636 Numerical Calculation of Dynamic Response of Catamaran Vessels Based on 3D Green Function Method

Authors: Md. Moinul Islam, N. M. Golam Zakaria


Seakeeping analysis of catamaran vessels in the earlier stages of design has become an important issue as it dictates the seakeeping characteristics, and it ensures safe navigation during the voyage. In the present paper, a 3D numerical method for the seakeeping prediction of catamaran vessel is presented using the 3D Green Function method. Both steady and unsteady potential flow problem is dealt with here. Using 3D linearized potential theory, the dynamic wave loads and the subsequent response of the vessel is computed. For validation of the numerical procedure catamaran vessel composed of twin, Wigley form demi-hull is used. The results of the present calculation are compared with the available experimental data and also with other calculations. The numerical procedure is also carried out for NPL-based round bilge catamaran, and hydrodynamic coefficients along with heave and pitch motion responses are presented for various Froude number. The results obtained by the present numerical method are found to be in fairly good agreement with the available data. This can be used as a design tool for predicting the seakeeping behavior of catamaran ships in waves.

Keywords: catamaran, hydrodynamic coefficients , motion response, 3D green function

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5635 Acoustic Room Impulse Response Computation with Image Sources and Frequency Dependent Boundary Reflection Coefficients

Authors: Pratik Gandhi, Kavitha Chandra, Charles Thompson


A computational model of the acoustic room impulse response between transmitters and receivers located in an enclosed cavity under the influence of frequency-dependent reflection coefficients of the walls is presented. The characteristic features of the impulse responses that differentiate these results from frequency-independent reflecting surfaces are discussed. The image-source model is derived from the first principle solution to Green's function of the acoustic wave equation. The post-processing of the computed impulse response with a band-pass filter to better represents the response of a loud-speaker is demonstrated.

Keywords: acoustic room impulse response, frequency dependent reflection coefficients, Green's function, image model

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5634 Delineation of Green Infrastructure Buffer Areas with a Simulated Annealing: Consideration of Ecosystem Services Trade-Offs in the Objective Function

Authors: Andres Manuel Garcia Lamparte, Rocio Losada Iglesias, Marcos BoullóN Magan, David Miranda Barros


The biodiversity strategy of the European Union for 2030, mentions climate change as one of the key factors for biodiversity loss and considers green infrastructure as one of the solutions to this problem. In this line, the European Commission has developed a green infrastructure strategy which commits members states to consider green infrastructure in their territorial planning. This green infrastructure is aimed at granting the provision of a wide number of ecosystem services to support biodiversity and human well-being by countering the effects of climate change. Yet, there are not too many tools available to delimit green infrastructure. The available ones consider the potential of the territory to provide ecosystem services. However, these methods usually aggregate several maps of ecosystem services potential without considering possible trade-offs. This can lead to excluding areas with a high potential for providing ecosystem services which have many trade-offs with other ecosystem services. In order to tackle this problem, a methodology is proposed to consider ecosystem services trade-offs in the objective function of a simulated annealing algorithm aimed at delimiting green infrastructure multifunctional buffer areas. To this end, the provision potential maps of the regulating ecosystem services considered to delimit the multifunctional buffer areas are clustered in groups, so that ecosystem services that create trade-offs are excluded in each group. The normalized provision potential maps of the ecosystem services in each group are added to obtain a potential map per group which is normalized again. Then the potential maps for each group are combined in a raster map that shows the highest provision potential value in each cell. The combined map is then used in the objective function of the simulated annealing algorithm. The algorithm is run both using the proposed methodology and considering the ecosystem services individually. The results are analyzed with spatial statistics and landscape metrics to check the number of ecosystem services that the delimited areas produce, as well as their regularity and compactness. It has been observed that the proposed methodology increases the number of ecosystem services produced by delimited areas, improving their multifunctionality and increasing their effectiveness in preventing climate change impacts.

Keywords: ecosystem services trade-offs, green infrastructure delineation, multifunctional buffer areas, climate change

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5633 The Implementation of Secton Method for Finding the Root of Interpolation Function

Authors: Nur Rokhman


A mathematical function gives relationship between the variables composing the function. Interpolation can be viewed as a process of finding mathematical function which goes through some specified points. There are many interpolation methods, namely: Lagrange method, Newton method, Spline method etc. For some specific condition, such as, big amount of interpolation points, the interpolation function can not be written explicitly. This such function consist of computational steps. The solution of equations involving the interpolation function is a problem of solution of non linear equation. Newton method will not work on the interpolation function, for the derivative of the interpolation function cannot be written explicitly. This paper shows the use of Secton method to determine the numerical solution of the function involving the interpolation function. The experiment shows the fact that Secton method works better than Newton method in finding the root of Lagrange interpolation function.

Keywords: Secton method, interpolation, non linear function, numerical solution

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5632 Oxidantantioxidant Status in Calves Supplemented with Green Tea Extract

Authors: Ibrahim I. Elshahawy


The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract on serum oxidant and antioxidant profile, liver and kidney function. 40 Friesian calves are included in this study and allocated into two groups: Group I (n=20) clinically healthy calves showing no clinical abnormalities, not receiving any treatment and served as control; group II (n=20) received green tea extract (GTE) for 30 days. Non-significant changes in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were detected between groups, on contrary, serum creatinine and activities of liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly different between two groups. There were significant increases in the mean values of serum antioxidative parameters (total antioxidant capacity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) in group II. Whereas, the activity of lipid peroxidase significantly decreased in GTE treated calves when compared to control.

Keywords: green tea extract, antioxidants, oxidants, calves

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5631 Green Hydrogen: Exploring Economic Viability and Alluring Business Scenarios

Authors: S. Sakthivel


Currently, the global economy is based on the hydrocarbon economy, which is referencing the global hydrocarbon industry. Problems of using these fossil fuels (like oil, NG, coal) are emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) and price fluctuation, supply/distribution, etc. These challenges can be overcome by using clean energy as hydrogen. The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for hydrogen vehicles, alternative industrial feedstock, power generation, and energy storage, etc. Engineering consulting firms have a significant role in this ambition and green hydrogen value chain (i.e., integration of renewables, production, storage, and distribution to end-users). Typically, the cost of green hydrogen is a function of the price of electricity needed, the cost of the electrolyser, and the operating cost to run the system. This article focuses on economic viability and explores the alluring business scenarios globally. Break-even analysis was carried out for green hydrogen production and in order to evaluate and compare the impact of the electricity price on the production costs of green hydrogen and relate it to fossil fuel-based brown/grey/blue hydrogen costs. It indicates that the cost of green hydrogen production will fall drastically due to the declining costs of renewable electricity prices and along with the improvement and scaling up of electrolyser manufacturing. For instance, in a scenario where electricity prices are below US$ 40/MWh, green hydrogen cost is expected to reach cost competitiveness.

Keywords: green hydrogen, cost analysis, break-even analysis, renewables, electrolyzer

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5630 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb


The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

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5629 Contextual Paper on Green Finance: Analysis of the Green Bonds Market

Authors: Dina H. Gabr, Mona A. El Bannan


With growing worldwide concern for global warming, green finance has become the fuel that pushes the world to act in combating and mitigating climate change. Coupled with adopting the Paris Agreement and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, Green finance became a vital tool in creating a pathway to sustainable development, as it connects the financial world with environmental and societal benefits. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the concepts and definitions of green finance and the importance of 'green' impact investments today. The core challenge in combating climate change is reducing and controlling Greenhouse gas emissions; therefore, this study explores the solutions green finance provides putting emphasis on the use of renewable energy, which is necessary for enhancing the transition to the green economy. With increasing attention to the concept of green finance, multiple forms of green investments and financial tools have come to fruition; the most prominent are green bonds. The rise of green bonds, a debt market to finance climate solutions, provide a promising mechanism for sustainable finance. Following the review, this paper compiles a comprehensive green bond dataset, presenting a statistical study of the evolution of the green bonds market from its first appearance in 2006 until 2021.

Keywords: climate change, GHG emissions, green bonds, green finance, sustainable finance

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5628 Temperature Dependent Interaction Energies among X (=Ru, Rh) Impurities in Pd-Rich PdX Alloys

Authors: M. Asato, C. Liu, N. Fujima, T. Hoshino, Y. Chen, T. Mohri


We study the temperature dependence of the interaction energies (IEs) of X (=Ru, Rh) impurities in Pd, due to the Fermi-Dirac (FD) distribution and the thermal vibration effect by the Debye-Grüneisen model. The n-body (n=2~4) IEs among X impurities in Pd, being used to calculate the internal energies in the free energies of the Pd-rich PdX alloys, are determined uniquely and successively from the lower-order to higher-order, by the full-potential Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green’s function method (FPKKR), combined with the generalized gradient approximation in the density functional theory. We found that the temperature dependence of IEs due to the FD distribution, being usually neglected, is very important to reproduce the X-concentration dependence of the observed solvus temperatures of the Pd-rich PdX (X=Ru, Rh) alloys.

Keywords: full-potential KKR-green’s function method, Fermi-Dirac distribution, GGA, phase diagram of Pd-rich PdX (X=Ru, Rh) alloys, thermal vibration effect

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5627 Agriroofs and Agriwalls: Applications of Food Production in Green Roofs and Green Walls

Authors: Eman M. Elmazek


Green roofs and walls are a rising technology in the global sustainable architectural industry. The idea takes great steps towards the future of sustainable design due to its many benefits. However, there are many barriers and constraints. Economical, structural, and knowledge barriers prevent the spread of the usage of green roofs and living walls. Understanding the benefits and expanding them will spread the idea. Benefits provided by these green spots interrupt and maintain the current urban cover. Food production is one of the benefits of green roofs. It can save money and energy spent in food transportation. The goal of this paper is to put a better understanding of implementing green systems. The paper aims to identify gains versus challenges facing the technology. It surveys with case studies buildings with green roofs and walls used for food production.

Keywords: green roof, green walls, urban farming, roof herb garden

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5626 Integrated Evaluation of Green Design and Green Manufacturing Processes Using a Mathematical Model

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Shin-Han Lin


In this research, a mathematical model for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. To design a product, there can be alternative options to design the detailed components to fulfill the same product requirement. In the design alternative cases, the components of the product can be designed with different materials and detailed specifications. If several design alternative cases are proposed, the different materials and specifications can affect the manufacturing processes. In this paper, a new concept for integrating green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. A green design can be determined based the manufacturing processes of the designed product by evaluating the green criteria including energy usage and environmental impact, in addition to the traditional criteria of manufacturing cost. With this concept, a mathematical model is developed to find the green design and the associated green manufacturing processes. In the mathematical model, the cost items include material cost, manufacturing cost, and green related cost. The green related cost items include energy cost and environmental cost. The objective is to find the decisions of green design and green manufacturing processes to achieve the minimized total cost. In practical applications, the decision-making can be made to select a good green design case and its green manufacturing processes. In this presentation, an example product is illustrated. It shows that the model is practical and useful for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes.

Keywords: supply chain management, green supply chain, green design, green manufacturing, mathematical model

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5625 Sustainable Building Law - The Legal Issues Abound

Authors: Richard J. Sobelsohn


Green Building and Sustainable Development help fight climate change, and protects the ozone, animal habitats, air quality, and ground water. The myriad of reasons to go Green has multiplied to the point that a developer that is building a ground-up or renovating/retrofitting a property has a plethora of choices to get to the green goal post. Sustainability not affects the bottom line but satisfies corporate mandates (ESG), consumer demand, market requirements, and the many laws dictating green building practices. The good news is that there are many paths a property owner can take to become green. The bad news is that there are many paths a property owner can take to become green, and they need to choose which direction to take. Certification of a building used to be the highest achievement in the Green building world. Now there are so many variables and laws with which a property owner must comply, and the legal analysis has mushroomed. Operation and Maintenance have also become one of the most important functions for a prudent Green Building owner. So adding to the “development/retrofit” parties involved in the sustainable building legal world, we now need to include all those people who keep the building green, and there are a lot of them!

Keywords: green building, sustainable development, legal issues, greenwashing, green cleaning, compliance, ESQ

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5624 Using a GIS-Based Method for Green Infrastructure Accessibility of Different Socio-Economic Groups in Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Jing Ma, Xindong An


Green infrastructure, the most important aspect of improving the quality of life, has been a crucial element of the liveability measurement. With demanding of more liveable urban environment from increasing population in city area, access to green infrastructure in walking distance should be taken into consideration. This article exemplifies the study on accessibility measurement of green infrastructure in central Auckland (New Zealand), using network analysis tool on the basis of GIS, to verify the accessibility levels of green infrastructure. It analyses the overall situation of green infrastructure and draws some conclusions on the city’s different levels of accessibility according to the categories and facilities distribution, which provides valuable references and guidance for the future facility improvement in planning strategies.

Keywords: quality of life, green infrastructure, GIS, accessibility

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5623 A Framework for Green Use and Disposal of Information Communication Technology Devices

Authors: Frezer Alem Kebede


The notion of viewing ICT as merely support for the business process has shifted towards viewing ICT as a critical business enabler. As such, the need for ICT devices has increased, contributing to high electronic equipment acquisition and disposal. Hence, its use and disposal must be seen in light of environmental sustainability, i.e., in terms of green use and disposal. However, there are limited studies on green Use and Disposal framework to be used as guiding lens by organizations in developing countries. And this study endeavors to address that need taking one of the largest multinational ICT intensive company in the country. The design and development of this framework passed through several stages, initially factors affecting green use and disposal were identified after quantitative and qualitative data analysis then there were multiple brainstorming sessions for the design enhancement as participative modelling was employed. Given the difference in scope and magnitude of the challenges identified, the proposed framework approaches green use and disposal in four imperatives; strategically, tactically, operationally and through continuous improvement.

Keywords: energy efficiency, green disposal, green ICT, green use, green use and disposal framework, sustainability

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5622 Analytic Hierarchy Process Method for Supplier Selection Considering Green Logistics: Case Study of Aluminum Production Sector

Authors: H. Erbiyik, A. Bal, M. Sirakaya, Ö. Yesildal, E. Yolcu


The emergence of many environmental issues began with the Industrial Revolution. The depletion of natural resources and emerging environmental challenges over time requires enterprises and managers to take into consideration environmental factors while managing business. If we take notice of these causes; the design and implementation of environmentally friendly green purchasing, production and waste management systems become very important at green logistics systems. Companies can adopt green supply chain with the awareness of these facts. The concept of green supply chain constitutes from green purchasing, green production, green logistics, waste management and reverse logistics. In this study, we wanted to identify the concept of green supply chain and why green supply chain should be applied. In the practice part of the study an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) study is conducted on an aluminum production company to evaluate suppliers.

Keywords: aluminum sector, analytic hierarchy process, decision making, green logistics

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5621 Building Green Infrastructure Networks Based on Cadastral Parcels Using Network Analysis

Authors: Gon Park


Seoul in South Korea established the 2030 Seoul City Master Plan that contains green-link projects to connect critical green areas within the city. However, the plan does not have detailed analyses for green infrastructure to incorporate land-cover information to many structural classes. This study maps green infrastructure networks of Seoul for complementing their green plans with identifying and raking green areas. Hubs and links of main elements of green infrastructure have been identified from incorporating cadastral data of 967,502 parcels to 135 of land use maps using geographic information system. Network analyses were used to rank hubs and links of a green infrastructure map with applying a force-directed algorithm, weighted values, and binary relationships that has metrics of density, distance, and centrality. The results indicate that network analyses using cadastral parcel data can be used as the framework to identify and rank hubs, links, and networks for the green infrastructure planning under a variable scenarios of green areas in cities.

Keywords: cadastral data, green Infrastructure, network analysis, parcel data

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