Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: corrugation

17 An investigation of Leading Edge and Trailing Edge Corrugation for Low Reynolds Number Application

Authors: Syed Hassan Raza Shah, Mohammad Mohammad Ali


The flow over a smoothly profiled airfoil at a low Reynolds number is highly susceptible to separate even at a very low angle of attack. An investigation was made to study the effect of leading-edge and trailing-edge corrugation with the spanwise change in the ridges resulted due to the change in the chord length for an infinite wing. The wind tunnel results using NACA0018 wings revealed that leading and trailing edge corrugation did not have any benefit in terms of aerodynamic efficiency or delayed stall. The leading edge and trailing edge corrugation didn't change the lift curve slope, with the leading edge corrugation wing stalling first in the range of Reynolds number of 50,000 to 125,000.

Keywords: leading and trailing edge corrugations, low reynolds number, wind tunnel testing, NACA0018

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16 Influence of Initial Stress and Corrugation on Rayleigh-Type Wave in Piezomagnetic Half-Space

Authors: Abhinav Singhal, Sanjeev A. Sahu


Propagation of Rayleigh-type surface waves in an initially stressed piezomagnetic half- space with irregular boundary is investigated. The materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic crystals. The dispersion relations have been derived for electrically open and short cases. Effect of initial stress and corrugation have been shown graphically. It is also found that piezomagnetic material properties have an important effect on wave propagation. The result is relevant to the analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezomagnetic materials.

Keywords: corrugation, frequency equation, piezomagnetic, rayleigh-type wave

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15 Influence of Corrugation and Loosely Bonded Interface on the Propagation of Torsional Wave Propagation in a Viscoelastic Layer

Authors: Amrita Das, Abhishek Kumar Singh


The present paper calibrates the efficacy of corrugated and loosely bonded common interface of a viscoelastic layer and a dry sandy Gibson half-space on the propagation of torsional surface wave. Using suitable boundary conditions, the dispersion relation for the concerned problem is deduced in complex form. Numerical computation of the real part of the obtained dispersion relation gives the dispersion curve whereas the imaginary part bestows the damping curves. The use of Whittaker’s function and Bessel’s functions are among the major concerns of the paper. The investigation of the influence of the affecting parameters viz. heterogeneities, sandiness, Biot’s gravity parameter, initial stresses, loosely bonded interface, corrugation and internal friction on the phase velocity as well as damped velocity of torsional wave, through numerical discussion and graphical illustration, is among the major highlights of the current study.

Keywords: corrugation, dry sandy Gibson half-space, loosely bonded interface, torsional wave, viscoelastic layer

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14 Effect of Rotation on Love Wave Propagation in Piezoelectric Medium with Corrugation

Authors: Soniya Chaudhary


The present study analyses the propagation of Love wave in rotating piezoelectric layer lying over an elastic substrate with corrugated boundaries. The appropriate solutions in the considered medium satisfy the required boundary conditions to obtain the dispersion relation of Love wave for charge free as well as electrically shorted cases. The effects of rotation are shown by graphically on the non-dimensional speed of the Love wave. In addition to classical case, some existing results have been deduced as particular case of the present study. The present study may be useful in rotation sensor and SAW devices.

Keywords: corrugation, dispersion relation, love wave, piezoelectric

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13 Deformation and Energy Absorption of Corrugated Tubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Rahim, Shagil Akhtar, Prem K. Bharti, Syed Muneeb Iqbal


Deformation and energy absorption studies with corrugated tubes where corrugation is perpendicular to the line of action which coincides exactly with the unstrained axis of the tubes. In the present study, several specimens with various geometric parameters are prepared and compressed quasi-statistically in ANSYS Workbench. It is observed that tubes with perpendicular corrugation alters the deformation condition considerably and culminates in a substantial escalation in energy absorption scope in juxtaposed with the tubes having a circular cross-section. This study will help automotive, aerospace and various other industries to design superior components with perpendicular corrugated tubes and will reduce the experimental trials by conducting the numerical simulations.

Keywords: ANSYS Workbench, deformation and energy absorption, corrugated tubes, quasi-static compression

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12 Effect of Loose Bonding and Corrugated Boundary Surface on Propagation of Rayleigh-Type Wave

Authors: Kshitish Ch. Mistri, Abhishek Kumar Singh


The effect of undulatory boundary surface of a medium as well as the degree of bonding between two consecutive mediums, on the propagation of surface waves is an unavoidable matter of fact. Therefore, this paper investigates the propagation of Rayleigh-type wave in a corrugated fibre-reinforced layer overlying an initially stressed orthotropic half-space under gravity. Also, the two mediums are assumed to be loosely (or imperfectly) bonded. Numerical computation of the obtained frequency equation has been carried out which aids to analyze the influence of corrugation, loose bonding, initial stress and gravity on the phase velocity of Rayleigh-type wave. Moreover, the presence and absence of corrugation, loose bonding and initial stress are also discussed in a comparative manner.

Keywords: corrugated boundary surface, fibre-reinforced layer, initial stress, loose bonding, orthotropic half-space, Rayleigh-type wave

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11 Uses and Manufacturing of Beech Corrugated Plywood

Authors: Prochazka Jiri, Beranek Tomas, Podlena Milan, Zeidler Ales


The poster deals with the issue of ISO shipping containers’ sheathing made of corrugated plywood instead of traditional corrugated metal sheets. It was found that the corrugated plywood is a suitable material for the sheathing due to its great flexural strength perpendicular to the course of the wave, sufficient impact resistance, surface compressive strength and low weight. Three sample sets of different thicknesses 5, 8 and 10 mm were tested in the experiments. The tests have shown that the 5 cm corrugated plywood is the most suitable thickness for sheathing. Experiments showed that to increase bending strength at needed value, it was necessary to increase the weight of the timber only by 1.6%. Flat cash test showed that 5 mm corrugated plywood is sufficient material for sheathing from a mechanical point of view. Angle of corrugation was found as a very important factor which massively affects the mechanical properties. The impact strength test has shown that plywood is relatively tough material in direction of corrugation. It was calculated that the use of corrugated plywood sheathing for the containers can reduce the weight of the walls up to 75%. Corrugated plywood is also suitable material for web of I-joists and wide interior design applications.

Keywords: corrugated plywood, veneer, beech plywood, ISO shipping container, I-joist

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10 Numerical Simulation of the Heat Transfer Process in a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

Authors: J. I. Corcoles, J. D. Moya-Rico, A. Molina, J. F. Belmonte, J. A. Almendros-Ibanez


One of the most common heat exchangers technology in engineering processes is the use of double-pipe heat exchangers (DPHx), mainly in the food industry. To improve the heat transfer performance, several passive geometrical devices can be used, such as the wall corrugation of tubes, which increases the wet perimeter maintaining a constant cross-section area, increasing consequently the convective surface area. It contributes to enhance heat transfer in forced convection, promoting secondary recirculating flows. One of the most extended tools to analyse heat exchangers' efficiency is the use of computational fluid dynamic techniques (CFD), a complementary activity to the experimental studies as well as a previous step for the design of heat exchangers. In this study, a double pipe heat exchanger behaviour with two different inner tubes, smooth and spirally corrugated tube, have been analysed. Hence, experimental analysis and steady 3-D numerical simulations using the commercial code ANSYS Workbench v. 17.0 are carried out to analyse the influence of geometrical parameters for spirally corrugated tubes at turbulent flow. To validate the numerical results, an experimental setup has been used. To heat up or cool down the cold fluid as it passes through the heat exchanger, the installation includes heating and cooling loops served by an electric boiler with a heating capacity of 72 kW and a chiller, with a cooling capacity of 48 kW. Two tests have been carried out for the smooth tube and for the corrugated one. In all the tests, the hot fluid has a constant flowrate of 50 l/min and inlet temperature of 59.5°C. For the cold fluid, the flowrate range from 25 l/min (Test 1) and 30 l/min (Test 2) with an inlet temperature of 22.1°C. The heat exchanger is made of stainless steel, with an external diameter of 35 mm and wall thickness of 1.5 mm. Both inner tubes have an external diameter of 24 mm and 1 mm thickness of stainless steel with a length of 2.8 m. The corrugated tube has a corrugation height (H) of 1.1 mm and helical pitch (P) of 25 mm. It is characterized using three non-dimensional parameters, the ratio of the corrugation shape and the diameter (H/D), the helical pitch (P/D) and the severity index (SI = H²/P x D). The results showed good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results. Hence, the lowest differences were shown for the fluid temperatures. In all the analysed tests and for both analysed tubes, the temperature obtained numerically was slightly higher than the experimental results, with values ranged between 0.1% and 0.7%. Regarding the pressure drop, the maximum differences between the values obtained numerically, and the experimental values were close to 16%. Based on the experimental and the numerical results, for the corrugated tube, it can be highlighted that the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the cold fluid is 42%, higher than the smooth tube.

Keywords: corrugated tube, heat exchanger, heat transfer, numerical simulation

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9 The Influence of Chevron Angle on Plate Heat Exchanger Thermal Performance with Considering Maldistribution

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand, Majid Hasanpour


A new modification to the Strelow method of chevron-type plate heat exchangers (PHX) modeling is proposed. The effects of maldistribution are accounted in the resulting equation. The results of calculations are validated by reported experiences. The good accuracy of heat transfer performance prediction is shown. The results indicate that considering flow maldistribution improve the accuracy of predicting the flow and thermal behavior of the plate exchanger. Additionally, a wide range of the parametric study has been presented which brings out the effects of chevron angle of PHE on its thermal efficiency with considering maldistribution effect. In addition, the thermally optimal corrugation discussed for the chevron-type PHEs.

Keywords: chevron angle, plate heat exchangers, maldistribution, strelow method

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8 Enhancement of Light Out Efficiency of PLED Device Employing Designed Substrate Combined with Nano-Line Patterns

Authors: Ting-Ting Wen, H. C. Lin


This paper reports a study for the light outcoupling efficiency of the PLED device. In use of a designed substrate combined with nano-line patterns in PLED device, the light outcoupling efficiency can be significantly enhanced. The designed substrate was made by UV imprinting technology, such as triangular microlens arrays on the front and periodic corrugated patterns on the back surface. The nano-line patterns in PLED device was fabricated by advanced microstamping and ink-jet printing techniques. For high angles of observation with respect to the substrate surface normal, the light out intensity of the developed PLED device is increased from 0.05 (a.u.) up to 0.69 (a.u.) at the view angle 85 degree. The designed integration leads to 64% increase of the light out intensity compared with the conventional PLED device.

Keywords: triangular microlens, corrugation patterns, nano-line patterns, PLED device, UV imprinting technology, microstamping

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7 Research of Possibilities to Influence the Metal Cross-Section Deformation during Cold Rolling with the Help of Local Deformation Zone Creation

Authors: A. Pesin, D. Pustovoytov, A. Kolesnik, M. Sverdlik


Rolling disturbances often arise which might lead to defects such as nonflatness, warpage, corrugation, etc. Numerous methods of compensation for such disturbances are well known. However, most of them preserve the initial form of transverse flow of the strip, such as convex, concave or asymmetric (for example, sphenoid). Sometimes, the form inherited (especially asymmetric) is undesirable. Technical solutions have been developed which include providing conditions for transverse metal flow in deformation zone. It should be noted that greater reduction is followed by transverse flow increase, while less reduction causes a corresponding decrease in metal flow for differently deformed metal lengths to remain approximately the same and in order to avoid the defects mentioned above. One of the solutions suggests sequential strip deforming from rectangular cross-section profile with periodical rectangular grooves back into rectangular profile again. The work was carried out in DEFORM 3D program complex. Experimental rolling was performed on laboratory mill 150. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results demonstrated good correlation.

Keywords: FEM, cross-section deformation, mechanical engineering, applied mechanics

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6 Clinicopathological Findings of Partuberclosis in Camels: Possible Steps for Control Strategy

Authors: A. M. Almujalli, G. M. Al-Ghamdi


Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis, a chronic debilitating granulomatous enteritis, in camels as well as domestic and wild ruminants. The clinical manifestation of the disease in camel is not well characterized, therefore this study was aimed to investigate the clinical and pathological pictures of camels that are suffering from partuberculosis. Twelve young camels that were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University were investigated. Clinical and pathological examination were performed. The results revealed highly significant increase in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, magnesium, AST and ALT in diseased camels, while glucose, total protein and albumin were highly significantly decreased in diseased camels when compared to healthy ones. Post-mortem testing indicated thickening, corrugation of the intestinal wall, folded mucosa, enlarged and oedemated ileocaecal and mesenteric lymph nodes. The microscopic findings detected short, blunt and distorted intestinal villi with hyperactive goblet cells of the villi and the crypts of lieberkuhn contained mucin droplets. The lamina propria was heavily infiltrated with mononuclear cells mostly macrophages. This clinical picture of paratuberculosis may be used to initiate control strategy to limit the spread of the disease in camel herds.

Keywords: camel, partuberclosis, control, Saudi Arabia

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5 Local Buckling of Web-Core and Foam-Core Sandwich Panels

Authors: Ali N. Suri, Ahmad A. Al-Makhlufi


Sandwich construction is widely accepted as a method of construction especially in the aircraft industry. It is a type of stressed skin construction formed by bonding two thin faces to a thick core, the faces resist all of the applied edge loads and provide all or nearly all of the required rigidities, the core spaces the faces to increase cross section moment of inertia about common neutral axis and transmit shear between them provides a perfect bond between core and faces is made. Material for face sheets can be of metal or reinforced plastics laminates, core material can be metallic cores of thin sheets forming corrugation or honeycomb, or non-metallic core of Balsa wood, plastic foams, or honeycomb made of reinforced plastics. For in plane axial loading web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels can fail by local buckling of plates forming the cross section with buckling wave length of the order of length of spacing between webs. In this study local buckling of web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels is carried out for given materials of facing and core, and given panel overall dimension for different combinations of cross section geometries. The Finite Strip Method is used for the analysis, and Fortran based computer program is developed and used.

Keywords: local buckling, finite strip, sandwich panels, web and foam core

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4 Vertical and Lateral Vibration Response for Corrugated Track Curves Supported on High-Density Polyethylene and Hytrel Rail Pads

Authors: B.M. Balekwa, D.V.V. Kallon, D.J. Fourie


Modal analysis is applied to establish the dynamic difference between vibration response of the rails supported on High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Hytrel/6358 rail pads. The experiment was conducted to obtain the results in the form of Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) in the vertical and lateral directions. Three antiresonance modes are seen in the vertical direction; one occurs at about 150 Hz when the rail resting on the Hytrel/6358 pad experiences a force mid-span. For the rail resting on this type of rail pad, no antiresonance occurs when the force is applied on the point of the rail that is resting on the pad and directly on top of a sleeper. The two antiresonance modes occur in a frequency range of 250 – 300 Hz in the vertical direction for the rail resting on HDPE pads. At resonance, the rail vibrates with a higher amplitude, but at antiresonance, the rail transmits vibration downwards to the sleepers. When the rail is at antiresonance, the stiffness of the rail pads play a vital role in terms of damping the vertical vibration to protect the sleepers. From the FRFs it is understood that the Hytrel/6358 rail pads perform better than the HDPE in terms of vertical response, given that at a lower frequency range of 0 – 300 Hz only one antiresonance mode was identified for vertical vibration of the rail supported on Hytrel/6358. This means the rail is at antiresonance only once within this frequency range and this is the only time when vibration is transmitted downwards.

Keywords: accelerance, FRF, rail corrugation, rail pad

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3 Numerical Investigation of Fluid Flow, Characteristics of Thermal Performance and Enhancement of Heat Transfer of Corrugated Pipes with Various Geometrical Configurations

Authors: Ahmed Ramadhan Al-Obaidi, Jassim Alhamid


In this investigation, the flow pattern, characteristics of thermal-hydraulic, and improvement of heat transfer performance are evaluated using a numerical technique in three dimensions corrugated pipe heat exchanger. The modification was made under different corrugated pipe geometrical parameters, including corrugated ring angle (CRA), distance between corrugated ring (DBCR), and corrugated diameter (CD), the range of Re number from 2000 to 12000. The numerical results are validated with available experimental data. The numerical outcomes reveal that there is an important change in flow field behaviour and a significant increase in friction factor and improvement in heat transfer performance owing to the use of the corrugated shape in the heat exchanger pipe as compared to the conventional smooth pipe. Using corrugated pipe with different configurations makes the flow more turbulence, flow separation, boundary layer distribution, flow mixing, and that leads to augmenting the performance of heat transfer. Moreover, the value of pressure drop, and the Nusselt number increases as the corrugated pipe geometrical parameters increase. Furthermore, the corrugation configuration shapes have an important influence on the thermal evaluation performance factor, and the maximum value was more than 1.3. Numerical simulation can be performed to predict the various geometrical configurations effects on fluid flow, thermal performance, and heat transfer enhancement.

Keywords: corrugated ring angle, corrugated diameter, Nusselt number, heat transfer

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2 Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance of Trapezoidally Corrugated Web Girders

Authors: Annamária Käferné Rácz, Bence Jáger, Balázs Kövesdi, László Dunai


Due to the numerous advantages of steel corrugated web girders, its application field is growing for bridges as well as for buildings. The global stability behavior of such girders is significantly larger than those of conventional I-girders with flat web, thus the application of the structural steel material can be significantly reduced. Design codes and specifications do not provide clear and complete rules or recommendations for the determination of the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) resistance of corrugated web girders. Therefore, the authors made a thorough investigation regarding the LTB resistance of the corrugated web girders. Finite element (FE) simulations have been performed to develop new design formulas for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders. FE model is developed considering geometrical and material nonlinear analysis using equivalent geometric imperfections (GMNI analysis). The equivalent geometric imperfections involve the initial geometric imperfections and residual stresses coming from rolling, welding and flame cutting. Imperfection sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the necessary magnitudes regarding only the first eigenmodes shape imperfections. By the help of the validated FE model, an extended parametric study is carried out to investigate the LTB resistance for different trapezoidal corrugation profiles. First, the critical moment of a specific girder was calculated by FE model. The critical moments from the FE calculations are compared to the previous analytical calculation proposals. Then, nonlinear analysis was carried out to determine the ultimate resistance. Due to the numerical investigations, new proposals are developed for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders through a modification factor on the design method related to the conventional flat web girders.

Keywords: corrugated web, lateral torsional buckling, critical moment, FE modeling

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1 Design and 3D-Printout of The Stack-Corrugate-Sheel Core Sandwiched Decks for The Bridging System

Authors: K. Kamal


Structural sandwich panels with core of Advanced Composites Laminates l Honeycombs / PU-foams are used in aerospace applications and are also fabricated for use now in some civil engineering applications. An all Advanced Composites Foot Over Bridge (FOB) system, designed and developed for pedestrian traffic is one such application earlier, may be cited as an example here. During development stage of this FoB, a profile of its decks was then spurred as a single corrugate sheet core sandwiched between two Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics(GFRP) flat laminates. Once successfully fabricated and used, these decks did prove suitable also to form other structure on assembly, such as, erecting temporary shelters. Such corrugated sheet core profile sandwiched panels were then also tried using the construction materials but any conventional method of construction only posed certain difficulties in achieving the required core profile monolithically within the sandwiched slabs and hence it was then abended. Such monolithic construction was, however, subsequently eased out on demonstration by dispensing building materials mix through a suitably designed multi-dispenser system attached to a 3D Printer. This study conducted at lab level was thus reported earlier and it did include the fabrication of a 3D printer in-house first as ‘3DcMP’ as well as on its functional operation, some required sandwich core profiles also been 3D-printed out producing panels hardware. Once a number of these sandwich panels in single corrugated sheet core monolithically printed out, panels were subjected to load test in an experimental set up as also their structural behavior was studied analytically, and subsequently, these results were correlated as reported in the literature. In achieving the required more depths and also to exhibit further the stronger and creating sandwiched decks of better structural and mechanical behavior, further more complex core configuration such as stack corrugate sheets core with a flat mid plane was felt to be the better sandwiched core. Such profile remained as an outcome that turns out merely on stacking of two separately printed out monolithic units of single corrugated sheet core developed earlier as above and bonded them together initially, maintaining a different orientation. For any required sequential understanding of the structural behavior of any such complex profile core sandwiched decks with special emphasis to study of the effect in the variation of corrugation orientation in each distinct tire in this core, it obviously calls for an analytical study first. The rectangular,simply supported decks have therefore been considered for analysis adopting the ‘Advanced Composite Technology(ACT), some numerical results along with some fruitful findings were obtained and these are all presented here in this paper. From this numerical result, it has been observed that a mid flat layer which eventually get created monolethically itself, in addition to eliminating the bonding process in development, has been found to offer more effective bending resistance by such decks subjected to UDL over them. This is understood to have resulted here since the existence of a required shear resistance layer at the mid of the core in this profile, unlike other bending elements. As an addendum to all such efforts made as covered above and was published earlier, this unique stack corrugate sheet core profile sandwiched structural decks, monolithically construction with ease at the site itself, has been printed out from a 3D Printer. On employing 3DcMP and using some innovative building construction materials, holds the future promises of such research & development works since all those several aspects of a 3D printing in construction are now included such as reduction in the required construction time, offering cost effective solutions with freedom in design of any such complex shapes thus can widely now be realized by the modern construction industry.

Keywords: advance composite technology(ACT), corrugated laminates, 3DcMP, foot over bridge (FOB), sandwiched deck units

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